The British captured French and
Spanish
colonial possessions around the world
The British Navy
declined in the
years after the
Seven Years War .
France began to
rebuild its navy
immediately
after the ...
The American
colonies grew
and prospered
during the Seven
Years’ War.
13 Colonies 1763
This decree, passed
in 1763 to pay off
war debts built up
during the French
and Indian War,
taxed England’s
exports to the...
The Stamp Act of 1765
It required that every
paper document,
from legal documents,
newspapers, ships
papers, publications,...
The Townshend Act
This act, passed in 1767, taxed paper,
lead, and tea.
British soldiers shot and killed several
people including Crispus Attucks. They
were the first casualties of the American
...
Samuel Adams and
Bostonians, disguised
as Indians, dumped
British tea into the
harbor rather than
pay taxes on it.
Boston ...
The Coercive Acts
• Passed in retribution for the
Boston
Tea Party
• Closed the port of Boston
• Abolished the right of th...
WAR!
Lexington and Concord
April 1775
Massachusett
s
Concord
19 April 1775
Lexington
19 April 1775
Privateers
(licensed pirates)
Armed American merchant ships that
had helped the British win the French
and Indian War or S...
These ships carried coastal commerce,
attacked British supply boats, and kept
open the coastal lines of communication
on w...
The Coastal Cavalry
Congress was initially reluctant to
establish a Continental navy because
of the “coastal cavalry” force.
Congress bought, fitted out, and armed
the Andrew Doria and the Cabot to
intercept British supply ships.
Congress soon added
two larger ships, the
Alfred and the Columbus.
Alfred
Columbus
Privateers captured some 2,200
British vessels by war’s end, and
many
privateer captains would become
George Washington commissioned
seven ships to capture British
supplies,
and in 1775, his “navy” took muskets,
Birth of the Marine Corps
10 November 1775
Personnel Problems
In the early days of
war, men were eager
to serve.
As war continued,
it became difficult
to recruit bec...
Forcing men to serve in the Navy by taking
them on board ship against their will
Impressment
Finding men to serve in the Navy would
be a problem throughout the war, and
ships were often unable to go to sea
because t...
First Continental naval squadron was
composed of six small schooners, brigs,
and sloops assembled at Philadelphia.
ESEK
HO...
February 1776
Congress directs Hopkins
to neutralize loyalist craft
in the Virginia Capes.
ESEK
HOPKINS
Hopkins sailed to New Providence in the
Bahamas and overcame two British forts
and took more than eighty artillery pieces,...
The Nassau expedition turned out to be
the last time American ships would put
to sea as a squadron during the war.
In a single month, August 1776, Jones
captured sixteen enemy vessels and
destroyed many others.
John Paul
Jones
John Paul Jones would become
legendary among early American
naval leaders.
American
invasion
of Canada
in 1775 by
Generals
Montgomery
and Arnold
General
Richard Montgomery
General
Benedict Arnold
M...
When British reinforcements arrived,
the American patriots retreated toward
the colonies.
General Sir
Guy Carleton
General...
By December 1776, the American forces
were reduced to only about 2,000 men
due to:
• Casualties and
desertion
• End of
enl...
Washington crossed the Delaware on
Christmas Eve and surprised the
enemy
After the victory at
Trenton, Washington
surprised the British
again, this time at
Princeton, for another
victory.
Princet...
• Washington
wintered at
Morristown, N.J.
• British wintered
at New York, N.Y.
The Americans
had saved the
capital at
Philadelphia,
but more
important, the
tide was turning
in favor of the
Americans.
Planned
3-Pronged
British Attack
The Burgoyne
Expedition to
Saratoga, 1777
Planned 3-Pronged British Attack
• General Burgoyne marches south from
Montreal with 8,000 men to the Hudson
Valley.
• An ...
The Burgoyne
Expedition to
Saratoga, 1777
The three forces
were to meet in
Albany, New York,
splitting the
colonies in hal...
British Campaigns - Summer 1777
Stanwix
General Burgoyne captured Fort
Ticonderoga in early July. In late
August, the Patriot militia beat the
Tories and Indians ...
General Howe’s
Fatal Decision
Howe decided to
take Philadelphia
en route to
meeting
General Burgoyne
in Albany, NY.
The Americans were no match for the
superior British forces, and after a two-
day battle on 10 and 11 September, 1777,
the...
Howe quartered his army in
Philadelphia
for the winter, while Washington’s men
faced cold and hunger at Valley Forge.
By not following
the British plan,
Howe contributed
to the eventual
defeat of the
British in the
Colonies.
By the summer of
1777, Burgoyne’s
forces were in
trouble.
General
Burgoyne
Battle
of
Saratoga
New York
Saratoga
On 19 September,
Burgoyne marched
his men, European
style, through an
open field to break
through the
American lines near
...
The British made easy targets for
American sharpshooters, who were
firing from behind trees.
On 7 October,
Burgoyne led his
trapped Redcoats
in a final attempt
to break through
American lines.
Daniel Morgan’s riflemen mowed down the
British, and Benedict Arnold led a charge.
Daniel Morgan Benedict Arnold
General Burgoyne surrendered
at Saratoga, 1777.
The Turning Point
The Battle of
Saratoga
Significance of the
Battle of Saratoga
• The British government was less
willing to carry on the war.
• France, and later ...
Treaty of Friendship with France
1778
Benjamin Franklin
American naval efforts in the war were
mostly just a nuisance to Britain and
did not affect the outcome of the war.
• Hurt British trade in the West
• Delayed troop reinforcements
• Captured needed arms and
Role of the Privateers
Washington was right. Naval power would
decide the outcome of the war, but in the end,
it was French, not American, naval ...
Most Famous Officer
of the Continental Navy
John Paul
Jones
The Ranger
John Paul Jones renamed the East
Indiaman the Bonhomme Richard
in honor of Benjamin Franklin, who
had written Poor Richard...
Bonhomme
Richard
vs.
HMS Serapis
As the Bonhomme Richard slowly
began to sink, John Paul Jones was
asked if he was ready t...
• Maintain the defensive in the
northern colonies.
• Mount an offensive in the
southern colonies.
• Take the war to the We...
Sir Henry Clinton commanded British
forces in the colonies. He abandoned
Philadelphia to reinforce New York City.
Confident that Washington's troops
were
not a threat to New York City, Clinton set
sail for Charleston, South Carolina, an...
General
Marquis de Lafayette
General Marquis
de Lafayette
sent word to
Washington
of Cornwallis’
entrenchment at
Yorktown,...
They commanded 5,000 militia in the
area
and kept Cornwallis under observation.
General
Lafayette
General “Mad”
Anthony Wa...
Generals Rochambeau
and Washington
agreed to battle
General Clinton’s
superior troops in
New York even
though French
reinf...
General Washington
wrote the French
minister asking that
Admiral de Grasse
come north from
the West Indies to
help in the ...
Admiral de Grasse
drove the British fleet
from Chesapeake Bay
In September, 1781.
This action
significantly
contributed to...
General Washington’s 4,500 Americans,
with 5,500 French troops, marched from
New York to Yorktown to battle British
American forces
converging on
Yorktown
Battle Plans
for Yorktown
On 9 October 1781, 20,000 American
and French troops attacked the British
at Yorktown.
General Cornwallis surrendered his
army of 7,600 men on 19 October
England, tired of
war, now faced
the powerful
combined forces
of France, Spain,
and Holland in
Europe.
Holland
England
Fra...
The American Peace Delegation
• Benjamin Franklin
• John Jay
• John Adams
Delegation
A group of people
chosen to represent
a political entity such
as a country or state
Treaty of Paris
3 September 1783
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American revolution 78

  1. 1. The British captured French and Spanish colonial possessions around the world
  2. 2. The British Navy declined in the years after the Seven Years War . France began to rebuild its navy immediately after the war.
  3. 3. The American colonies grew and prospered during the Seven Years’ War. 13 Colonies 1763
  4. 4. This decree, passed in 1763 to pay off war debts built up during the French and Indian War, taxed England’s exports to the colonies. The Revenue Act King George III
  5. 5. The Stamp Act of 1765 It required that every paper document, from legal documents, newspapers, ships papers, publications, and even playing cards, carry a stamp on it to raise money for the defense of the colonies.
  6. 6. The Townshend Act This act, passed in 1767, taxed paper, lead, and tea.
  7. 7. British soldiers shot and killed several people including Crispus Attucks. They were the first casualties of the American Revolution. Boston Massacre 5 March 1770
  8. 8. Samuel Adams and Bostonians, disguised as Indians, dumped British tea into the harbor rather than pay taxes on it. Boston Tea Party - 1773 Samuel Adams
  9. 9. The Coercive Acts • Passed in retribution for the Boston Tea Party • Closed the port of Boston • Abolished the right of the people of Massachusetts to select their own council • Restricted other civil liberties
  10. 10. WAR! Lexington and Concord April 1775
  11. 11. Massachusett s Concord 19 April 1775 Lexington 19 April 1775
  12. 12. Privateers (licensed pirates) Armed American merchant ships that had helped the British win the French and Indian War or Seven Years’ War
  13. 13. These ships carried coastal commerce, attacked British supply boats, and kept open the coastal lines of communication on which so much of life in the colonies depended.
  14. 14. The Coastal Cavalry
  15. 15. Congress was initially reluctant to establish a Continental navy because of the “coastal cavalry” force.
  16. 16. Congress bought, fitted out, and armed the Andrew Doria and the Cabot to intercept British supply ships.
  17. 17. Congress soon added two larger ships, the Alfred and the Columbus. Alfred Columbus
  18. 18. Privateers captured some 2,200 British vessels by war’s end, and many privateer captains would become
  19. 19. George Washington commissioned seven ships to capture British supplies, and in 1775, his “navy” took muskets,
  20. 20. Birth of the Marine Corps 10 November 1775
  21. 21. Personnel Problems In the early days of war, men were eager to serve. As war continued, it became difficult to recruit because of stricter discipline, low pay, and rewards obtained by privateering.
  22. 22. Forcing men to serve in the Navy by taking them on board ship against their will Impressment
  23. 23. Finding men to serve in the Navy would be a problem throughout the war, and ships were often unable to go to sea because they lacked crews.
  24. 24. First Continental naval squadron was composed of six small schooners, brigs, and sloops assembled at Philadelphia. ESEK HOPKINS
  25. 25. February 1776 Congress directs Hopkins to neutralize loyalist craft in the Virginia Capes. ESEK HOPKINS
  26. 26. Hopkins sailed to New Providence in the Bahamas and overcame two British forts and took more than eighty artillery pieces, powder, and naval stores. ESEK HOPKINS
  27. 27. The Nassau expedition turned out to be the last time American ships would put to sea as a squadron during the war.
  28. 28. In a single month, August 1776, Jones captured sixteen enemy vessels and destroyed many others. John Paul Jones
  29. 29. John Paul Jones would become legendary among early American naval leaders.
  30. 30. American invasion of Canada in 1775 by Generals Montgomery and Arnold General Richard Montgomery General Benedict Arnold Montgomery/Arnold Arnold (1,100) (1,200) Montgomery (1,500) Carleton Quebec Maine Fort Ticonderoga Boston Battle of Lake Champlain Stopped the British advance, and allowed the colonist to train their troops
  31. 31. When British reinforcements arrived, the American patriots retreated toward the colonies. General Sir Guy Carleton General John Burgoyne
  32. 32. By December 1776, the American forces were reduced to only about 2,000 men due to: • Casualties and desertion • End of enlistments • Men going home to take care of families for the winter
  33. 33. Washington crossed the Delaware on Christmas Eve and surprised the enemy
  34. 34. After the victory at Trenton, Washington surprised the British again, this time at Princeton, for another victory. Princeton Trenton Pennsylvania New York
  35. 35. • Washington wintered at Morristown, N.J. • British wintered at New York, N.Y.
  36. 36. The Americans had saved the capital at Philadelphia, but more important, the tide was turning in favor of the Americans.
  37. 37. Planned 3-Pronged British Attack The Burgoyne Expedition to Saratoga, 1777
  38. 38. Planned 3-Pronged British Attack • General Burgoyne marches south from Montreal with 8,000 men to the Hudson Valley. • An army of pro-British Tories and Indians march east from Lake Ontario. • General Howe marches north from New York.
  39. 39. The Burgoyne Expedition to Saratoga, 1777 The three forces were to meet in Albany, New York, splitting the colonies in half.
  40. 40. British Campaigns - Summer 1777 Stanwix
  41. 41. General Burgoyne captured Fort Ticonderoga in early July. In late August, the Patriot militia beat the Tories and Indians near Fort Stanwix.
  42. 42. General Howe’s Fatal Decision Howe decided to take Philadelphia en route to meeting General Burgoyne in Albany, NY.
  43. 43. The Americans were no match for the superior British forces, and after a two- day battle on 10 and 11 September, 1777, the British marched into Philadelphia as the Continental Congress fled. Valley Forge
  44. 44. Howe quartered his army in Philadelphia for the winter, while Washington’s men faced cold and hunger at Valley Forge.
  45. 45. By not following the British plan, Howe contributed to the eventual defeat of the British in the Colonies.
  46. 46. By the summer of 1777, Burgoyne’s forces were in trouble. General Burgoyne
  47. 47. Battle of Saratoga New York Saratoga
  48. 48. On 19 September, Burgoyne marched his men, European style, through an open field to break through the American lines near Saratoga, NY.
  49. 49. The British made easy targets for American sharpshooters, who were firing from behind trees.
  50. 50. On 7 October, Burgoyne led his trapped Redcoats in a final attempt to break through American lines.
  51. 51. Daniel Morgan’s riflemen mowed down the British, and Benedict Arnold led a charge. Daniel Morgan Benedict Arnold
  52. 52. General Burgoyne surrendered at Saratoga, 1777. The Turning Point The Battle of Saratoga
  53. 53. Significance of the Battle of Saratoga • The British government was less willing to carry on the war. • France, and later Spain and the Netherlands, came into the war as colonial allies.
  54. 54. Treaty of Friendship with France 1778 Benjamin Franklin
  55. 55. American naval efforts in the war were mostly just a nuisance to Britain and did not affect the outcome of the war.
  56. 56. • Hurt British trade in the West • Delayed troop reinforcements • Captured needed arms and Role of the Privateers
  57. 57. Washington was right. Naval power would decide the outcome of the war, but in the end, it was French, not American, naval power that made the difference.
  58. 58. Most Famous Officer of the Continental Navy John Paul Jones
  59. 59. The Ranger
  60. 60. John Paul Jones renamed the East Indiaman the Bonhomme Richard in honor of Benjamin Franklin, who had written Poor Richard’s Almanac. John Paul Jones Bonhomme Richard
  61. 61. Bonhomme Richard vs. HMS Serapis As the Bonhomme Richard slowly began to sink, John Paul Jones was asked if he was ready to strike. He replied with the immortal words, “I have not yet begun to fight!”
  62. 62. • Maintain the defensive in the northern colonies. • Mount an offensive in the southern colonies. • Take the war to the West Indies. British Strategy in 1778
  63. 63. Sir Henry Clinton commanded British forces in the colonies. He abandoned Philadelphia to reinforce New York City.
  64. 64. Confident that Washington's troops were not a threat to New York City, Clinton set sail for Charleston, South Carolina, and surrounded the American forces. Charleston
  65. 65. General Marquis de Lafayette General Marquis de Lafayette sent word to Washington of Cornwallis’ entrenchment at Yorktown, on the Chesapeake Bay.
  66. 66. They commanded 5,000 militia in the area and kept Cornwallis under observation. General Lafayette General “Mad” Anthony Wayne
  67. 67. Generals Rochambeau and Washington agreed to battle General Clinton’s superior troops in New York even though French reinforcements did not arrive in May, 1781. General Comte de Rochambeau
  68. 68. General Washington wrote the French minister asking that Admiral de Grasse come north from the West Indies to help in the New York operation. Admiral de Grasse
  69. 69. Admiral de Grasse drove the British fleet from Chesapeake Bay In September, 1781. This action significantly contributed to Cornwallis’ defeat at Yorktown.Admiral de Grasse August 14, 1781
  70. 70. General Washington’s 4,500 Americans, with 5,500 French troops, marched from New York to Yorktown to battle British
  71. 71. American forces converging on Yorktown
  72. 72. Battle Plans for Yorktown
  73. 73. On 9 October 1781, 20,000 American and French troops attacked the British at Yorktown.
  74. 74. General Cornwallis surrendered his army of 7,600 men on 19 October
  75. 75. England, tired of war, now faced the powerful combined forces of France, Spain, and Holland in Europe. Holland England France Spain
  76. 76. The American Peace Delegation • Benjamin Franklin • John Jay • John Adams
  77. 77. Delegation A group of people chosen to represent a political entity such as a country or state
  78. 78. Treaty of Paris 3 September 1783
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