Upcoming SlideShare
×

# Loans (1)

475 views
334 views

Published on

Published in: Business, Economy & Finance
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
• Full Name
Comment goes here.

Are you sure you want to Yes No
• Be the first to comment

• Be the first to like this

Views
Total views
475
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
5
Actions
Shares
0
9
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

### Loans (1)

1. 1. TYPES OF LOANS • PURE DISCOUNT • INTEREST ONLY • CONSTANT PAYMENT
2. 2. TYPES OF LOANS PURE DISCOUNT LOANS PURE DISCOUNT LOANS: the borrower receives the money today and repays the loan in one lump sum at some time in the future. Example: you borrow \$10,000 today and agree to repay the loan with 9% annual interest (compounded annually) five years from today. What is your loan balance in five years? FV = \$10,000 (1 + 0.09)5 = \$15,386.24
3. 3. TYPES OF LOANS PURE DISCOUNT LOANS Another example: Treasury Bills -- for historical reasons, the interest rate on a T-Bill is quoted as a discount: interest rate quoted = interest paid/par value. For example, the quoted rate on a one year \$10,000 T-Bill at 7% interest is: Par value \$10,000.00 Present value \$ 9,345.79 Interest paid \$ 654.21 The interest rate quoted is \$654.21/\$10,000 = 6.54% (even though the interest rate is 7%).
4. 4. TYPES OF LOANS INTEREST ONLY LOANS INTEREST ONLY LOAN: the borrower receives the money today and agrees to pay the lender interest periodically over the loan term and the principal (the original loan amount) at the end of the loan term. Example: you borrow \$10,000 today and agree to pay interest annually at the annual rate of 9% and repay the principal at the end of five years. What is your annual interest payment? Interest = 0.09 x \$10,000 = \$900
5. 5. TYPES OF LOANS CONSTANT PAYMENT LOANS • • • • FIXED RATE OF INTEREST FIXED LOAN TERM FULLY AMORTIZING FIXED PERIODIC PAYMENTS
6. 6. TYPES OF LOANS CONSTANT PAYMENT LOANS Computing the equal periodic payment for amortized loans: PMT = Loan Amount where CR n k PMT = = = = 1 nk 1 ∑1 CR t t = (1 + ) k the annual contract rate of interest the number of years in the loan term the number of payments per year the equal periodic payment necessary to fully amortize the Loan Amount with nk payments.
7. 7. TYPES OF LOANS CONSTANT PAYMENT LOANS Compute the monthly payment necessary to fully amortize a 30 year, 8% annual interest (compounded monthly), \$100,000 loan. PMT = \$100,000 = 360 1 ∑ 0.08 t t = (1 + 1 ) 12 Annual debt service (DS) \$ 733.76 = 12 x PMT = \$8,805.12
8. 8. TYPES OF LOANS CONSTANT PAYMENT LOANS For a fixed rate, fixed term, fixed payment, fully amortizing loan, the mortgage balance (book value of the loan) is simply the present value of the remaining stream of payments discounted at the periodic contract rate. Let MBs = mortgage balance at the end of period s = PMT nk −s 1 ∑ CR t t = (1 + 1 ) k
9. 9. TYPES OF LOANS CONSTANT PAYMENT LOANS What is the mortgage balance in five years for a \$100,000, 30 year, 8% annual interest rate, monthly payment loan? The mortgage balance in five years is the present value of the 300 (360-60) remaining monthly payments discounted at the monthly rate of 0.08/12. 300 MB60 1 = \$733.76 ∑ = \$ 95,069.26 0.08 t t = (1 + 1 ) 12
10. 10. TYPES OF LOANS CONSTANT PAYMENT LOANS Alternatively, the mortgage balance is the future value (FV) in: s 1 MBs PV = PMT ∑ + CR t CR s t =1 (1 + ) (1 + ) k k 60 1 MBs \$100,000 = \$733.76∑ + 0.08 t 0.08 60 t =1 (1 + ) (1 + ) 12 12
11. 11. TYPES OF LOANS CONSTANT PAYMENT LOANS Amortization schedules separate the periodic payment into interest and principal: Periodic interest payment = beginning balance x periodic rate or Is = MBs-1 Periodic principal CR k = periodic payment - periodic interest or Ps = PMT - Is
12. 12. TYPES OF LOANS CONSTANT PAYMENT LOANS Separate the \$733.76 monthly payment into interest and principal for the first two months of the \$100,000, 30 year, 8% annual interest rate loan. Month 1: Interest = \$100,000.00 x 0.0066667 = \$666.67 Principal = \$733.76 - \$666.67 = \$ 67.09 MB1 = \$100,000.00 - \$67.09 = \$99,932.91 Month 2: Interest = \$99,932.91 x 0.0066667 = \$666.22 Principal = \$733.76 - \$666.22 = \$ 67.54 MB2 = \$99,932.91 - \$ 67.54 = \$99,865.37
13. 13. TYPES OF LOANS CONSTANT PAYMENT LOANS How would you calculate the amount of interest you paid during the fifth year of a conventional mortgage? You could separate the monthly payments into interest and principal for the 12 months of the fifth year and add the monthly interest payments. Fortunately, there’s an easier way: Principal paid between months s and t = MBs - MBt Interest paid = PMT (t - s) - Principal paid
14. 14. TYPES OF LOANS CONSTANT PAYMENT LOANS Compute the principal and interest paid during the fifth year of a \$100,000, 30 year, 8% annual rate, monthly payment mortgage. 312 MB48 1 = \$733.76 ∑ 0.08 t t = (1 + 1 ) 12 = \$96,218.44 300 MB60 = \$733.76 1 ∑ 0.08 t t = (1 + 1 ) 12 = \$95,069.26 Year 5: Principal paid: \$96,218.44 - \$95,069.26 = \$1,149.17 Interest paid: \$733.76 x 12 - \$1,149.17 = \$7,655.95
15. 15. TYPES OF LOANS CONSTANT PAYMENT LOANS In what month is one half of the loan repaid? s 1 \$50,000 \$100,000 = \$733.76∑ + 0.08 t .08 s t = 1 (1 + ) (1 + ) 12 12 s = 269 (the 5th month of year 22)
16. 16. Constant Payment Mortgages: Yields The lender’s expected yield or borrower’s true borrowing cost is the IRR on the expected mortgage cash flows. Let Fee = loan origination fee, Points = discount points in dollars (points are usually expressed as a percent of the loan amount), S = month that the loan is repaid, PP = the dollar amount of the prepayment penalty (a percent of the mortgage balance), NLA = net loan amount = Loan Amount - Fee - Points y = the discount rate -- the lender’s yield, the borrower’s borrowing cost.
17. 17. Constant Payment Mortgages: Yields Computing Lender’s Yield (or Borrower’s Borrowing Cost) There are 3 cases to consider: (1) The loan is held to maturity; (2) the loan is repaid prior to maturity without penalty; (3) the loan is repaid prior to maturity with a prepayment penalty.
18. 18. Constant Payment Mortgages: Yields Computing Lender’s Yield (or Borrower’s Borrowing Cost) 1) If the loan is held to maturity, solve for y in: nk 1 NLA = PMT ∑ t t =1 (1 + y / 12 )
19. 19. Constant Payment Mortgages: Yields Example: compute the lender’s expected yield (or the borrower’s borrowing cost) for a \$100,000, 30 year, monthly payment mortgage that has a 7.5% annual contract rate of interest if the lender charges a \$1,000 loan origination fee, 2 discount points, and expects the borrower to hold the loan to maturity. NLA = \$100,000 - \$1,000 - \$2,000 PMT = 360 = \$97,000.00 1 = \$100,000 / ∑ 0.075 t t = (1 + 1 ) 12 \$699.21
20. 20. Constant Payment Mortgages: Yields Example (continued): the lender’s expected yield (or the borrower’s true borrowing cost) is the IRR (or discount rate y) in the following: 360 1 t =1 y t (1 + ) 12 \$97,000 = \$699.21∑ y = 7.81%
21. 21. Constant Payment Mortgages: Yields Computing Lender’s Yield (or Borrower’s Borrowing Cost) (2) If the loan is repaid prior to maturity without penalty, solve for y in: s 1 MBS NLA = PMT ∑ + y t y s t =1 (1 + ) (1 + ) 12 12
22. 22. Constant Payment Mortgages: Yields Example: compute the lender’s expected yield (or borrower’s borrowing cost) in the previous example if the lender expects the borrower to repay the loan, without penalty, at the end of four years. 312 1 MB48 = \$699.21∑ = \$95,860.00 0.075 t t =1 (1 + ) 12 Solve for y = 8.40% in: 48 1 \$95,860.00 \$97,000 = \$699.21∑ + y t y 48 t =1 (1 + ) (1 + ) 12 12
23. 23. Constant Payment Mortgages: Yields Computing Lender’s Yield (or Borrower’s Borrowing Cost) (3) If the loan is repaid prior to maturity with a prepayment penalty, solve for y in: MBS + PPS NLA = PMT ∑ + y t y s t = 1 (1 + ) (1 + ) 12 12 s 1 Prepayment penalties are computed as a percent of the outstanding mortgage balance.
24. 24. Constant Payment Mortgages: Yields Example: compute the lender’s expected yield (or borrower’s borrowing cost) in the previous example if the lender expects the borrower to repay the loan, with a 2% prepayment penalty, at the end of four years. \$95,860.00 + \$1,917.20 \$97,000 = \$699.21∑ + y t y 48 t = 1 (1 + ) (1 + ) 12 12 48 1 FV = \$97,777.20 and y = 8.82%
25. 25. Constant Payment Mortgages: Yields Relationship between mortgage yields and prepayment (with no prepayment penalty) for a 7.5%, 30 year, constant payment mortgage with a \$1,000 loan fee and 2 discount points. Year of Prepayment 1 2 3 4 5 10 20 30 Mortgage Yield 10.69% 9.16% 8.65% 8.40% 8.25% 7.96% 7.83% 7.81%
26. 26. Constant Payment Mortgages: Yields The Annual Percentage Rate (APR) on a loan is the lender’s yield (or borrower’s borrowing cost) computed assuming the loan is held to maturity rounded to the nearest one-eighth. The APR for the loan in the previous example is 7 3 . 4
27. 27. Constant Payment Mortgages: Yields Charging Points to Achieve a Desired Yield If a lender has a required yield of y, then the points the lender must charge to obtain the required yield are computed by solving for ‘Points’ in: MB s + PPs 1 Loan Amount − Points − Fee = PMT∑ + y y t =1 (1 + ) t (1 + ) s 12 12 s
28. 28. Constant Payment Mortgages: Yields Example: compute the points a lender must charge to earn a 9% required yield on a \$100,000, 30 year, 7.5% annual interest rate, monthly payment mortgage if the lender charges a \$1,000 loan origination fee and expects the borrower to repay the loan, without penalty, at the end of four years. 48 1 \$95,860.00 \$100,000 − Points − \$1,000 = \$699.21∑ + 0.09 t 0.09 48 t= 1 (1 + ) (1 + ) 12 12 \$99,000 - Points = \$95,066.75; Points = \$3,933.25
29. 29. Alternative Mortgage Instruments • Graduated Payment Mortgages (GPMs) • Price Level Adjusted Mortgages (PLAMs) • Adjustable Rate Mortgages (ARMs) • Reverse Annuity Mortgages (RAMs) • Shared Appreciation Mortgages (SAMs)
30. 30. Alternative Mortgage Instruments Graduated Payment Mortgage Fixed • Contract Rate Fixed • Loan Term Payments Increase During First Few Years • Payments Known in Advance • Permit • Negative Amortization
31. 31. Alternative Mortgage Instruments Graduated Payment Mortgage Loan Rate Term = = = \$100,000 12% 30 years with monthly payments; payment increases 7.5% per year for first five years Year 1 2 3 4 5 6-30 Monthly Payment \$ 791.38 850.73 914.54 983.13 1,056.86 1,136.13 Monthly Interest \$ 1,000.00 1,026.46 1,048.75 1,065.77 1,076.25 Ending Balance \$ 102,645.82 104,874.52 106,576.64 107,624.72 107,870.63
32. 32. Alternative Mortgage Instruments Price Level Adjusted Mortgage For a fixed payment mortgage, the contract rate of interest, CR, is: CR = rf + ρ + inf where rf = risk free rate = ρ risk premium inf = expected inflation rate With a Price Level Adjusted Mortgage (PLAM), CR = rf + ρ and the outstanding mortgage balance is indexed to the price level to compensate the lender for inflation.
33. 33. Alternative Mortgage Instruments Price Level Adjusted Mortgage Loan Rate Term Inf = = = = Year 1 2 3 \$100,000 5% 30 years with monthly payments 5%, 6%, and 4% Beginning Balance \$ 100,000.00 103,450.55 107,931.31 Monthly Payment \$ 536.82 563.66 597.48 Ending Balance Before After \$ 98,524.34 \$ 103,450.55 101,821.99 107,931.31 106,116.98 110,361.66
34. 34. Alternative Mortgage Instruments Adjustable Rate Mortgages Contract • Rate Indexed to Lender’s Cost of Funds (plus a margin) Term •May Adjust Monthly • Payment May Adjust Negative • Amortization May be Permitted Typically Have Periodic and Lifetime Interest Rate Caps •
35. 35. Alternative Mortgage Instruments Adjustable Rate Mortgages Loan Initial Rate Term Index Margin Caps Year 1 2 3 = = = = = = \$100,000 9% 30 years with monthly payments Yields on 1-Year Treasury Securities ( 8%, 9%, 7%) 2.5% 2/5—200bp annual cap and 500bp lifetime cap Beginning Balance \$ 100,000.00 99,316.84 98,815.85 Interest Rates Market Contract 9.0% 9.0% 11.5% 11.0% 9.5% 9.5% Monthly Payment \$ 804.62 950.09 841.79
36. 36. Alternative Mortgage Instruments Reverse Annuity Mortgages The borrower: receives the loan in periodic installments • repays the loan in one lump sum at the end of the term • The monthly RAM receipt on a 10 year, \$50,000, 8% annual interest rate RAM is \$273.30. The borrower will recieve 120 of these monthly payments. At the end of the loan term, the borrower will repay the lender \$50,000. Principal = 120 x \$ 273.30 = \$ 32,796.56 Interest = \$50,000 - 32,796.56 = \$ 17,203.44
37. 37. Alternative Mortgage Instruments Shared Appreciation Mortgages The lender provides the borrower with: a below • market rate of interest, or cash •to pay a portion of the down payment, or both • In exchange for a share of the property value appreciation during the hoding period.