Semantic Web services in a Nutshell<br />Federico M. Facca and RetoKrummenacher<br />
2<br />Federico M. Facca<br />federico.facca@sti2.at<br />RetoKrummenacher<br />reto.krummenacher@sti2.at<br />http://www....
Semantic Technology Institute Innsbruck<br />Institute at the University of Innsbruck (est. 1669) which is currently the l...
Projects<br />Currently involved in a number of FP6 and FP7 EU projects related to the Semantic Web and Semantic Web Servi...
STI International<br />
Making this real…STI International<br />The mission of Semantic Technology Institute Internationalis to establish semantic...
STI International – The Members<br />
The Future Internet<br />
9<br />Overview <br />Background and Motivation<br />Service Web<br />Semantic Web Services<br />SOA4All: A Global Service...
BACKGROUND<br />10<br />10<br />
The Rise of the Service Economy<br />[IBM Survey on national labor data, 2004]<br />11<br />
Background<br />Computer science is entering a new generation <br />The previous generation was based on abstracting from ...
From SaaS to XaaS<br />In a service-oriented world everything is a service<br />Programs are services<br />Devices are ser...
XaaS: Amazon – S3 & EC2<br />“Infrastructure as a service”<br />Amazon Simple Storage Service (S3)<br />Write and read obj...
State of affairs<br />Current SOA solutions are however still restricted in their application context to companies’ intran...
SERVICE WEB<br />16<br />16<br />
Requirements for Service Web<br />A Service Web with billions of services can be realized only if SOA can deal with<br />O...
How to enable Service Web?<br />A Web-scale service delivery platform<br />Any time and anywhere service consumption<br />...
Semantics and Service Web<br />Semantics is a required key enabler for automation of the service life-cycle at Web-scale, ...
SEMANTIC WEB SERVICES<br />20<br />20<br />
Semantic Web and Web Services<br />21<br />It’s all about automation!<br />Web Services<br />UDDI, WSDL, SOAP<br />Semanti...
Top-level elements defined by WSMO<br />22<br />Objectives that a client may <br />have when consulting a Web Service<br /...
 Non-functional properties
Interfaces (usage) </li></ul>Provide the formally<br />specified terminology<br />of the information used<br />by all othe...
Ontologies<br />23<br />
Ontologies<br />In WSMO, Ontologies are the key to linking conceptual real-world semantics defined and agreed upon by comm...
  The Location Ontology (http://www.wsmo.org/ontologies/location) contains the “Austria” and “Germany” instances</li></li>...
Imported Ontologies 	importing existing ontologies where 		no heterogeneities arise
Used mediators 	OO Mediators (ontology import with 		terminology mismatch handling)</li></ul>Ontology Elements:<br />Conce...
The Web Service Element<br />26<br />
The Web Service Element<br />WSMO Web service descriptions consist of non-functional, functional, and the behavioral aspec...
Web Service Non-Functional Properties<br />Non-functional properties:<br />Accuracy -  the error rate generated by the ser...
Goals<br />31<br />
Goals<br />Goals are representations of an objective for which fulfillment is sought through the execution of a Web servic...
Example: Web Service Discovery<br />34<br />Web service: <br />sells train tickets <br />for trips within <br />Europe<br ...
Mediators<br />35<br />
Mediators<br />Mediation<br />Data Level - mediate heterogeneous Data Sources  <br />Protocol Level - mediate heterogeneou...
Mediators<br />Four different types of mediators in WSMO<br />ggMediators: mediators that link two goals. This link repres...
The WSMO Framework<br />38<br />Conceptual Model for SWS<br />Execution Environment for SWS<br />Formal Language for WSMO<...
SOA4All: A GLOBAL SERVICE DELIVERY PLATFORM<br />39<br />39<br />
40<br />Motivation<br />The Web currently contains 30 billion Web pages<br />Children can create Web pages<br />BUT the We...
41<br />Two Core Objectives<br />“Billion of Services”: SOA4All will transform the Web into a domain where billions of par...
42<br />Approach<br />Context: user profiles, execution monitoring, service data, social context<br />Web: openness, decen...
43<br />SOA4All Architecture<br />‘semantic service descriptions’<br />‘semantic process descriptions’<br />‘semantic goal...
44<br />Semantic Spaces<br />Use of semantics in SOA4All requires a scalable and distributed data management infrastructur...
45<br />Annotation of Services<br />Representation Languages<br />WSML<br />Reasoners<br />Annotation Mechanisms<br />WSMO...
46<br />?<br />Annotation of Services<br />ontology FinancialServices<br />  concept CreditCheckService<br />    subConcep...
47<br />Lightweight Service Modelling<br />A common service model is expressed in RDF Schema, using only the WSMO features...
WSDL Simplified<br />48<br />Web service<br />input<br />  Operation 1<br />output<br />input<br />  Operation 2<br />.<br...
49<br />Semantics in Service Model<br />F<br />N<br />B<br />I<br />SAWSDL<br />modelReference<br />Web service<br />input...
MicroWSMO<br />50<br /><ul><li> The service is described for humans on a Web page
 hRESTS allows aspects of the service description to be annotated
 microWSMO uses these annotations to refer to elements of the same lightweight service modelling ontology as WSMO-Lite</li...
Goal Formalisation<br />Semantic goal descriptions match the WSMO-Lite service annotations.<br />SPARQL can be used as sim...
53<br />Example: Service Discovery<br />SOA4All Studio: Consumption Platform<br />ervice<br />G<br />SOA4All Runtime: <br ...
54<br />Example: Service Discovery<br />SOA4All Studio: Consumption Platform<br />S<br />ervice<br />G<br />SOA4All Runtim...
Service Composition<br />SOA4All Studio: Provisioning Platform<br />oal<br />G<br />P<br />SOA4All Runtime: DSB & Platform...
Service Composition<br />SOA4All Studio: Provisioning Platform<br />oal<br />G<br />P<br />SOA4All Runtime: DSB & Platform...
HIGHLY FLEXIBLE SERVICE OFFER FOR THE FUTURE INTERNET<br />57<br />57<br />
From one that fits allto personalized software<br />Traditional software engineering and provisioning solutions suffer fro...
Parametric Services and Semantics<br />High level service customization can be achieved by making services parametric<br /...
Service Federations and Semantics<br />Global scale delivery of services, including services provided by small providers c...
CONCLUSIONS<br />61<br />61<br />
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Silicon Valley Semantic Web Meet Up

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Semantic Web services (SWS) aims at extending traditional Web services
with machine-readable semantic descriptions of their functionality and
interfaces in order to increase the degree of automation for
service-based applications, e.g., by allowing the discovery, binding
and composition of services to be performed automatically.

This talk will provide a quick introduction to Semantic Web Services,
will discuss what have been the past achievements in this research area. The talk will also try to
analyze what are the problems that are hindering semantic web services to be largely adopted and how
future work in the area can contribute to solve such issue.

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  • Human becomes the bottleneck. We need something to support humans in the service related tasks.
  • Representation languages are used to describe ontologies for a particular domainA service description is annotated with elements from these ontologiesA reasoner can answer questions about these service descriptions.The instances are services that are associated with the financial service category
  • Silicon Valley Semantic Web Meet Up

    1. 1. Semantic Web services in a Nutshell<br />Federico M. Facca and RetoKrummenacher<br />
    2. 2. 2<br />Federico M. Facca<br />federico.facca@sti2.at<br />RetoKrummenacher<br />reto.krummenacher@sti2.at<br />http://www.sti-innsbruck.at<br />
    3. 3. Semantic Technology Institute Innsbruck<br />Institute at the University of Innsbruck (est. 1669) which is currently the largest education facility in Austria.<br />Founded as a research group under the guidance of Prof. Dieter Fensel in 2003.<br />Status of a research institute at the University of Innsbruck since January of 2006.<br />Main research areas: Semantic Web, Semantic Web Services, Service-Oriented Architectures.<br />3<br />
    4. 4. Projects<br />Currently involved in a number of FP6 and FP7 EU projects related to the Semantic Web and Semantic Web Services such as<br />4<br />
    5. 5. STI International<br />
    6. 6. Making this real…STI International<br />The mission of Semantic Technology Institute Internationalis to establish semantics as a core pillar of modern computer science. <br />STI is organized as an association of jointly interested academic, industrial and governmental parties.<br />It provides services to facilitate research, education, and commercialization activities around semantic technologies and the service web beyond the boundaries of individual projects or initiatives.<br />
    7. 7. STI International – The Members<br />
    8. 8. The Future Internet<br />
    9. 9. 9<br />Overview <br />Background and Motivation<br />Service Web<br />Semantic Web Services<br />SOA4All: A Global Service Delivery Platform<br />Highly Flexible Service Offer for the Future Internet<br />Conclusion<br />
    10. 10. BACKGROUND<br />10<br />10<br />
    11. 11. The Rise of the Service Economy<br />[IBM Survey on national labor data, 2004]<br />11<br />
    12. 12. Background<br />Computer science is entering a new generation <br />The previous generation was based on abstracting from hardware<br />The emerging generation comes from abstracting from software and sees all resources as services in aservice-oriented architecture(SOA)<br />In a world of services, it is the service that counts for a customer and not the software or hardware components that implement the service<br />Service-oriented architectures are rapidly becoming the dominant computing paradigm<br />12<br />
    13. 13. From SaaS to XaaS<br />In a service-oriented world everything is a service<br />Programs are services<br />Devices are services<br />Different types of media (audio, video, text) are integrated<br />Environments are dynamic and open<br />Mobility; Ubiquity; RFID<br />Service orientation needs to scale up to open and dynamic environments of billionsof services<br />13<br />
    14. 14. XaaS: Amazon – S3 & EC2<br />“Infrastructure as a service”<br />Amazon Simple Storage Service (S3)<br />Write and read objects up to 5GB<br />15 cents GB / month to store<br />20 cents GB / month to transfer<br />Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2)<br />allows customers to rent computers <br />on which to run their own computer <br />applications<br />virtual server technology<br />10 cents / hour<br />14<br />
    15. 15. State of affairs<br />Current SOA solutions are however still restricted in their application context to companies’ intranets <br />A ‘Service Web’ with billions of services depends on resolving fundamental challenges that SOA does not address currently<br />Currently there exists only around 30000 Web services on the Web<br />Number of Web services found during the past 26 months <br /> [seekda.com, August 2009]<br />15<br />
    16. 16. SERVICE WEB<br />16<br />16<br />
    17. 17. Requirements for Service Web<br />A Service Web with billions of services can be realized only if SOA can deal with<br />Openness– everybody can act as a provider or consumer of services<br />Heterogeneity– services are created in isolation from one another thus interoperability is an issue<br />Distributedness– there is no central control of services. Services can appear, change or disappear at any time in an uncontrolled fashion<br />Scalability– with so many services available on the Service Web the Human may become the bottleneck<br />17<br />
    18. 18. How to enable Service Web?<br />A Web-scale service delivery platform<br />Any time and anywhere service consumption<br />Heterogonous execution platforms<br />New paradigms to engineer, integrate, deploy services<br />Flexibility<br />Customization<br />Semantics as scalability enabler<br />Service customization<br />Service federations<br />18<br />[Prof. dr. Lutz Heuser, SAP: “Towards afuture Internet of Services”]<br />
    19. 19. Semantics and Service Web<br />Semantics is a required key enabler for automation of the service life-cycle at Web-scale, but if misused it may become a bottle-neck<br />It does not make sense to describe (or assume that) Amazon services in a complete way (i.e. using ~30 billions RDF triples!)<br />In a world of billions of services it may cost too much to find the “optimal” service in relation to the reward of having actually found the optimal solution<br />Pragmatic approaches in service discovery will focus on utility, i.e., stop the search process when a service is found that is “good” enough to fulfill a request<br />Also, it is unrealistic to assume that semantic descriptions of services are correct and complete, i.e., duplicate the functionality of a service at the description level<br />19<br />
    20. 20. SEMANTIC WEB SERVICES<br />20<br />20<br />
    21. 21. Semantic Web and Web Services<br />21<br />It’s all about automation!<br />Web Services<br />UDDI, WSDL, SOAP<br />Semantic Web<br />Services<br />Dynamic<br />WWW<br />URI, HTML, HTTP<br />Semantic Web<br />RDF, RDF(S), OWL, etc.<br />Static<br />
    22. 22. Top-level elements defined by WSMO<br />22<br />Objectives that a client may <br />have when consulting a Web Service<br />Semantic description of Web<br />Services: <br /><ul><li>Capability (functional)
    23. 23. Non-functional properties
    24. 24. Interfaces (usage) </li></ul>Provide the formally<br />specified terminology<br />of the information used<br />by all other components<br />Connectors between components with<br />mediation facilities for handling <br />heterogeneities <br />
    25. 25. Ontologies<br />23<br />
    26. 26. Ontologies<br />In WSMO, Ontologies are the key to linking conceptual real-world semantics defined and agreed upon by communities of users<br />24<br />Class ontology sub-Class wsmoElement <br /> importsOntology type ontology <br />usesMediator type ooMediator <br /> hasConcept type concept <br /> hasRelation type relation <br /> hasFunction type function <br /> hasInstance type instance <br /> hasRelationInstance type relationInstance <br /> hasAxiom type axiom <br />Examples:<br /><ul><li>The Location Ontology (http://www.wsmo.org/ontologies/location) contains the concepts “Country” and “Address”
    27. 27. The Location Ontology (http://www.wsmo.org/ontologies/location) contains the “Austria” and “Germany” instances</li></li></ul><li>Ontology Specification<br />25<br /><ul><li>Non functional properties author, date, ID, etc.
    28. 28. Imported Ontologies importing existing ontologies where no heterogeneities arise
    29. 29. Used mediators OO Mediators (ontology import with terminology mismatch handling)</li></ul>Ontology Elements:<br />Concepts set of entities that exists in the world / domain <br />Attributes set of attributes that belong to a concept<br />Relations define interrelations between several concepts<br />Functions special type of relation (unary range = return value) <br />Instances set of instances that belong to the represented ontology<br />Axioms axiomatic expressions in ontology (logical statement)<br />25<br />
    30. 30. The Web Service Element<br />26<br />
    31. 31. The Web Service Element<br />WSMO Web service descriptions consist of non-functional, functional, and the behavioral aspects of a Web service<br />A Web service is a computational entity which is able (by invocation) to achieve a users goal. A service in contrast is the actual value provided by this invocation<br />27<br />
    32. 32. Web Service Non-Functional Properties<br />Non-functional properties:<br />Accuracy - the error rate generated by the service<br />Financial - the cost-related and charging-related properties of a service <br />Network-related QoS - QoS mechanisms operating in the transport network which are independent of the service<br />Performance - how fast a service request can be completed<br />Reliability - the ability of a service to perform its functions (to maintain its service quality)<br />Robustness - the ability of the service to function correctly in the presence of incomplete or invalid inputs. <br />Scalability - the ability of the service to process more requests in a certain time interval<br />Security - the ability of a service to provide authentication, authorization, confidentiality, traceability/auditability, data encryption, and non-repudiation <br />Transactional - transactional properties of the service<br />Trust - the trust worthiness of the service<br />28<br />Example:<br /><ul><li> If the client is older than 60 or younger than 10 years old the invocation price is lower than 10 euro</li></li></ul><li>Web Service Capability<br />A capability defines the Web service by means of its functionality<br />Precondition - the information space of the Web service before its execution<br />Assumption - the state of the world before the execution of the Web service<br />Postcondition - the information space of the Web service after the execution of the Web service<br />Effect - the state of the world after the execution of the Web service<br />Shared Variables - variables that are shared between preconditions, postconditons, assumptions and effects<br />29<br />Class capability sub-Class wsmoElement<br /> importsOntology type ontology <br /> usesMediator type {ooMediator, wgMediator} <br /> hasNonFunctionalProperties type nonFunctionalProperty <br /> hasSharedVariables type sharedVariables <br /> hasPrecondition type axiom <br /> hasAssumption type axiom <br /> hasPostcondition type axiom <br /> hasEffect type axiom <br />Example:<br /><ul><li> The input for a birth registration service in Germany has to be boy or a girl with birthdate in the past and be born in Germany. The effect of the execution of the service is that after the registration the child is a German citizen.</li></li></ul><li>Web Service Interface<br />An interface describes how the functionality of the Web service can be achieved (i.e. how the capability of a Web service can be fulfilled) by providing a twofold view on the operational competence of the Web service:<br />Choreography decomposes a capability in terms of interaction with the Web service<br />Orchestration decomposes a capability in terms of functionality required from other Web services<br />30<br />Class interface sub-Class wsmoElement <br /> importsOntology type ontology <br /> usesMediator type ooMediator <br /> hasNonFunctionalProperties type nonFunctionalProperty <br /> hasChoreography type choreography <br /> hasOrchestration type orchestration <br />
    33. 33. Goals<br />31<br />
    34. 34. Goals<br />Goals are representations of an objective for which fulfillment is sought through the execution of a Web service. Goals can be descriptions of Web services that would potentially satisfy the user desires<br />32<br />Class goal sub-Class wsmoElement <br /> importsOntology type ontology <br /> usesMediator type {ooMediator, ggMediator} <br /> hasNonFunctionalProperties type nonFunctionalProperty <br /> requestsCapability type capability multiplicity = single-valued<br /> requestsInterface type interface <br />Example:<br /><ul><li> A person named Paul has to goal to register his son with the German birth registration board</li></li></ul><li>Example: Web Service Discovery<br />Distinguish between abstract service and a specific one<br />Abstract service: a computational entity able to provide many services<br />Service: a concrete invocation of a Web service<br />The task<br />Client is interested in getting a specific service<br />Identify possible service providers, which may be able to provide the requested service S for its clients<br />Discovery<br />Given a goal and some Service repository determine the set of relevant service providers<br />33<br />
    35. 35. Example: Web Service Discovery<br />34<br />Web service: <br />sells train tickets <br />for trips within <br />Europe<br />Goal: buy a <br />travel ticket from <br />Vienna to <br />Berlin<br />Reasoning<br />Travel Ticket<br />Europe<br />Train<br />Ticket<br /> Match!<br />Vienna<br />&<br />Berlin <br />
    36. 36. Mediators<br />35<br />
    37. 37. Mediators<br />Mediation<br />Data Level - mediate heterogeneous Data Sources <br />Protocol Level - mediate heterogeneous Communication Patterns <br />Process Level - mediate heterogeneous Business Processes<br />36<br />
    38. 38. Mediators<br />Four different types of mediators in WSMO<br />ggMediators: mediators that link two goals. This link represents the refinement of the source goal into the target goal or state equivalence if both goals are substitutable<br />ooMediators: mediators that import ontologies and resolve possible representation mismatches between ontologies<br />wgMediators: mediators that link Web services to goals, meaning that the Web service (totally or partially) fulfills the goal to which it is linked. wgMediators may explicitly state the difference between the two entities and map different vocabularies (through the use of ooMediators)<br />wwMediators: mediators linking two Web services<br />37<br />
    39. 39. The WSMO Framework<br />38<br />Conceptual Model for SWS<br />Execution Environment for SWS<br />Formal Language for WSMO<br />Ontology & Rule Language for the Semantic Web<br />
    40. 40. SOA4All: A GLOBAL SERVICE DELIVERY PLATFORM<br />39<br />39<br />
    41. 41. 40<br />Motivation<br />The Web currently contains 30 billion Web pages<br />Children can create Web pages<br />BUT the Web contains only ~28,000 ‘true’ Web services (seekda.com)<br />Only technologically experienced people can create and work with Web services <br />
    42. 42. 41<br />Two Core Objectives<br />“Billion of Services”: SOA4All will transform the Web into a domain where billions of parties are exposing and consuming services in a seamless and transparent fashion. <br />“4 All”: SOA4All will integrate the service world of large enterprises, SMEs, and end-users enabling them to engage as peers within a network of equals.<br />http://www. .eu<br />
    43. 43. 42<br />Approach<br />Context: user profiles, execution monitoring, service data, social context<br />Web: openness, decentralization, <br />n:m relations, statelessness<br />Semantics: formal models, service and goal descriptions, processes<br />Web2.0: content prosumers, <br />service prosumers, communities<br />
    44. 44. 43<br />SOA4All Architecture<br />‘semantic service descriptions’<br />‘semantic process descriptions’<br />‘semantic goal descriptions’<br />
    45. 45. 44<br />Semantic Spaces<br />Use of semantics in SOA4All requires a scalable and distributed data management infrastructure for:<br />Repository for service annotations in RDF<br />Infrastructure for sharing monitoring and execution data<br />Process repository of composition information<br />User profile management infrastructure<br />Semantic Spaces provide:<br />Web-style publish and read operations (persistent storage) <br />Shared data management<br />Interaction mechanism for collaborative activities<br />Event-based notification services<br />
    46. 46. 45<br />Annotation of Services<br />Representation Languages<br />WSML<br />Reasoners<br />Annotation Mechanisms<br />WSMO-Lite, MicroWSMO<br />
    47. 47. 46<br />?<br />Annotation of Services<br />ontology FinancialServices<br /> concept CreditCheckService<br /> subConceptOf FinancialService<br /> ....<br />&quot;?s[modelReference hasValue ?cat]<br /> memberOf wsl#Service and<br />?cat subConceptOf FinancialService&quot;<br />&lt;service<br /> name=&quot;HanivalCreditCheck&quot;<br /> sawsdl:modelReference=<br /> &quot;http://ex.com/FinancialServices#<br />CreditCheckService&quot;<br />...<br />Reasoner<br />?s=HanivalCreditCheck<br />?s=PayPalCreditService<br />?s=...<br />
    48. 48. 47<br />Lightweight Service Modelling<br />A common service model is expressed in RDF Schema, using only the WSMO features motivated by SAWSDL references<br />WS-* Stack services attached to lightweight semantic descriptions via SAWSDL<br />RESTful services attached to lightweight semantic descriptions via microformants<br />
    49. 49. WSDL Simplified<br />48<br />Web service<br />input<br /> Operation 1<br />output<br />input<br /> Operation 2<br />.<br />output<br />.<br />.<br />input<br /> Operation N<br />output<br />
    50. 50. 49<br />Semantics in Service Model<br />F<br />N<br />B<br />I<br />SAWSDL<br />modelReference<br />Web service<br />input<br /> Operation 1<br />output<br />input<br /> Operation 2<br />.<br />output<br />.<br />.<br />input<br /> Operation N<br />output<br />Functional, <br />Non-Functional, <br />Behavioural, <br />Information model<br />
    51. 51. MicroWSMO<br />50<br /><ul><li> The service is described for humans on a Web page
    52. 52. hRESTS allows aspects of the service description to be annotated
    53. 53. microWSMO uses these annotations to refer to elements of the same lightweight service modelling ontology as WSMO-Lite</li></li></ul><li>WSMO-Lite Annotation Tool<br />51<br />
    54. 54. Goal Formalisation<br />Semantic goal descriptions match the WSMO-Lite service annotations.<br />SPARQL can be used as simplest discovery algorithm by matching operations, input, and output messages.<br />More sophisticated matching (based on conditions, effects or NFPs) requires axiomatic reasoning (e.g. WSML).<br />52<br />
    55. 55. 53<br />Example: Service Discovery<br />SOA4All Studio: Consumption Platform<br />ervice<br />G<br />SOA4All Runtime: <br />DSB & Platform Services<br />S<br />Ranking & Selection<br />Discovery<br />Q<br />O<br />ntology<br />Crawler<br />Reasoner<br />O<br />S<br />Communication via DSB<br />S<br />Service Registry<br />uery<br />O<br />Q<br />S<br />Semantic Space<br />oal<br />G<br />
    56. 56. 54<br />Example: Service Discovery<br />SOA4All Studio: Consumption Platform<br />S<br />ervice<br />G<br />SOA4All Runtime: <br />DSB & Platform Services<br />S<br />Ranking & Selection<br />Discovery<br />O<br />Q<br />ntology<br />Crawler<br />Reasoner<br />O<br />S<br />Communication via DSB<br />S<br />Service Registry<br />uery<br />O<br />Q<br />S<br />Semantic Space<br />oal<br />G<br />
    57. 57. Service Composition<br />SOA4All Studio: Provisioning Platform<br />oal<br />G<br />P<br />SOA4All Runtime: DSB & Platform Services<br />Design-Time Composer<br />Template Generator<br />ntology<br />Reasoner<br />Composition Optimizer<br />Neglected is the monitoring data that is provided by the DSB to the Composition and Execution.<br />O<br />O<br />Q<br />Execution Engine<br />O<br />uery<br />„DISCOVERY“<br />Q<br />G<br />Semantic Space<br />rocess<br />P<br />P<br />Communication via DSB<br />
    58. 58. Service Composition<br />SOA4All Studio: Provisioning Platform<br />oal<br />G<br />P<br />SOA4All Runtime: DSB & Platform Services<br />Design-Time Composer<br />Template Generator<br />ntology<br />Reasoner<br />Composition Optimizer<br />Neglected is the monitoring data that is provided by the DSB to the Composition and Execution.<br />O<br />O<br />Execution Engine<br />O<br />uery<br />„DISCOVERY“<br />Q<br />G<br />Semantic Space<br />rocess<br />P<br />P<br />Communication via DSB<br />
    59. 59. HIGHLY FLEXIBLE SERVICE OFFER FOR THE FUTURE INTERNET<br />57<br />57<br />
    60. 60. From one that fits allto personalized software<br />Traditional software engineering and provisioning solutions suffer from lack of flexibility<br />A software to fits all type of customers<br />Modern trends in products variability showed how customization increase revenues<br />Web scale delivery of customized software<br />How can we achieve mass customized software as with traditional products?<br />Economy showed that the only way to enable small competitors to stay on the market is by federating and providing high-added-value service bundles<br />Dynamically created federations of services to better match user’s demand<br />How can we enable providers to federate together at web-scale with a high degree of automation?<br />58<br />
    61. 61. Parametric Services and Semantics<br />High level service customization can be achieved by making services parametric<br />Automatic deploy-time and run-time customization of parametric services requires proper languages and methods<br />Semantics enable description of such aspects and automatic reasoning over them through application of problem solving methods and parametric design<br />59<br />
    62. 62. Service Federations and Semantics<br />Global scale delivery of services, including services provided by small providers can be achieved by automated federation of services <br />Requires tools and languages for enabling negotiation among services and service providers<br />Semantics is the means to enable negotiation among providers, supporting heterogeneity resolution and making possible optimization of the federation via reasoning techniques and problem solving methods<br />60<br />
    63. 63. CONCLUSIONS<br />61<br />61<br />
    64. 64. Conclusion<br />Future Internet requires:<br />Platforms and languages for Service Web<br />Methods and languages for mass customization of services<br />Semantic Web techniques can be used to provide approximate descriptions of services …<br />… however not as a replacement of service technology.<br />62<br />
    65. 65. Summary<br />63<br />Global service delivery<br />Web services stagnate<br />Semantic Web services<br />SOA4All<br />

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