Egyptian Children and Young Generation in Digital Era

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Paper presented at the Mediterranean Research Meeting (MRM) 2012. European University Institute, Florence, Italy.

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Egyptian Children and Young Generation in Digital Era

  1. 1. MEDITERRANEAN
RESEARCH
MEETING
(MRM)
  21‐24
March
2012

 WORKSHOP 1 YOUTH AND CITIZENSHIP IN A DIGITAL ERA LINDA HERRERA & PETER MAYOBUILDING POLITICAL WORLD OF EGYPTIAN CHILDREN AND YOUNG GENERATIONS IN A DIGITAL ERA CHIARA DIANA
  2. 2. BUILDING
POLITICAL
WORLD
OF
EGYPTIAN
CHILDREN

 AND
YOUNG
GENERATIONS
 
IN
A
DIGITAL
ERA
Drawings of Egyptian children some days after the 25th revolution 2011
  3. 3. ABOUT
…


  Actors
of
Revolution(s):

 
Children
and
young
generations
  Participation
in
Revolution:
 
Transnational
Movement
  Revolution
continues
…

 
In
the
street
…
 
On
social
networks
and
…
 
At
school
  Theoretical
points
  Open
conclusive
remarks

  4. 4. ACTORS
OF
REVOLUTION
  Children
under
15
years
old
 In
Egypt,
According
to
the
last
census
2006,
they
represent
31.7%
 of
the
whole
of
the
population
(Capmas
2006)
 In
MENA
region,
the
combination
of
a
signiPicant
decline
in
child
 mortality
and
the
relatively
slow
onset
of
fertility
decline
led
to
an
 increase
in
the
proportion
of
children
under
15
and
it
should
 continue
to
grow
(Assaad
Ragui,
Roudi‐Fahimi
Farzaneh,
2007)

 
 
 
 
 
 
Figure
=>

  5. 5. ACTORS
OF
REVOLUTION
 Population Growth in MENA by Age Group, 1950-2050Source: United Nations, World Population Prospects: the 2004 Revision (NewYork : UN 2005). Quoted by Assaad Ragui, Roudi-Fahimi Farzaneh, 2007
  6. 6. TRANSNATIONAL
MOVEMENT

  Transnational
movement
of
Arab
children
in
revolution:
 
Same
dynamics

could
be
identiPied
in
the
different

Arab
countries
 which
experienced
revolutionary
events:
children
marching
for
 manifestations,
striking
up
the
strongest
slogans
of
the
revolution,
 the
same
in
every
country,
chanting
phrases
against
regime,

 accompanied
by
parents
or
somebody
else
(Filiu
2011)
 
Empirical
data
of
videos
and
pictures
from
Tunisia,
Libya,
Syria,
 Egypt
show
this
common
experience
 
 
 
 
 
Pictures

and
Videos
=>

  7. 7. TRANSNATIONAL
MOVEMENT

 YemenSyria Tunisia Egypt Libya
  8. 8. TRANSNATIONAL
MOVEMENT

  Revolution
in
Tunisia
(examples)
‐
Videos
by
Arte
(French‐German
channel)
http://videos.arte.tv/fr/videos
tunisie_la_revolution_par_les_enfants_de_l_ecole_primaire_d_hammam_lif_12_juillet_2011‐4033926.html
(Interviewed
children

in
a
primary
school)
‐
Video
on
YouTube
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ewCrmZgakFQ

(Children
comment
their
drawings
about
revolution)
  Revolution
in
Syria
(examples)
‐
Videos
on
YouTube
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QdQhqFep4aE&feature=related

(Children
demonstrate
in
Deraa)

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eCMMdBHPbU8&feature=related

(Demonstration
for
Hamza
al‐Khateeb,
young
of
13
years
old
arrested,
tortured
and
killed
by
Syrian
regime)
‐
Facebook
page
of
Hamza
al‐Khateeb
“We
are
all
the
child
martyr
Hamza
 al
Khateeb”
https://www.facebook.com/hamza.alshaheed

  9. 9. REVOLUTION
CONTINUES

 IN
THE
STREET…
  Revolution
in
Egypt
‐
Videos
by
Arte
(French‐German
channel)
http://videos.arte.tv/fr/videos/suleiman_abdel_hakam_egypte_20_mai_2011‐3917994.html

(Suleyman,
6
years
 old,
talks
about
revolution)

‐
Videos
on
YouTube
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dsnPi9Km65A
(Child,
5
years
old,
leads
protests
in
Tahrir,
chanting
slogans)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=C3X1gQQlCKQ&feature=related
(Girl
child
calls
«
the
people
demand
the
removal
of
 the
regime
»
in
Tahrir)

  10. 10. REVOLUTION
CONTINUES

 ON
SOCIAL
NETWORKS
…
  Facebook
Page

“Thawra
ma3hash
bita2a”
(Revolution
without
ID)
https://www.facebook.com
Thawra.ma3hash.beta2a
https://www.facebook.com
Thawra.ma3hash.beta2a
app_326083590761463

Movement
of
Egyptian
children
and
young
people
under
18
years
old.

Some
important
points
in
declaration:
to
provide
their
creative
capacities
for
the
development
of
Egypt
and
to
disseminate
their
messages,
 opinions
and
remarks
at
the
only
condition
that
don’t
contract
with
religion
values.


  11. 11. REVOLUTION
CONTINUES

 ON
SOCIAL
NETWORKS
…
  
Picture
of
Aya
Mohsen’s
twitter
account

with
Yousri
Fouda
(TV
man
of

«
Akhr
Kalam
»
)
http://twitter.com/#!/a_aya97
  Members
of
Thawra
ma3hash
Bita2a
in
TV
programme

«
Akhr
Kalam
»
http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=lP‐213N7oAU



  12. 12. REVOLUTION
CONTINUES

 AT
SCHOOL…
  “Egypt’s
School
Students
for
 Change
movement”

‐
Call
for
general
strike
with
university
students
on
February
11,
2011
  Videos
by
Asmae
(French
NGO)
http://www.lesenfantsdemahaba.comvideo.php?vid=9

(interviewed
children
in
an
Egyptian
school)
  EDRAK
Opinion
poll
of
Egyptian

children

  13. 13. REVOLUTION
CONTINUES

 AT
SCHOOL…
 EDRAK
“How
to
Make
a
Better
Egypt”
 6% I don’t know- Question: “what do you know about the revolution in Tahrir”?- Answer: “our revolution was made because people were angry,while FB was how they communicated” people are angry 52% 42% A Facebook -  Question: Did you go to Tahrir Sq. with your family or friends? revolution -  Answer: More than 1 out of 4 kids went to the Action zone Almost ½ of the kids went to such landmark during or right after 27% Yes, during the revolution53% No 20% Immediately after the revolution
  14. 14. THEORETICAL
POINTS

 POLITICAL
SOCIALIZATION
 (Durkheim,
Hyman,
Percheron)
Forms
during
early
years
of
life
(10‐11
years
old)
 Creates
political
preferences

 Family
and
social
milieu
contribution
 Child
isn’t
a
passive
being
 Acquisition
of
intellectual
and
practical
skills
 Application
on
Egyptian
/
Arab
children


  15. 15. OPEN
CONCLUSIVE
REMARKS

A quotation of Kamel Al-Janzuri who, in a public speech last January, said : “we areglad for what our young generation is doing for the Revolution, but children aged12-13 years old who threw stones in order to destroy walls of governmentalinstitutions, could not be considered as a real theer (revolutionary)”.- Who is the real theer?- Could it be possible to give a definition of “theer”?-  Could “age” play an important role for this definition?- As “public space”, could school be a place wheremaking revolution?Bring revolution into the school…

×