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It talks about Potential Difference,Common symbols used in a circuit diagram, Ohm`s Law, Factors effecting the resistance of a conductor, Resistivity, Combination of resistors And many more

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- 1. A continuous conducting path consisting of wires and other resistance (like Bulb) and a switch, between the two terminals of a cell or a battery along with an the electric current flows, is called an electric circuit. An electric current is a flow of electric charge. Electric charge flows when there is voltage present across a conductor. In electric circuits this charge is often carried by moving electrons in a wire. The SI unit for measuring an electric current is the ampere, which is the flow of electric charges through a surface at the rate of one coulomb per second. I=Q/T Electric current can be measured using an ammeter. The conventional symbol for current is (I) .
- 2. Potential Difference Potential Difference (p.d) between two point s in an electric circuit is defined as the work done in moving a unit charge from one point to the other point. It is represented by the symbol ‘V’. Potential difference= Work done/Quantity of charge moved V=W/Q 1V=1W/1C The p.d is measured by an means of an instrument called voltmeter. It has a high resistance so that it takes negligible current from the circuit. It is connected parallel to the circuit.
- 3. Common symbols used in a circuit diagram
- 4. Ohm's law states that the current through a conductor between two points is directly proportional to the potential difference across the two points at a constant temperature. Introducing the constant of proportionality, the resistance, one arrives at the usual mathematical equation that describes this relationship: V=IR I∝V ; V∝I ; I=V/R If p.d across the ends of a conductor is doubled then the I also doubles & if the p.d is halved then the current also becomes half. If the resistance is doubled then the current gets halved, and if the resistance is halved the current gets doubled. It is represented by a symbol omega, Ω. V-I graph is a straight line graph.
- 5. Electric resistance of a conductor depends on the following factors: Effect of length of the conductor Effect of area of cross –Section of the conductor Effect of nature of material of the conductor Effect of temperature
- 6. Resistivity
- 7. The resistivity of a substance does not depends upon its length & thickness. It depends on the nature & the temperature. Good conductors of electricity have low resistivity and a poor conductor has high resistivity. Silver has the lowest resistivity, which means that silver offers the least resistance to the flow of current through it. The resistivities of alloys are much higher than those of pure metals (from which they are made). The resistivity of semi-conductor like silicon is in-between those of conductors and insulators, and decreases on ≤temp.
- 8. When resistances are connected in series then the total resistances is: Req =R1 +R2 +R3 +….+Rn Disadvantages of series combination: 1. In series circuit, if one appliance stops working due to some defect, then all other appliances also stop working because the whole circuit is broken. 2. In series circuit, all the appliances have only one switch due to which they cannot be turned on or off separately. 3. In series circuit, the appliances do not get the same voltage (220V) as that of the power supply because the voltage is shared by all the appliances because the voltage is shared by the appliances. The appliances get less voltage and do not work properly. 4. In the series connection of electric appliances, the overall resistances of the circuit increase too much due to which the current from the power supply is low.
- 9. When resistances are connected in parallel then the total resistances is: Advantages of parallel combination are: 1. In a parallel circuit, if one electrical appliance stops working due to some defect then all the other appliance keeps working normally. 2. In a parallel circuit , each electric appliance has its own switch due to which it can be turned on and off independently, without affecting the other appliances . 3. In a parallel circuit , each electric appliance gets the same voltage (220V) as that of the power supply line. Due to this all appliance will work properly 4. In the parallel connection of electrical appliances, the overall resistance of the household circuit is reduced due to which the current from the power supply line is high.
- 10. MadeBy:ChhaviBansal Of:X-D Roll No.-12

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