American revolution 78
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American revolution 78 American revolution 78 Presentation Transcript

  • The British captured French and Spanish colonial possessions around the world
  • The British Navy declined in the years after the Seven Years War . France began to rebuild its navy immediately after the war.
  • The American colonies grew and prospered during the Seven Years’ War. 13 Colonies 1763
  • This decree, passed in 1763 to pay off war debts built up during the French and Indian War, taxed England’s exports to the colonies. The Revenue Act King George III
  • The Stamp Act of 1765 It required that every paper document, from legal documents, newspapers, ships papers, publications, and even playing cards, carry a stamp on it to raise money for the defense of the colonies.
  • The Townshend Act This act, passed in 1767, taxed paper, lead, and tea.
  • British soldiers shot and killed several people including Crispus Attucks. They were the first casualties of the American Revolution. Boston Massacre 5 March 1770
  • Samuel Adams and Bostonians, disguised as Indians, dumped British tea into the harbor rather than pay taxes on it. Boston Tea Party - 1773 Samuel Adams
  • The Coercive Acts • Passed in retribution for the Boston Tea Party • Closed the port of Boston • Abolished the right of the people of Massachusetts to select their own council • Restricted other civil liberties
  • WAR! Lexington and Concord April 1775
  • Massachusett s Concord 19 April 1775 Lexington 19 April 1775
  • Privateers (licensed pirates) Armed American merchant ships that had helped the British win the French and Indian War or Seven Years’ War
  • These ships carried coastal commerce, attacked British supply boats, and kept open the coastal lines of communication on which so much of life in the colonies depended.
  • The Coastal Cavalry
  • Congress was initially reluctant to establish a Continental navy because of the “coastal cavalry” force.
  • Congress bought, fitted out, and armed the Andrew Doria and the Cabot to intercept British supply ships.
  • Congress soon added two larger ships, the Alfred and the Columbus. Alfred Columbus
  • Privateers captured some 2,200 British vessels by war’s end, and many privateer captains would become
  • George Washington commissioned seven ships to capture British supplies, and in 1775, his “navy” took muskets,
  • Birth of the Marine Corps 10 November 1775
  • Personnel Problems In the early days of war, men were eager to serve. As war continued, it became difficult to recruit because of stricter discipline, low pay, and rewards obtained by privateering.
  • Forcing men to serve in the Navy by taking them on board ship against their will Impressment
  • Finding men to serve in the Navy would be a problem throughout the war, and ships were often unable to go to sea because they lacked crews.
  • First Continental naval squadron was composed of six small schooners, brigs, and sloops assembled at Philadelphia. ESEK HOPKINS
  • February 1776 Congress directs Hopkins to neutralize loyalist craft in the Virginia Capes. ESEK HOPKINS
  • Hopkins sailed to New Providence in the Bahamas and overcame two British forts and took more than eighty artillery pieces, powder, and naval stores. ESEK HOPKINS
  • The Nassau expedition turned out to be the last time American ships would put to sea as a squadron during the war.
  • In a single month, August 1776, Jones captured sixteen enemy vessels and destroyed many others. John Paul Jones
  • John Paul Jones would become legendary among early American naval leaders.
  • American invasion of Canada in 1775 by Generals Montgomery and Arnold General Richard Montgomery General Benedict Arnold Montgomery/Arnold Arnold (1,100) (1,200) Montgomery (1,500) Carleton Quebec Maine Fort Ticonderoga Boston Battle of Lake Champlain Stopped the British advance, and allowed the colonist to train their troops
  • When British reinforcements arrived, the American patriots retreated toward the colonies. General Sir Guy Carleton General John Burgoyne
  • By December 1776, the American forces were reduced to only about 2,000 men due to: • Casualties and desertion • End of enlistments • Men going home to take care of families for the winter
  • Washington crossed the Delaware on Christmas Eve and surprised the enemy
  • After the victory at Trenton, Washington surprised the British again, this time at Princeton, for another victory. Princeton Trenton Pennsylvania New York
  • • Washington wintered at Morristown, N.J. • British wintered at New York, N.Y.
  • The Americans had saved the capital at Philadelphia, but more important, the tide was turning in favor of the Americans.
  • Planned 3-Pronged British Attack The Burgoyne Expedition to Saratoga, 1777
  • Planned 3-Pronged British Attack • General Burgoyne marches south from Montreal with 8,000 men to the Hudson Valley. • An army of pro-British Tories and Indians march east from Lake Ontario. • General Howe marches north from New York.
  • The Burgoyne Expedition to Saratoga, 1777 The three forces were to meet in Albany, New York, splitting the colonies in half.
  • British Campaigns - Summer 1777 Stanwix
  • General Burgoyne captured Fort Ticonderoga in early July. In late August, the Patriot militia beat the Tories and Indians near Fort Stanwix.
  • General Howe’s Fatal Decision Howe decided to take Philadelphia en route to meeting General Burgoyne in Albany, NY.
  • The Americans were no match for the superior British forces, and after a two- day battle on 10 and 11 September, 1777, the British marched into Philadelphia as the Continental Congress fled. Valley Forge
  • Howe quartered his army in Philadelphia for the winter, while Washington’s men faced cold and hunger at Valley Forge.
  • By not following the British plan, Howe contributed to the eventual defeat of the British in the Colonies.
  • By the summer of 1777, Burgoyne’s forces were in trouble. General Burgoyne
  • Battle of Saratoga New York Saratoga
  • On 19 September, Burgoyne marched his men, European style, through an open field to break through the American lines near Saratoga, NY.
  • The British made easy targets for American sharpshooters, who were firing from behind trees.
  • On 7 October, Burgoyne led his trapped Redcoats in a final attempt to break through American lines.
  • Daniel Morgan’s riflemen mowed down the British, and Benedict Arnold led a charge. Daniel Morgan Benedict Arnold
  • General Burgoyne surrendered at Saratoga, 1777. The Turning Point The Battle of Saratoga
  • Significance of the Battle of Saratoga • The British government was less willing to carry on the war. • France, and later Spain and the Netherlands, came into the war as colonial allies.
  • Treaty of Friendship with France 1778 Benjamin Franklin
  • American naval efforts in the war were mostly just a nuisance to Britain and did not affect the outcome of the war.
  • • Hurt British trade in the West • Delayed troop reinforcements • Captured needed arms and Role of the Privateers
  • Washington was right. Naval power would decide the outcome of the war, but in the end, it was French, not American, naval power that made the difference.
  • Most Famous Officer of the Continental Navy John Paul Jones
  • The Ranger
  • John Paul Jones renamed the East Indiaman the Bonhomme Richard in honor of Benjamin Franklin, who had written Poor Richard’s Almanac. John Paul Jones Bonhomme Richard
  • Bonhomme Richard vs. HMS Serapis As the Bonhomme Richard slowly began to sink, John Paul Jones was asked if he was ready to strike. He replied with the immortal words, “I have not yet begun to fight!”
  • • Maintain the defensive in the northern colonies. • Mount an offensive in the southern colonies. • Take the war to the West Indies. British Strategy in 1778
  • Sir Henry Clinton commanded British forces in the colonies. He abandoned Philadelphia to reinforce New York City.
  • Confident that Washington's troops were not a threat to New York City, Clinton set sail for Charleston, South Carolina, and surrounded the American forces. Charleston
  • General Marquis de Lafayette General Marquis de Lafayette sent word to Washington of Cornwallis’ entrenchment at Yorktown, on the Chesapeake Bay.
  • They commanded 5,000 militia in the area and kept Cornwallis under observation. General Lafayette General “Mad” Anthony Wayne
  • Generals Rochambeau and Washington agreed to battle General Clinton’s superior troops in New York even though French reinforcements did not arrive in May, 1781. General Comte de Rochambeau
  • General Washington wrote the French minister asking that Admiral de Grasse come north from the West Indies to help in the New York operation. Admiral de Grasse
  • Admiral de Grasse drove the British fleet from Chesapeake Bay In September, 1781. This action significantly contributed to Cornwallis’ defeat at Yorktown.Admiral de Grasse August 14, 1781
  • General Washington’s 4,500 Americans, with 5,500 French troops, marched from New York to Yorktown to battle British
  • American forces converging on Yorktown
  • Battle Plans for Yorktown
  • On 9 October 1781, 20,000 American and French troops attacked the British at Yorktown.
  • General Cornwallis surrendered his army of 7,600 men on 19 October
  • England, tired of war, now faced the powerful combined forces of France, Spain, and Holland in Europe. Holland England France Spain
  • The American Peace Delegation • Benjamin Franklin • John Jay • John Adams
  • Delegation A group of people chosen to represent a political entity such as a country or state
  • Treaty of Paris 3 September 1783