Alziemer’s disease & dementia


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Alziemer’s disease & dementia

  1. 1. Alziemer’s Disease & DementiaPresented byJessica Faye Manansala
  2. 2. Alzheimer’s disease Alzhiemer’s disease or senile dementia of the alzheimer’s type Is a chronic, progressive, and degenerative brain disorder accompanied by profound effects on memory, cognition, and ability for self care About 10% of the population are older than 65 are affected. Alzheimer is one of the most fear in modern times. The most common form of dementia
  3. 3. pathophysiology Change occur in the protein of the nerve cell s of the cerebral cortex and lead to accumulation of neurofibrillary tangles and neuritic plaques (deposits of protein and altered cell structures on the interneuronal junctions) and granulovascular degeneration. Cause is unknown, but genetics and female gender are rare risk factor
  4. 4. Clinical manifestation Short term memory (early stage) Language disturbanve (word finding difficulty) Visual processing difficulty Inability to perform skilled motor activities Poor abstract reasoning and concentration Personality change (irritability and suspiciousness and disorienttation to time and space Difficulty planning meals Driving without getting loss
  5. 5. Middle stage clinical manifestations Repetitive action Nocturnal restlessness Apraxia (impaired ability to perform purposeful activity) Aphasia (inability to speak) Agraphia (inability to write)
  6. 6. Late stage Loss of social inhibitions and loss of spontaneity Delusion Hallucination Wandering behavior
  7. 7. Complication Injury due to lack of insight, hallucinations and confusion Malnutrition due to inattention to mealtime and hunger or lack of the ability to prepare meal
  8. 8. Diagnostic evaluation Noncontrast computed tomography (CT) - to rule out other neurologic condition MRI Neuropsychological test – include some mental status assessment
  9. 9. Managemet Cholinestrase inhibitor are only treatmemt for cognitive impairment of AD. tacrine(cognex) and donepzil (aricept) Behavioral disturbance may requires antipsychotic such as clozapine (clozaril), risperidone (risperdal) Olanzapine (zyprexia) Nonpharmacologic treatment- Orientation and memory retaining- Reminiscence therpy
  10. 10. Dementia Primary dementia – degenerative disorders that are progressive, irreversible and not due to other conditionSigns• Relying on memory helpers• Trouble finding words• Struggling to complete familiar actions• Confusion about time, place or people• Misplacing familiar objects
  11. 11. • Onset of new depression or irritability• Making bad decisions• Personality changes• Loss of interest in important responsibilities• Seeing or hearing things• Expressing false beliefs
  12. 12. Other forms of Dementia Creuzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJD) Dementia with Lewy Bodies Frontotemporal Dementia Huntington’s Disease Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus Parkinson’s Dementia Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome
  13. 13. THANK YOU 