Ten new topics on security+ 2011 (sy0 301) (domain 1.0 network security)

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Ten new topics on security+ 2011 (sy0 301) (domain 1.0 network security)

  1. 1. Expert Reference Series of White Papers Ten New Topics on Security+ 2011 (SY0-301) (Domain 1.0: Network Security)1-800-COURSES www.globalknowledge.com
  2. 2. Ten New Topics on Security+ 2011(SY0-301) Domain 1.0: Network Security)James Michael Stewart, CISSP, ISSAP, SSCP, CEI, CEH, CPTE, QSA, QISP,Security+, Network+IntroductionIt has been about three years since the last revision of the CompTIA Security+ exam back in 2008. In early sum-mer of 2011, the latest version, SY0-301, was released. This revamped exam focuses more on risk, operationalsecurity, and mobile device security. It also clearly emphasizes security in three main areas: application, data,and host. In preparing to take the SY0-301 exam, you should pay special attention to the new topics and issuesadded to this latest revision.The first domain in the updated exam is Network Security, and the topics tested in this domain include: 1.1 Explain the security function and purpose of network devices and technology. 1.2 Apply and implement secure network administration principles 1.3 Distinguish and differentiate network design elements and compounds 1.4 Implement and use common protocols 1.5 Identify commonly used default network ports 1.6 Implement wireless network in a secure mannerNote: The number in parenthesis after each topic is the official objective sub-domain reference for SY0-301 asdefined by CompTIA. Please see the official objectives list in the Appendix at the end of this paper, or visit www.comptia.org for a complete accounting of the objectives.To help you prepare, let’s look at ten new and important topics in the Network Security domain of the exam.1. Web Security Gateways (1.1)A Web security gateway is a Web proxy server with a Web application firewall along with several other poten-tial features, such as anti-virus, content filtering, keyword matching, striping of cookies, blocking of client-sideexecution agents, etc. Some Web security gateways even include some non-Web specific features such as IMfiltering, SPAM filtering, e-mail oversight, spoofing prevention, and blocking file sharing services.2. Load Balancers (1.1)A load balancer is used to spread or distribute work load over multiple systems or devices. While commonlyused in relation to servers, the concept can also be applied to hard drives, CPUs, or network segments. LoadCopyright ©2011 Global Knowledge Training LLC. All rights reserved. 2
  3. 3. balancers can assist in optimizing network capacity utilization, reducing overloading, increase throughput,minimize latency and response time, and reduce bottlenecks. Load balancing can take advantage of a varietyof techniques or technologies, including random choice, round robin, load monitoring, and preferencing. A loadbalancer can be implemented in either software or hardware.3. Flood Guards and Loop Protection (1.2)A flood guard detects denial of service (DoS) levels of traffic and interrupts the flow of the unwanted activity. Aflood guard works to prevent flooding attacks from reaching an internal network.Loop protection is the technology used to prevent redundant network loops that might support infinite trans-mission of frames or packets. Switches and bridges often support Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) that providesprotection against layer 2 loops. The IP protocol itself includes a loop protection feature, commonly known asthe Time To Live (TTL). This decrementing counter decreases by one just before a router transmits a packet ontoyet another subnet. When this value reaches 0, a router will no longer forward the packet; instead, it sends backan Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) Type 11 Timeout Exceeded response to the sender. This effectivelyprevents infinite transmissions, although it does not necessarily directly prevent loops.4. Cloud Computing (1.3)Cloud computing refers to resources and services made accessible over Internet connections or other forms ofdata pathways. Cloud computing allows data and services to be hosted elsewhere instead of on local hardware.Cloud computing consists of several variations, including Software as a Service (SaaS), Platform as a Service(PaaS), and Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS). SaaS provides access to applications and data services (such asGoogle Docs); PaaS provides access to virtualized OS environments (such as Amazon Web Services); and IaaSprovides access to large scale services or solutions (such as GoGrid).5. FTPS and SFTP (1.4/1.5)File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is a well-known but inherently insecure protocol for file transfers. Two alternatives orvariations of FTP that offer security through encrypted authentication and data transfer are File Transfer ProtocolSecure (FTPS) and Secure File Transfer Protocol (SFTP). FTPS is protected using SSL or TLS and operates over TCPports 989 and 990. SFTP is protected using SSH and operates over TCP port 22, as does every SSH-protectedprotocol.6. IPv4 vs IPv6 (1.4)IPv4 was defined in 1981 in RFC 791, and is currently the most widely used OSI Layer 3 Networking layer pro-tocol. IPv4 uses a 32 bit address divided into 5 classes, three of which (A, B, and C) are used mainly for publicaddresses. Class D is used for multicasting. Class E is reserved.IPv6 was designed as the replacement for IPv4, and was finalized in 1998 in RFC 2460. IPv6 uses a 128 bit ad-dress. While similar in function, IPv6 is not backward compatible with IPv4; thus, specialized translation gate-Copyright ©2011 Global Knowledge Training LLC. All rights reserved. 3
  4. 4. ways are required to link networks using the different versions. Additionally, IPSec is an integral part of IPv6,while it is just an optional add-on for IPv4.7. Wireless Networking Standards: WEP, WPA, WPA2 (1.6)There is a significant increase in the amount and level of wireless content on the new Sec+ SY0-301 exam. Fourof my top 10 new issues are focusing on various aspects of new wireless content.The standards of wireless networking for authentication and encryption range from completely open andinsecure to potentially reliably secure. The original 802.11 specification allowed for open system authentication(OSA) [which means neither authentication nor encryption], and the optional wireless equivalent privacy (WEP)[which is no better than OSA, as it is now crackable in 60 seconds].The 802.11i amendment paved the way for WiFi Protected Access (WPA) and later WPA2 as alternatives to WEP.WPA resolved many of the problems with WEP; however, recent advances in cryptography attacks and compu-tational capabilities have revealed attacks that can crack WPA encryption in as little as four hours in specificcircumstances.The WPA2 variation uses Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) as the main encryption protocol, and as of mid-2011, no attacks are known to compromise AES encryption. However, even with unassailable encryption, WPA2still has a vulnerability if a poor preshared key (PSK) is selected or weak enterprise authentication is leveragedvia 802.1x/EAP.8. Wireless Authentication Technologies: EAP, PEAP, LEAP (1.6)Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) was first deployed as an alternative extension to point to pointprotocol (PPP) as a future proofing/supporting mechanism. Over time, EAP has made many additional forms ofauthentication possible and allowed many of these forms to be used on a wider number of devices.In relation to wireless, EAP is used by WPA and WPA2 to support EAP-TLS, EAP-PSK, EAP-MD5, LEAP, and PEAP.EAP-TLS supports encrypted authentication tunneling over TLS. EAP-PSK supports secured mutual authenticationusing preshared keys. EAP-MD5 offers only hash-protected password exchanges and is considered a deprecatedlegacy variation. Lightweight Extensible Authentication Protocol (LEAP) is a Cisco proprietary protocol. LEAP isconsidered weak and is not recommended for use. It has been supplanted by Protected Extensible AuthenticationProtocol (PEAP). PEAP is a more secure variation of the EAP-TLS concept created by Cisco, Microsoft, and RSA.9. Wireless Security: MAC filtering, TKIP, CCMP (1.6)Wireless security involves many aspects, some of which were on the previous exam. However, at least 3 addi-tional topics appear on the new exam. MAC filtering ignores all wireless interfaces except those on a white listas identified by MAC address. This can also be inverted on some base stations to be a black list to ignore knownCopyright ©2011 Global Knowledge Training LLC. All rights reserved. 4
  5. 5. malicious systems. Unfortunately, spoofing MAC addresses is quite simple and an easy way around this “secu-rity” feature.Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP) was the initial replacement for WEP and allowed for greater securitywhile still operating on existing/legacy hardware. TKIP is implemented under WPA. However, TKIP is no longerconsidered secure and should be replaced by WPA2.Counter Mode with Cipher Block Chaining Message Authentication Code Protocol (CCMP) replaces both WEPand WPA (TKIP) as implemented by WPA2. CCMP uses 128 bit AES encryption. WPA2’s CCMP is the most securecurrent wireless standard with no known attacks against the encryption.10. Wireless Installation: Antenna Placement, Power Level Controls (1.6)When deploying a wireless access point, it is important to consider several installation issues. Two of these includ-ed on the new Sec+ exam are antenna placement and power level controls. Proper antenna type, strength, andorientation are needed to optimize valid authorized connections while minimizing unauthorized external connec-tions. Wireless signals are affected by interference, distance, and obstructions. Thus, it is important to perform asite survey to confirm usability of the wireless signal. Antennas can include omni-directional, parabolic, and Yagi.Once antenna placement and orientation are optimized, additional configurations might require manipulationof the power level controls. This adjustment alters the electronic strength of the antenna by varying the powerused by the antenna. Power levels are usually pre-set by manufactures for typical optimal performance, butcustomization of these levels might be desired or essential, based on the facility and use of alternate antennas.ConclusionThe Security+ 2011 (SY0-301) exam has been significantly updated. Well over 60 new topics have been addedto the latest version of this exam. In the first topical domain: Network Security, there are at least 10 importantnew or updated topics that you need to focus on as you prepare for the exam. While you can self-study usingthe official CompTIA objectives list as a guide, you would benefit greatly by attending an up-to-date Security+2011 (SY0-301) training course. This way, you will have access to the latest exam study materials and the exper-tise of a highly qualified instructor. Through direct interaction with the instructor, as well as classmates, you aresure to be well-versed in these top 10 new Security+ topics, as well as all of the other relevant materials, on thisnew and challenging exam.Learn MoreLearn more about how you can improve productivity, enhance efficiency, and sharpen your competitive edgethrough training.Security+ Prep Course (SYO-301)Security+ Certification Boot Camp (SYO-301)Copyright ©2011 Global Knowledge Training LLC. All rights reserved. 5
  6. 6. Visit www.globalknowledge.com or call 1-800-COURSES (1-800-268-7737) to speak with a GlobalKnowledge training advisor.About the AuthorJames Michael Stewart has been working with computers and technology for over twenty-five years, focus-ing on security, certification, and various operating systems. Recently, Michael has been teaching job skill andcertification courses, such as CISSP, CEH, and Security+. He is the primary author on the CISSP Study Guide 5thEdition, Security+ 2011 Review Guide, and Network Security, Firewalls, and VPNs. Michael has also contributedto many other CISSP and Security+ focused materials, including exam preparation guides, practice exams, DVDvideo instruction, and courseware.In addition, Michael has co-authored numerous books on other security and Microsoft certification, and admin-istration topics. He has developed certification courseware and training materials as well as presented thesematerials in the classroom. Michael holds numerous certifications, including CISSP, ISSAP, SSCP, CEI, CEH, CPTE,QSA, QISP, Security+, and Network+. Michael graduated in 1992 from the University of Texas at Austin with abachelor’s degree in Philosophy. Despite his degree, his computer knowledge is self-acquired, based on seat-ofthe-pants hands-on “street smarts” experience. You can reach Michael by e-mail at michael@impactonline.com.Appendix AThe chart below showcases the new SY0-301 objectives provided by CompTIA (see www.comptia.org) ascompared to the previous objectives for s (2008 version). The comparison table focuses on new topics, terms, orphrases covered on the 2011 SYO 301 exam. SY0-301 2011 Objectives SY0-201 2008 Domain 1.0: Network Security 1.1 Explain the security function and purpose of network devices and technologies · Firewalls 1.5, 2.3, 2.4, 4.6 · Routers · Switches · Load Balancers · Proxies 2.3, 2.4 · Web security gateways · VPN concentrators 3.7 · NIDS and NIPS (Behavior based, signature based, anomaly based, heuristic) 2.3, 2.4 · Protocol analyzers 2.3, 2.4, 4.2, 4.4 · Sniffers 2.3, 2.4, 4.2, 4.4 · Spam filter, all-in-one security appliances 1.1, 1.5 · Web application firewall vs. network firewall 1.5, 2.3, 2.4, 4.6 · URL filtering, content inspection, malware inspection 2.3, 2.4Copyright ©2011 Global Knowledge Training LLC. All rights reserved. 6
  7. 7. 1.2 Apply and implement secure network administration principles · Rule-based management 3.2 · Firewall rules 1.5, 2.3, 2.4, 4.6 · VLAN management 2.2 · Secure router configuration · Access control lists 3.5 · Port Security 2.1, 4.2 · 802.1x 3.7 · Flood guards · Loop protection · Implicit deny 3.1 · Prevent network bridging by network separation · Log analysis 3.9, 4.6 1.3 Distinguish and differentiate network design elements and compounds · DMZ 2.2 · Subnetting 2.2 · VLAN 2.2 · NAT 2.2 · Remote Access 3.7 · Telephony 2.2 · NAC 2.2 · Virtualization 1.6 · Cloud Computing - Platform as a Service - Software as a Service - Infrastructure as a Service 1.4 Implement and use common protocols · IPSec 5.4 · SNMP 2.1, 5.4 · SSH 5.4 · DNS 4.6, 5.4 · TLS 5.4 · SSL 5.4 · TCP/IP 5.4 · FTPS · HTTPS 5.4 · SFTPCopyright ©2011 Global Knowledge Training LLC. All rights reserved. 7
  8. 8. · SCP · ICMP 5.4 · IPv4 vs. IPv6 1.5 Identify commonly used default network ports · FTP 2.1 · SFTP 2.1 · FTPS · TFTP 2.1 · TELNET 2.1, 5.4 · HTTP 2.1, 5.4 · HTTPS 2.1, 5.4 · SCP · SSH 2.1, 5.4 · NetBIOS 1.6 Implement wireless network in a secure manner · WPA · WPA2 · WEP · EAP 5.3 · PEAP · LEAP · MAC filter · SSID broadcast 2.7 · TKIP 5.3 · CCMP · Antenna Placement · Power level controls Domain 2.0: Compliance and Operational Security 2.1 Explain risk related concepts · Control types - Technical - Management - Operational · False positives · Importance of policies in reducing risk 6.4 - Privacy policy - Acceptable useCopyright ©2011 Global Knowledge Training LLC. All rights reserved. 8
  9. 9. - Security policy - Mandatory vacations - Job rotation - Separation of duties - Least privilege · Risk calculation 4.1 - Likelihood - ALE - Impact · Quantitative vs. qualitative · Risk-avoidance, transference, acceptance, mitigation, deterrence · Risks associated to Cloud Computing and Virtualization 2.2 Carry out appropriate risk mitigation strategies · Implement security controls based on risk · Change management 6.4 · Incident management · User rights and permissions reviews 4.7 · Perform routine audits 4.7 · Implement policies and procedures to prevent data loss or theft 1.3, 4.7, 6.4 2.3 Execute appropriate incident response procedures · Basic forensic procedures 6.3 - Order of volatility - Capture system image - Network traffic and logs - Capture video - Record time offset - Take hashes - Screenshots - Witnesses - Track man hours and expense · Damage and loss control 6.3 · Chain of custody 6.3 · Incident response: first responder 6.3 2.4 Explain the importance of security related awareness and training · Security policy training and procedures 6.4, 6.6 · Personally identifiable information · Information classification: Sensitivity of data (hard or soft) 6.4Copyright ©2011 Global Knowledge Training LLC. All rights reserved. 9
  10. 10. · Data labeling, handling and disposal · Compliance with laws, best practices and standards 6.4 · User habits - Password behaviors - Data handling - Clean desk policies - Prevent tailgating - Personally owned devices · Threat awareness 1.1, 2.1 - New viruses - Phishing attacks - Zero days exploits · Use of social networking and P2P 1.4 2.5 Compare and contrast aspects of business continuity · Business impact analysis · Removing single points of failure 6.1 · Business continuity planning and testing · Continuity of operations · Disaster recovery 6.2 · IT contingency planning · Succession planning 2.6 Explain the impact and proper use of environmental controls · HVAC 6.5 · Fire suppression 6.5 · EMI shielding 6.5 · Hot and cold aisles · Environmental monitoring · Temperature and humidity controls · Video monitoring 2.7 Execute disaster recovery plans and procedures · Backup / backout contingency plans or policies 6.2 · Backups, execution and frequency 6.2 · Redundancy and fault tolerance 6.1 - Hardware - RAID - Clustering - Load balancingCopyright ©2011 Global Knowledge Training LLC. All rights reserved. 10
  11. 11. - Servers · High availability · Cold site, hot site, warm site 6.1 · Mean time to restore, mean time between failures, recovery time objectives and recovery point objectives 2.8 Exemplify the concepts of confidentiality, integrity and availability (CIA) 5.1 Domain 3.0 Threats and Vulnerabilities 3.1 Analyze and differentiate among types of malware · Adware 1.1 · Virus 1.1 · Worms 1.1 · Spyware 1.1 · Trojan 1.1 · Rootkits 1.1 · Backdoors 2.5 · Logic bomb 1.1 · Botnets 1.1 3.2 Analyze and differentiate among types of attacks · Man-in-the-middle 2.1 · DDoS 2.1 · DoS 2.1 · Replay 2.1 · Smurf attack · Spoofing 2.1 · Spam 1.1 · Phishing 6.6 · Spim · Vishing · Spear phishing · Xmas attack · Pharming · Privilege escalation 1.1, 2.5 · Malicious insider threat · DNS poisoning and ARP poisoning 2.1 · Transitive access · Client-side attacksCopyright ©2011 Global Knowledge Training LLC. All rights reserved. 11
  12. 12. 3.3 Analyze and differentiate among types of social engineering attacks · Shoulder surfing 6.6 · Dumpster diving 6.6 · Tailgating · Impersonation · Hoaxes 6.6 · Whaling · Vishing 3.4 Analyze and differentiate among types of wireless attacks · Rogue access points 2.7 · Interference · Evil twin · War driving 2.7 · Bluejacking 2.7 · Bluesnarfing 2.7 · War chalking · IV attack · Packet sniffing 3.5 Analyze and differentiate among types of application attacks · Cross-site scripting 1.4 · SQL injection · LDAP injection · XML injection · Directory traversal/command injection · Buffer overflow 1.4 · Zero day · Cookies and attachments 1.4 · Malicious add-ons · Session hijacking 2.1 · Header manipulation 3.6 Analyze and differentiate among types of mitigation and deterrent techniques · Manual bypassing of electronic controls - Failsafe/secure vs. failopen · Monitoring system logs 3.9, 4.6 - Event logs - Audit logs - Security logsCopyright ©2011 Global Knowledge Training LLC. All rights reserved. 12
  13. 13. - Access logs · Physical security 3.9 - Hardware locks - Mantraps - Video surveillance - Fencing - Proximity readers - Access list · Hardening 1.3 - Disabling unnecessary services - Protecting management interfaces and applications - Password protection - Disabling unnecessary accounts · Port security 1.1, 4.2 - MAC limiting and filtering - 802.1x - Disabling unused ports · Security posture - Initial baseline configuration 1.3, 4.4 - Continuous security monitoring - remediation · Reporting - Alarms - Alerts - Trends · Detection controls vs. prevention controls - IDS vs. IPS - Camera vs. guard 3.7 Implement assessment tools and techniques to discover security threats and vulnerabilities · Vulnerability scanning and interpret results 4.2, 4.3, 4.4 · Tools 2.3, 4.2, 4.4 - Protocol analyzer - Sniffer - Vulnerability scanner - Honeypots - HoneynetsCopyright ©2011 Global Knowledge Training LLC. All rights reserved. 13
  14. 14. - Port scanner · Risk calculations - Threat vs. likelihood · Assessment types 4.1 - Risk - Threat - Vulnerability · Assessment technique 4.4 - Baseline reporting - Code review - Determine attack surface - Architecture - Design reviews 3.8 Within the realm of vulnerability assessments, explain the proper use of penetration testing versus vulnerability scanning · Penetration testing 4.3 - Verify a threat exists - Bypass security controls - Actively test security controls - Exploiting vulnerabilities · Vulnerability scanning 4.2, 4.3 - Passively testing security controls - Indentify vulnerability - Indentify lack of security controls - Indentify common misconfiguration · Black box · White box · Gray box Domain 4.0 Application, Data and Host Security 4.1 Explain the importance of application security · Fuzzing · Secure coding concepts - Error and exception handling - Input validation · Cross-site scripting prevention 1.4 · Cross-site Request Forgery (XSRF) prevention · Application configuration baseline (proper settings) 1.3, 4.4Copyright ©2011 Global Knowledge Training LLC. All rights reserved. 14
  15. 15. · Application hardening · Application patch management 1.3 4.2 Carry out appropriate procedures to establish host security · Operating system security and settings 1.3 · Anti-malware 1.5 - Anti-virus - Anti-spam - Anti-spyware - Pop-up blockers - Host-based firewalls · Patch management 1.3 · Hardware security 3.9 - Cable locks - Safe - Locking cabinets · Host software baselining · Mobile devices - Screen lock - Strong password - Device encryption - Remote wipe/sanitation - Voice encryption - GPS tracking · Virtualization 4.3 Explain the importance of data security · Data Loss Prevention (DLP) · Data encryption 5.1 - Full disk - Database - Individual files - Removable media - Mobile devices · Hardware based encryption devices 5.1 - TPM - HSM - USB encryption - Hard driveCopyright ©2011 Global Knowledge Training LLC. All rights reserved. 15
  16. 16. · Cloud computing Domain 5.0 Access Control and Identity Management 5.1 Explain the function and purpose of authentication services · RADIUS 3.7 · TACACS 3.7 · TACACS+ 3.7 · Kerberos 3.7 · LDAP 3.7 · XTACACS 3.7 5.2 Explain the fundamental concepts and best practices related to authentication, authorization and access control · Identification vs. authentication 3.8 · Authentication (single factor) and authorization · Multifactor authentication · Biometrics 3.7 · Tokens 3.5, 3.9 · Common access card · Personal identification verification card · Smart card 3.5, 3.6, 3.7 · Least privilege 3.1 · Separation of duties 3.1 · Single sign on 3.6 · ACLs 3.5 · Access control all of obj 3 · Mandatory access control 3.2 · Discretionary access control 3.2 · Role/rule-based access control 3.2 · Implicit deny 3.1 · Time of day restrictions 3.5 · Trusted OS · Mandatory vacations 6.4 · Job rotation 3.1 5.3 Implement appropriate security controls when performing account management · Mitigates issues associated with users with multiple account/roles · Account policy enforcement 3.5 - Password complexity - ExpirationCopyright ©2011 Global Knowledge Training LLC. All rights reserved. 16
  17. 17. - Recovery - Length - Disablement - Lockout · Group based privileges 3.3 · User assigned privileges 3.3 Domain 6.0 Cryptography 6.1 Summarize general cryptography concepts · Symmetric vs. asymmetric 5.1 · Fundamental differences and encryption methods - Block vs. stream · Transport encryption · Non-repudiation 5.1 · Hashing 5.2 · Key escrow 5.5 · Steganography 5.1 · Digital signatures 5.1 · Use of proven technologies · Elliptic curve and quantum cryptography 5.3 6.2 Use and apply appropriate cryptographic tools and products · WEP vs. WPA/WPA2 and preshared key · MD5 5.2 · SHA 5.2 · RIPEMD · AES 5.3 · DES 5.3 · 3DES 5.3 · HMAC · RSA 5.3 · RC4 · One-time-pads 5.3 · CHAP 3.7 · PAP 3.7 · NTLM 5.2 · NTLMv2 5.2 · Blowfish · PGP/GPG 5.3Copyright ©2011 Global Knowledge Training LLC. All rights reserved. 17
  18. 18. · Whole disk encryption · TwoFish · Comparative strengths of algorithms · Use of algorithms with transport encryption 5.4 - SSL - TLS - IPSec - SSH - HTTPS 6.3 Explain the core concepts of public key infrastructure · Certificate authorities and digital certificates 5.1, 5.5, 5.6 - CA - CRLs · PKI 5.1, 5.5, 5.6 · Recovery agent 5.5, 5.6 · Public key 5.5, 5.6 · Private key 5.5, 5.6 · Registration 5.5, 5.6 · Key escrow 5.5, 5.6 · Trust models 5.5 6.4 Implement PKI, certificate management and associated components · Certificate authorities and digital certificates 5.1, 5.5, 5.6 - CA - CRLs · PKI 5.1, 5.5, 5.6 · Recovery agent 5.5, 5.6 · Public key 5.5, 5.6 · Private keys 5.5, 5.6 · Registration 5.5, 5.6 · Key escrow 5.5, 5.6 · Trust models 5.5Copyright ©2011 Global Knowledge Training LLC. All rights reserved. 18

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