The Allyn & Bacon Guide to Writing
Sixth Edition, Concise Edition

Chapter 12: Composing and Revising Closed-Form Prose
pp...
Skill 12.1: Understand Reader Expectations

Unity &
Coherence

Old Before
New

The Allyn & Bacon Guide to Writing (6th ed....
Skill 12.2: Convert Loose Structures into
Thesis/Support Structures


Good Closed-Prose Structure is Thesis  Support


...
Skill 12.3 Plan and Visualize Your Structure


Use a hierarchy to contrast main and sub points


Outline






Tree ...
Skill 12.3 Plan and Visualize Your Structure


Google Drive Products
Skill 12.4: Set Up Reader Expectations
Through Effective Titles and Introductions


Creating Effective Titles




Stat...
Skill 12.4: Set Up Reader Expectations
Through Effective Titles and Introductions


Creating Effective
Introductions


...
Skill 12.4: Set Up Reader Expectations
Through Effective Titles and Introductions
Exercise: Evaluate and rewrite these the...
Skill 12.5: Create Effective Topic Sentences
for Paragraphs



Clear topic sentence  supporting details organizes and
c...
Skill 12.5: Create Effective Topic Sentences
for Paragraphs
Exercise:Turn to p. 311. Complete exercise Revising a Paragrap...
Skill 12.6: Guide Your Reader with
Transitions and Other Signposts




Transition within sentences
Incorporate resting ...
Skill 12.7: Bind Sentences Together by
Placing Old Info before New Info


“Any upcoming sentence is new information, but ...
Skill 12.7: Bind Sentences Together by
Placing Old Info before New Info


Using Pronouns




Useful to substitute for ...
Skill 12.8: Learn Four Expert Moves for
Organizing and Developing Ideas
For Example

Summary/However

Division-into-Parall...
Skill 12.8: Learn Four Expert Moves for
Organizing and Developing Ideas
Exercise: Develop a plan and
write the introductio...
Skill 12.9: Use Effective Tables, Graphs, and
Charts to Present Numeric Data


Identify the purpose of
the image





...
Skill 12.9: Use Effective Tables, Graphs, and
Charts to Present Numeric Data


Schematics


Illustrate
connections
betwe...
Skill 12.9: Use Effective Tables, Graphs, and
Charts to Present Numeric Data


Infographics


Combine
multiple types of
...
Skill 12.10: Write Effective Conclusions


Simple summary



Larger significance



Proposal



Scenic or anecdotal

...
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A&B chapter 12

  1. 1. The Allyn & Bacon Guide to Writing Sixth Edition, Concise Edition Chapter 12: Composing and Revising Closed-Form Prose pp. 288-331
  2. 2. Skill 12.1: Understand Reader Expectations Unity & Coherence Old Before New The Allyn & Bacon Guide to Writing (6th ed.), 2012, pp. 289-292 Forecasting & Fulfillment
  3. 3. Skill 12.2: Convert Loose Structures into Thesis/Support Structures  Good Closed-Prose Structure is Thesis  Support   Wallows in Complexity Bad Closed-Prose Structure  “…And Then” or Chronological Structure  “All About” or Encyclopedic Structure  “Engfish” or Structure Without Surprise Exercise:Turn to page 296 Complete Developing a Thesis/Support Structure. The Allyn & Bacon Guide to Writing (6th ed.), 2012, pp. 292-296
  4. 4. Skill 12.3 Plan and Visualize Your Structure  Use a hierarchy to contrast main and sub points  Outline     Tree Diagram    List and organize “chunks” Nutshell the argument for different perspectives Write full sentences for clear meaning and forced articulation Illustrates logical connections Minimizes “All About” outline Flowchart  Evolving diagram; add question marks for areas to expand  Review pp. 28-32 of The Allyn & Bacon Guide for generating ideas  See pp. 19-22 of The Little, Brown Compact Handbook for examples. The Allyn & Bacon Guide to Writing (6th ed.), 2012, pp. 296-301
  5. 5. Skill 12.3 Plan and Visualize Your Structure  Google Drive Products
  6. 6. Skill 12.4: Set Up Reader Expectations Through Effective Titles and Introductions  Creating Effective Titles    State or imply the addressed question State or imply the thesis Follow the old to new format Exercise: Evaluate Titles The Allyn & Bacon Guide to Writing (6th ed.), 2012, pp. 301-307
  7. 7. Skill 12.4: Set Up Reader Expectations Through Effective Titles and Introductions  Creating Effective Introductions   Avoid the boring “funnel introduction.” Focus on the problem, not summarizing the content AttentionGrabber / Hook • Quote, story, statistic, scenario Explanation of Question • Consider what level of depth the audience needs Background Information • Provide multiple perspectives of the problem Preview The Allyn & Bacon Guide to Writing (6th ed.), 2012, pp. 301-307 • Surprise or challenge • Presents the big picture • Forecasting / fulfillment
  8. 8. Skill 12.4: Set Up Reader Expectations Through Effective Titles and Introductions Exercise: Evaluate and rewrite these theses: 1. Aggression usually leads to violence, injury, and even death, and we should use it constructively. 6.Television is useful for children and a mindless escape for adults who do not want to think about their problems. 9. Business is a good major for may students.  Review pp. 306-307 of The Allyn & Bacon Guide to structure a thesis  See pp. 14-18 of The Little, Brown Compact Handbook for more writing and revising thesis statements. The Little, Brown Compact Handbook (8th ed.), 2012, p. 18
  9. 9. Skill 12.5: Create Effective Topic Sentences for Paragraphs   Clear topic sentence  supporting details organizes and clarifies the argument Ensure each supporting detail connects back to the topic sentence.    Use transitions to connect to the bigger topic Stay Focused; don’t tangent Eliminate irrelevant points The Allyn & Bacon Guide to Writing (6th ed.), 2012, pp. 307-311
  10. 10. Skill 12.5: Create Effective Topic Sentences for Paragraphs Exercise:Turn to p. 311. Complete exercise Revising a Paragraph for Point-First Structure on this introduction. Helena’s Distress Helena’s speech in Act 3.2 ln 192-219 of Midsummer Night’s Dream focuses on her reactions to Hermia after Demetrius and Lysander are drugged with fairy juice. Helena becomes flustered and upset when both Athenian men seem to fall in love with her because she thinks it is a cruel joke. Furthermore, Helena firmly believes that her dear friend Hermia is also acting in the joke. Helena’s passionate reply questions her friendship with Hermia by voicing an accusation of mal-intent which changes to an appeal towards their friendship and close bonds and finally to a cry of pain. The Allyn & Bacon Guide to Writing (6th ed.), 2012, pp. 307-311
  11. 11. Skill 12.6: Guide Your Reader with Transitions and Other Signposts    Transition within sentences Incorporate resting places between major parts Review APA Formatting when using titles as transitions.  Review pp. 312 of The Allyn & Bacon Guide to for a list of transitions  See pp. 45-54 of The Little, Brown Compact Handbook for more writing and revising thesis statements.  See pp. 532-538 of The Little, Brown Compact Handbook for APA title formatting. The Allyn & Bacon Guide to Writing (6th ed.), 2012, pp. 311-314
  12. 12. Skill 12.7: Bind Sentences Together by Placing Old Info before New Info  “Any upcoming sentence is new information, but once the reader has read it, it becomes old information” (p. 316).  Linking the Old to New:     Key concept from preceding sentence Key concept for preceding paragraph Forecasting statement about structure Use transitions to show relationships The Allyn & Bacon Guide to Writing (6th ed.), 2012, pp. 314-318
  13. 13. Skill 12.7: Bind Sentences Together by Placing Old Info before New Info  Using Pronouns    Useful to substitute for a key word for coherence Be cautious of overusing pronouns “This” is vague and should be used sparingly  See pp. 246-254 of The Little, Brown Compact Handbook for pronoun agreement and reference. The Allyn & Bacon Guide to Writing (6th ed.), 2012, pp. 314-318
  14. 14. Skill 12.8: Learn Four Expert Moves for Organizing and Developing Ideas For Example Summary/However Division-into-Parallel Parts Comparison/Contrast • Assertion then illustration • Provides detailed support for generalization • State issue  Opposing view  Writer’s view • Creates tension and implies importance of issue • Creates a list-like structure overall or per paragraph • Forecasts framework • Repetition makes it easier for the reader to follow • Side-by-side • Back-and-forth The Allyn & Bacon Guide to Writing (6th ed.), 2012, pp. 318-323
  15. 15. Skill 12.8: Learn Four Expert Moves for Organizing and Developing Ideas Exercise: Develop a plan and write the introduction paragraph to support this statement: For Example Summary/ However “A thesis formed from a question is better than a thesis formed from a statement.” Division-intoParallel Parts Comparison/ Contrast The Allyn & Bacon Guide to Writing (6th ed.), 2012, pp. 318-323
  16. 16. Skill 12.9: Use Effective Tables, Graphs, and Charts to Present Numeric Data  Identify the purpose of the image     Table: High detail, requires reader concentration Line Graph: Illustrates broad relationships Bar Graph: Makes quick comparisons with specific details Pie Chart: Compares parts to a whole Table Line Graph Bar Graph Pie Chart The Allyn & Bacon Guide to Writing (6th ed.), 2012, pp. 323-328
  17. 17. Skill 12.9: Use Effective Tables, Graphs, and Charts to Present Numeric Data  Schematics  Illustrate connections between ideas  Useful for explaining processes  Level of detail must reflect the audience’s understanding and interests
  18. 18. Skill 12.9: Use Effective Tables, Graphs, and Charts to Present Numeric Data  Infographics  Combine multiple types of data  Use size and color to stress importance and differences  Requires an organized page structure
  19. 19. Skill 12.10: Write Effective Conclusions  Simple summary  Larger significance  Proposal  Scenic or anecdotal  Hook and return  Delayed-thesis  Review the chart Strategies for Concluding an Essay pp. 329-330 of The Allyn & Bacon Guide for specifics about types of conclusions and when to use them. The Allyn & Bacon Guide to Writing (6th ed.), 2012, pp. 329-331

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