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Advanced Sci Vis Simple Machines



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  • 1. Simple Machines Guilford County Sci Vis V205.07
  • 2. Simple Machines
    • Devices such as levers, ramps, and pulleys that make our work easier. 
    • They allow us to apply effort at one place to do work at another point and/or to change the direction of a force.   
  • 3.
    • One way is to magnify an effort force so that a smaller effort can be applied over a longer distance thus moving a large load a small distance.
    • Examples:
      • a crowbar being used to dislodge a boulder,
      • a nutcracker being used to crack a nut, 
      • or a block tackle pulley system being used to lift a large weight. 
    Simple Machines Source:http://www.lakelandschools.org/EDTECH/Machines/RubeMain.jpg
  • 4.
    • The mechanical advantage of a machine is the ratio of the load force to the effort force. 
    • The crowbar, nutcracker, and block and tackle pulley system have a mechanical advantage greater than one. 
    • Other machines have a mechanical advantage less than one allowing magnification of the distance and speed of a movement. 
    • An example of this might be a fishing rod or baseball bat. 
    Simple Machines
  • 5.
    • Inclined plane -- a sloping surface, such as a ramp.
      • An inclined plane can be used to alter the effort and distance involved in doing work, such as lifting loads.
      • The trade-off is that an object must be moved a longer distance than if it was lifted straight up, but less force is needed.
      • Examples: staircase, ramp, and bottom of a bath tub
    Simple Machines Source: http://www.sirinet.net/~jgjohnso/inclineplanecolored.jpg
  • 6.
    • Wedge -- two inclined planes joined back to back.
      • Wedges are used to split things.
      • Examples:
        • Axe
        • Zipper
        • Knife
    Simple Machines
  • 7.
    • Screw -- an inclined plane wrapped around a shaft or cylinder.
      • This inclined plane allows the screw to move itself or to move an object or material surrounding it when rotated.
      • Examples:
        • Bolt
        • Spiral staircase
        • wood screw
        • Corkscrew
        • screws on light bulbs
    Simple Machines
  • 8.
    • Wheel and axle -- a wheel and axle has a larger wheel (or wheels) connected by a smaller cylinder (axle) and is fastened to the wheel so that they turn together.
      • When the axle is turned, the wheel moves a greater distance than the axle, but less force is needed to move it.
      • The axle moves a shorter distance, but it takes greater force to move it.
      • Examples:
        • Door knob
        • Wagon
        • Toy car
        • Bicycle gears
        • Screw driver
    Simple Machines
  • 9.
    • Pulley -- a wheel that usually has a groove around the outside edge.
      • This groove is for a rope or belt to move around the pulley.
      • Pulling down on the rope can lift an object attached to the rope.
      • Work is made easier since pulling down is assisted by gravity.
      • Examples:
        • Flag pole
        • Crane
        • Elevators
        • Window blinds
    Simple Machines Source: http://www.edinformatics.com/math_science/simple_machines/pulley.htm
  • 10.
    • Lever -- a straight rod or board that pivots on a point known as a fulcrum.
      • The fulcrum can be moved depending on the weight of the object to be lifted or the force you wish to exert.
      • Pushing down on one end of a lever results in the upward motion of the opposite end of the fulcrum.
      • Examples:
        • Door on hinges
        • Seesaw
        • Hammer
        • Bottle opener
    Simple Machines
  • 11. Classes of Levers
    • The class of a lever is based on the relative position of the load, effort, and fulcrum.
    • Levers are classified into 1st class, 2nd class and 3rd class levers.
  • 12. Classes of Levers
    • 1st class:
      • Crowbar
      • Scissors
  • 13. Classes of Levers
    • 2nd class:
      • Nutcracker
      • Wheelbarrow
      • Doors
  • 14. Classes of Levers
    • 3rd class:
      • Tennis racket
      • Tweezers
  • 15. Questions about Simple Machines
    • What is a simple machine ?
    • What are the 6 simple machines ?
    • How does each simple machine work?
    • How does each machine make work easier?
    • What are the classes of levers and how do they work?
    • What is mechanical advantage?