Chevron Pulse Report: 4Q 2010 Edition - The State of the Online Energy Conversation
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Chevron Pulse Report: 4Q 2010 Edition - The State of the Online Energy Conversation

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The Chevron Pulse Report examines the state of this online conversation. What are the issues? What are the hot topics? Where are the discussions taking place? The 4Q 2010 report helps you understand ...

The Chevron Pulse Report examines the state of this online conversation. What are the issues? What are the hot topics? Where are the discussions taking place? The 4Q 2010 report helps you understand how the online conversation about energy has evolved from October 2008 to December 2010. To see the full Pulse Report, please visit http://www.chevronpulsereport.com.

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Chevron Pulse Report: 4Q 2010 Edition - The State of the Online Energy Conversation Chevron Pulse Report: 4Q 2010 Edition - The State of the Online Energy Conversation Presentation Transcript

  • 4Q 2010 EditionJuly 2009 – December 2010 © 2010 Chevron Corporation
  • Table of Contents 1. Overview 3 3. Energy and Technology 32 The Energy Conversation 3 Summary 33 Methodology 4 Taxonomy 34 Executive Summary 8 Topics 35 The Online Energy Conversation Volume 10 Volume and Net Sentiment 38 Timeline of the Energy Conversation 11 Volume of Online Conversations 39 Volume and Net Sentiment 13 Net Sentiment and Sentiment Volume 40 Sentiment Trends 14 Sentiment Trends 41 Online Conversation Platforms Volume 15 Energy Efficiency 42 Technology and Innovation 44 2. Energy Resources 16 Alternatives and Renewables 46 Summary 17 Influencers 48 Taxonomy 18 Topics 19 4. Energy and Environment 49 Volume and Net Sentiment 21 Summary 50 Volume of Online Conversations 22 Taxonomy 51 Net Sentiment and Sentiment Volume 23 Topics 52 Sentiment Trends 24 Volume and Net Sentiment 54 Access 25 Volume of Online Conversations 55 Energy Reserves 27 Net Sentiment and Sentiment Volume 56 Energy Security 29 Sentiment Trends 57 Influencers 31 Environment, Resources and Policy 58 Climate Change 60 Influencers 62 5. Join the Online Conversation 63 The Chevron Pulse Report (TM) is © 2011 Chevron Corporation. All rights reserved. Chevron hereby grants to any person a royalty-free license to copy the Report in whole or in part. Your license is conditioned upon providing attribution to Chevron (e.g., “Source: Chevron Pulse Report, 4Q 2010 Edition”).Chevron Pulse Report - 4Q 2010 Edition, July 2009 - December 2010 | Prepared by Edelman © 2011 Chevron Corporation | 2
  • OverviewThe Energy Conversation Since we last explored the online energy conversation in In the summer of 2008, Chevron partnered with Edelman to previous editions of The Chevron Pulse Report: The State of gain a better understanding of the online conversation about Online Conversation About Energy Issues, the landscape of energy. Together, Chevron and Edelman identified more than this discussion has continued to evolve and expand both online 50 key energy issues and conversation topics. Working with and off. Alterian’s SM2** social media monitoring tool, we began analyzing the focus, volume and sentiment of the online This latest edition examines energy conversation trends that conversation about these issues across online media occurred online over the 18-month period of July 1, 2009, outlets and social media platforms such as blogs, Twitter, through December 31, 2010. We also took a closer look at the Facebook, YouTube and Flickr. fourth quarter of 2010 and analyzed how the results differed from the third quarter of 2010. Since then, Chevron has been using the data to stay informed about energy topics that are important to people participating During the fourth quarter of 2010, there were roughly in online conversation. 5.7 million posts* about energy that emerged across online platforms. Furthermore, from July 1, 2009, through December This quarterly report articulates how the online conversation 31, 2010, approximately 20.8 million online posts about energy has evolved. We place a lot of emphasis on discussed energy. translating the conversation into simple visuals, while understanding that it is nearly impossible to represent more than 20 million conversations in a handful of words. Chevron and Edelman hope you find this information useful and engaging. We welcome and encourage you to share your thoughts and ask questions about the Pulse Report at www.chevronpulsereport.com.*The term “posts” is used generically to represent a piece of online content, such as a blog post, tweet, photo, video or discussion comment.**SM2 is a social media monitoring and analysis tool that tracks and measures online conversations across blogs, forums and social media platforms based on volume, sentiment and influence.Chevron Pulse Report - 4Q 2010 Edition, July 2009 - December 2010 | Prepared by Edelman © 2011 Chevron Corporation | 3
  • OverviewMethodology: Scope Scope Edelman conducted a quantitative and qualitative analysis of These three categories were chosen because they represent the the volume and sentiment of the global, English-speaking broadest terms that apply to the most relevant conversations online conversation about energy issues from July 1, 2009, about energy. Within the eight key topics, we examined through December 31, 2010, focusing on eight key energy- 74 subtopics. related topics within three broad categories: Analysis is conducted on a quarterly* basis. There were six   Energy Resources quarters during the 18-month period, beginning with 3Q09 and   Access ending with 4Q10. Edelman examined the changes in volume   Energy Reserves and sentiment of each respective category, topic and subtopic for each quarter.   Energy Security   Energy and Technology   Energy Efficiency   Technology and Innovation   Alternatives and Renewables   Energy and Environment   Environment, Resources and Policy   Climate Change*Each calendar year is divided into four consecutive three-month periods known as "quarters." The first quarter (1Q) begins January 1 and goes through March 31. The second quarter (2Q) is April1 through June 30. The third quarter (3Q) is July 1 through September 30. The fourth and final quarter (4Q) occurs from October 1 through December 31.Chevron Pulse Report - 4Q 2010 Edition, July 2009 - December 2010 | Prepared by Edelman © 2011 Chevron Corporation | 4
  • OverviewMethodology: Quantitative Analysis Quantitative Analysis of the Conversation Volume Online conversation is varied and seemingly endless; given that, Prior to making this change, Edelman compared the ratio of there is no completely objective way of measuring precisely how coverage volume provided by manual search tools (e.g., Google many posts there are for a given period. Google has indexed and Boardreader) versus SM2 to validate that the quality of data billions of webpages, but even they cannot provide a collected by SM2 was approaching the same level as provided comprehensive view of the number of pages, posts or comments by the manual search. available online. Further, each search engine and social media monitoring tool collects posts in a slightly different manner. It is important to note that this change in the methodology may account for a general decrease in the data set’s reported volume, Edelman captured and analyzed enough of the online likely due to an improved ability to eliminate duplicate results conversation about energy to make confident and reasonable collected for each subtopic. assertions about the quantitative (i.e., volume) and qualitative (i.e., sentiment) discussion results related to a range of energy The search terms used to carry out this analysis are based on topics. logical Boolean expressions – developed and tested for each of the 74 energy-related subtopics – in order to reduce or eliminate Beginning with the 2Q 2010 edition of the Pulse Report, we false positives in the search results. Of note, these Boolean streamlined the quantitative data collection process in order expressions have remained the same as those used for previous to improve and expedite the production of these reports editions of the Pulse Report. moving forward. The revised methodology now consists of a quantitative measure of the online energy conversation based Using this methodology, approximately 20.8 million posts solely on results provided by Alterian’s SM2 social media related to Energy Resources, Energy and Technology, and monitoring tool. This methodology change was carried back for Energy and Environment were identified from July 2009 the duration of the 18-month period. through December 2010.Chevron Pulse Report - 4Q 2010 Edition, July 2009 - December 2010 | Prepared by Edelman © 2011 Chevron Corporation | 5
  • OverviewMethodology: Qualitative Analysis Qualitative Analysis of the Conversation Sentiment Since Edelman examines such a sizable amount of The items were selected based on topical relevance. They conversation each quarter, it would be impossible to manually were weighted according to the predominance of subtopics rate the tone and sentiment of each of these posts. Thus, the in relation to one another so that the sample reflected the semantic engine of Alterian’s SM2 social media monitoring volumes identified in the quantitative analysis. For example, tool was used to evaluate the sentiment of the online if the subtopic Biofuels made up 20 percent of the conversation about each issue. This is the same quantitative sample for the discussion of the topic methodology that Edelman used in previous editions of the Alternatives and Renewables, then 20 percent of the report. qualitative sample for this topic focused on Biofuels. Additionally, the samples were weighted by date to reflect Edelman is confident in the tool’s native capabilities, but individual conversation trends where possible. worked to provide additional assurance that the tool properly rated issue-oriented conversations. These types of More than 5,000 posts made up the sample used in the conversations can differ in sentiment and tone from consumer- 2008 survey. A team of 10 conversation analysts manually or product-oriented discussions. reviewed the posts and scored them on a 5-point Likert Scale for overall sentiment as well as sentiment on specific In August 2008, Edelman conducted a quantitative survey of issues: the online conversation about energy issues. This established the relative volume of conversation about energy issues over a 1 = Very unfavorable seven-month period, from January 1 through July 31, 2008. 2 = Unfavorable We drew a randomized qualitative sample of posts from the 3 = Neutral larger quantitative pool in order to gain insight on the tone and trends in the conversation about these topics. 4 = Favorable 5 = Very favorableChevron Pulse Report - 4Q 2010 Edition, July 2009 - December 2010 | Prepared by Edelman © 2011 Chevron Corporation | 6
  • OverviewMethodology: Qualitative Analysis, continued For example, a post that was very favorable about Alternatives For the purposes of the Pulse Report, SM2 applied this and Renewables but very unfavorable about Wave Power scoring system to all 20.8 million posts across 74 subtopics would be scored “5” for Alternatives, “1” for Wave Power and over 18 months. Comparing this analysis with other evaluations “4” overall. The overall score was based on the general tone of of the online conversation about specific issues, Edelman is the article; it was not merely an average of the individual confident that this examination represents one of the most scores. Further, net sentiment was calculated based on a comprehensive analyses of online conversation available. weighted average of positive and negative sentiment. The analysts also developed a detailed taxonomy of trigger words that signaled why the post was positive or negative in sentiment. This dictionary of more than 1,000 words was combined with SM2’s existing semantic dictionary in order to provide heightened assurance that the semantic engine was properly scoring conversations. Edelman reviewed a sample of the conversations scored by SM2 and is confident in its semantic scoring. This methodology was applied to the evaluation of six previous quarterly reviews of the online conversation about energy issues.Chevron Pulse Report - 4Q 2010 Edition, July 2009 - December 2010 | Prepared by Edelman © 2011 Chevron Corporation | 7
  • OverviewExecutive Summary: July 1, 2009 – December 31, 2010   There were approximately 20.8 million posts about   Of the eight key topics* examined, Alternatives and Energy Resources, Energy and Technology, and Renewables generated the largest volume of online Energy and Environment. discussion, with 5.8 million posts. This made up roughly 28 percent of the conversation analyzed.   Energy and Technology was the only category of the three major energy categories that received a positive   Climate Change accounted for more than 20 percent net sentiment score. of the conversation, but received the most negative conversation sentiment seen among the eight key   Energy and Technology also attracted the largest volume topics. of online conversation during the 18-month period, with more than 12 million posts.   Although it was mentioned in approximately 1.3 million posts, Energy Reserves made up a little more than   Energy Resources was discussed in approximately 6 percent of the discussion volume. 2.2 million posts – the lowest conversation volume of the three major energy categories.   The three key topics under the Energy and Technology category were all positive in sentiment,   During that same 18-month period, Energy and with Energy Efficiency attracting the most positive net Environment accrued the lowest sentiment of sentiment score. conversation with a Likert score of 2.48 out of 5.00 – the same sentiment score received by this category in the   In contrast, all three key topics under the Energy fourth quarter of 2010. It was closely followed by Energy Resources category were negative in sentiment, the Resources with a Likert score of 2.49. lowest score being Access.*See page 4 for a list of the eight key topics.Chevron Pulse Report - 4Q 2010 Edition, July 2009 - December 2010 | Prepared by Edelman © 2011 Chevron Corporation | 8
  • OverviewExecutive Summary: October 1, 2010 – December 31, 2010   The volume of online energy-related conversation   The conversation sentiment for Environment, Resources grew by approximately 30 percent, from approximately and Policy – a key topic under the Energy and Environment 4.4 million to 5.7 million posts. category – became more positive in the fourth quarter of 2010. Conversation volume also increased by nearly   Energy and Technology accounted for almost 62 percent 30 percent, from 431,488 to 560,670. of the online discussion generated by the three major energy categories, with roughly 3.5 million posts.   The other key Energy and Environment topic, Climate Change, decreased in conversation sentiment to 2.26,   Energy and Technology fell from a positive net its lowest score since the first quarter of 2010. sentiment score of 3.41 in the third quarter of 2010 to However, discussion volume about this topic grew by a neutral net sentiment score of 3.01 in the fourth almost 60 percent from the third quarter to the fourth quarter of 2010 – the lowest score received by the quarter of 2010. category during the past six quarters.   Under the Energy and Technology category, the   Among the three major energy categories analyzed, Alternatives and Renewables key topic contributed the Energy Resources saw the lowest conversation majority of online discussion. For the first time since the volume and net sentiment score. third quarter of 2009, conversation sentiment for the Technology and Innovation key topic was negative, with   The volume of online discussion about Energy and a score of 2.50. Environment reached nearly 1.6 million posts during the fourth quarter of 2010, a growth of more than 47 percent   Of the three key Energy Resources topics examined, from the prior quarter. In contrast, this category saw a Access received the lowest net sentiment despite seeing an 3.1 percent decrease in conversation sentiment. 11 percent improvement from the previous quarter. The volume of online conversations about Energy Reserves grew by almost 50 percent from 256,114 to 378,867 posts.Chevron Pulse Report - 4Q 2010 Edition, July 2009 - December 2010 | Prepared by Edelman © 2011 Chevron Corporation | 9
  • OverviewThe Online Energy Conversation Volume There were approximately 20.8 million online posts about Energy Resources, Energy and Technology, and Energy and Environment from July 2009 through December 2010. Of those posts, 5.7 million occurred from October 2010 through December 2010. 18 MONTHS 3 MONTHS July 1, 2009 – December 31, 2010 October 1, 2010 – December 31, 2010 (Millions) (Millions) Energy Resources (2.2) Energy Resources (.62) Energy and Energy and Environment Environment 11% (6.3) 11% (1.6) 27% 30% 59% 62%Chart 1.1 Energy and Technology (12.3) Energy and Technology (3.5)Chevron Pulse Report - 4Q 2010 Edition, July 2009 - December 2010 | Prepared by Edelman © 2011 Chevron Corporation | 10
  • OverviewTimeline of the Energy Conversation: 3Q 2009 – 4Q 2010 July 1, 2009 – December 31, 2010 Obama Hacked emails from administration Deepwater BP announces no oil the University of East announces new Horizon flowing into Gulf of Anglia Climate tax credits to drilling rig Mexico (JULY) Obama administration lifts Research Unit create green explodes in deepwater drilling moratorium in G8 Summit released (NOV) jobs (JAN) the Gulf of Top regulators say the Gulf of Mexico (OCT) (JULY) Mexico temporary halt to United Nations (APRIL) deepwater drilling United Nations climate summit EPA announces State of the Union rules to regulate Framework address delivered by will remain for a kicks off in Cancun, Mexico Convention on Earth Day few more months (NOV) greenhouse U.S. President Climate Change 2010 (APRIL) (AUG) gases (SEPT) Barack Obama (JAN) in Copenhagen 50th Anniversary of (DEC) G20 Summit Arctic National Wildlife Senate introduces Plan to expand oil and Mariner Energy’s kicks off in Refuge (ANWR) sparks Kerry-Boxer climate natural gas drilling off Vermilion 380 EPA announces Canada congressional drilling bill (SEPT) U.S. shores set forth by platform catches regulation of (JUNE) debate (DEC) Interior Secretary fire in the Gulf of carbon (DEC) Salazar (MAR) Mexico (SEPT) 3,500,000 3,000,000 Volume of Online Conversations 2,500,000 2,000,000 1,500,000 1,000,000 500,000 0 3Q09 4Q09 1Q10 2Q10 3Q10 4Q10 Energy Resources Energy and Environment Energy and Technology Chart 1.2Chevron Pulse Report - 4Q 2010 Edition, July 2009 - December 2010 | Prepared by Edelman © 2011 Chevron Corporation | 11
  • OverviewTimeline of the Energy Conversation: 4Q 2010 OCTOBER 12 Obama administration lifts deepwater drilling moratorium in the Gulf of Mexico OCTOBER 13 Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) approves higher concentration of ethanol into gasoline for newer vehicles OCTOBER 15 France faces nationwide fuel shortage amid protests against new retirement law NOVEMBER 3 U.S. mid-term elections results NOVEMBER 9 International Energy Agency (IEA) releases 2010 World Energy Outlook report NOVEMBER 29 United Nations climate summit kicks off in Cancun, Mexico DECEMBER 1 Obama administration closes parts of Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) to oil and gas leasing DECEMBER 7 50th Anniversary of Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) sparks congressional drilling debate DECEMBER 27 United Kingdom reports record renewable energy output led by wind capacityChart 1.3Chevron Pulse Report - 4Q 2010 Edition, July 2009 - December 2010 | Prepared by Edelman © 2011 Chevron Corporation | 12
  • OverviewVolume and Net Sentiment of Online Conversations About Energy From October to December 2010, online conversation about Energy Efficiency attracted the most positive conversation sentiment score among the eight key energy topics analyzed. During this period, Climate Change grew in volume by 60 percent and replaced Access as the topic with the most negative sentiment. High Volume/ October 1, 2010 – December 31, 2010 High Volume/ Negative Sentiment Positive Sentiment 1,800,000 Alternatives and Renewables 1,600,000 Volume of Online Conversations 1,400,000 1,200,000 Technology and Innovation 1,000,000 Climate Change 800,000 Energy Efficiency 600,000 Environment, Resources and 400,000 Energy Reserves Policy 200,000 Access Energy Security 0 Chart 1.4 Low Volume/ Low Volume/ Sentiment of Online Conversations Negative Sentiment Positive SentimentChevron Pulse Report - 4Q 2010 Edition, July 2009 - December 2010 | Prepared by Edelman © 2011 Chevron Corporation | 13
  • OverviewSentiment Trends of Online Conversations About Energy Online conversation related to Energy Security and Environment, Resources and Policy increased in sentiment by 8 percent and 11 percent, respectively, during the fourth quarter of 2010. Technology and Innovation and Energy Security both moved from a positive to negative sentiment from the third quarter to the fourth quarter of 2010. July 1, 2009 – December 31, 2010 Eight Key Topics 3Q09 4Q09 1Q10 2Q10 3Q10 4Q10 Environment, Resources 3.30 3.10 3.12 2.56 3.01 3.26 and Policy Climate Change 2.46 2.33 2.18 2.52 2.38 2.26 Alternatives and 3.42 3.32 3.25 3.34 3.36 3.27 Renewables Energy Efficiency 3.70 3.60 3.29 3.30 3.52 3.35 Technology and Innovation 3.33 3.46 3.44 3.28 3.42 2.50 Access 2.72 2.66 2.54 2.43 2.16 2.39 Energy Reserves 2.75 2.54 2.45 2.43 2.55 2.42 Energy Security 2.79 2.61 2.64 2.67 3.10 2.79 Sentiment Trends of Online Conversations Legend: Positive (3.10–5.00) >0.10 Change: Positive Neutral (2.90–3.09) Negative Chart 1.5 Negative (1.00–2.89)Chevron Pulse Report - 4Q 2010 Edition, July 2009 - December 2010 | Prepared by Edelman © 2011 Chevron Corporation | 14
  • OverviewOnline Conversation Platforms Volume In the fourth quarter of 2010, Discussion Forums generated the largest volume of energy-related conversation that surfaced on social media platforms, followed by Microblogs like Twitter. October 1, 2010 – December 31, 2010 Microblogs Discussion 36% 28% Forums Blogs Social Networks 17% 17% Video/Photos 2% Chart 1.6Chevron Pulse Report - 4Q 2010 Edition, July 2009 - December 2010 | Prepared by Edelman © 2011 Chevron Corporation | 15
  • The Online Conversation About: ENERGY RESOURCESChevron Pulse Report - 4Q 2010 Edition, July 2009 - December 2010 | Prepared by Edelman © 2011 Chevron Corporation | 16
  • Energy ResourcesSummary of the Online Conversation   There were over 2.2 million online posts about   The Access key topic received a low net sentiment Energy Resources from July 2009 through score of 2.39 in the fourth quarter of 2010, which was December 2010. an increase in sentiment score from the previous quarter.   Net sentiment for Energy Resources remained consistent over the past three quarters at a Likert score   In contrast, the net sentiment scores for Energy of 2.46 out of 5.00. Security and Energy Reserves decreased in the fourth quarter of 2010 to 2.79 and 2.42, respectively.   Compared to the fourth quarter of 2009, discussion about Energy Resources in the fourth quarter of   From October to December 2010, the tone of 2010 saw a 161 percent increase in volume. discussion about both Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) and Peak Oil were the most negative of all the   Like the previous quarter, Energy Resources accounted Energy Resources subtopics, with a net sentiment for less than 11 percent of the online energy score of 1.96 and 1.98, respectively. Energy conversation that emerged in the fourth quarter of Independence was the most positive, with a net 2010; however, it grew in volume by 31 percent. sentiment score of 3.36.   Of the three key Energy Resources topics, Energy KEY ENERGY RESOURCES TOPICS EXAMINED: Reserves drove the majority of online coverage during the past six quarters, garnering nearly 1.3 million posts •  Access during that time. It was cited in almost 379,000 posts in the fourth quarter of 2010 alone. •  Energy Reserves •  Energy Security   Net sentiment for Energy Security decreased by roughly 10 percent in the last quarter of 2010 after reaching an 18-month high of 3.10 in the third quarter of 2010.Chevron Pulse Report - 4Q 2010 Edition, July 2009 - December 2010 | Prepared by Edelman © 2011 Chevron Corporation | 17
  • Energy ResourcesTaxonomy Category ENERGY RESOURCES Key Topics ENERGY ENERGY ACCESS RESOURCES SECURITY Subtopics Outer Continental Shelf Energy Reserves Energy Security (OCS) Peak Oil Energy Independence Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) Strategic Petroleum “Foreign” Oil Reserve (SPR) U.S. Domestic Access Energy Capacity Oil Shale Refineries Oil Sands Energy Supply U.S. Domestic Natural GasChevron Pulse Report - 4Q 2010 Edition, July 2009 - December 2010 | Prepared by Edelman © 2011 Chevron Corporation | 18
  • Energy ResourcesTopics Explored in the Online Conversation Access Energy Reserves   Outer Continental Shelf (OCS): Oil or drilling in the   Energy Reserves: Reserves of energy resources, OCS offshore areas that lie between the jurisdiction including natural gas and oil. A reserve is the amount of individual U.S. states and the federal government, of commercially recoverable energy still remaining at generally three miles to 200 miles off the coast. a location.   Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR): Oil or   Peak Oil: Defined as the point in time when the drilling in the ANWR, a 19 million-acre area that lies maximum rate of extraction of the world’s petroleum in the northeast corner of Alaska, a portion of which supply is met and subsequently followed by the could be designated for oil and natural gas terminal decline of production. exploration.   Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR): America’s   U.S. Domestic Access: Access to or exploration of storage of oil maintained by the U.S. Department of U.S. energy resources. Energy for future emergency situations involving U.S.   Oil Shale: An organic-rich sedimentary rock that can energy supply. be used to produce liquid hydrocarbons or converted   Energy Capacity: The level of production for into various forms of oil. individual refineries as well as total production for all   Oil Sands: Unconventional oil that comprises a refineries. natural mixture of sand, water and a form of   Refineries: Oil refineries or the oil refining process. petroleum called bitumen.   Energy Supply: The supply of energy resources,   U.S. Domestic Natural Gas: Natural gas supply in such as oil or natural gas. the United States.Chevron Pulse Report - 4Q 2010 Edition, July 2009 - December 2010 | Prepared by Edelman © 2011 Chevron Corporation | 19
  • Energy ResourcesTopics Explored in the Online Conversation, continued Energy Security   Energy Security: The issue of U.S. national security involving energy, such as rising costs or limited supplies.   Energy Independence: Energy independence or energy dependence refers to whether a country can rely on its own resources for energy production or turns to other countries for energy supplies.   “Foreign” Oil: Supplies of oil from non-U.S. sources.Chevron Pulse Report - 4Q 2010 Edition, July 2009 - December 2010 | Prepared by Edelman © 2011 Chevron Corporation | 20
  • Energy ResourcesVolume and Net Sentiment of Online Conversations Of the three key Energy Resources topics examined, Energy Reserves had the highest volume of online conversation during the fourth quarter of 2010. Energy Security was the least negative in sentiment. High Volume/ October 1, 2010 – December 31, 2010 High Volume/ Negative Sentiment Positive Sentiment 400,000 Energy Reserves 350,000 Volume of Online Conversations 300,000 250,000 200,000 Access 150,000 100,000 50,000 Energy Security 0 Chart 2.1 Low Volume/ Sentiment of Online Conversations Low Volume/ Negative Sentiment Positive SentimentChevron Pulse Report - 4Q 2010 Edition, July 2009 - December 2010 | Prepared by Edelman © 2011 Chevron Corporation | 21
  • Energy ResourcesVolume of Online Conversations Energy Capacity comprised the largest share of the online conversation about Energy Resources during the third quarter of 2010, followed by Energy Reserves and Outer Continental Self (OCS), respectively. 10 Energy Resources Subtopics* October 1, 2010 – December 31, 2010 Outer Continental Shelf 21.53% Energy Supply 5.25% U.S. Domestic Natural Gas 4.92% Oil Sands 5.88% Energy Reserves 24.77% Peak Oil 8.49% Energy Capacity 30.63% Energy Security 4.73% Energy Independence 4.44% Refineries 11.28% 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% Percentage of Online Conversations About Energy Resources – 617,000 Total *Ten of 15 Energy Resources subtopics Chart 2.2Chevron Pulse Report - 4Q 2010 Edition, July 2009 - December 2010 | Prepared by Edelman © 2011 Chevron Corporation | 22
  • Energy Resources Net Sentiment and Sentiment Volume of Online Conversations Energy Independence continued to be the most favorable conversation during the fourth quarter of 2010, with a positive net sentiment of 3.36. Peak Oil and Refineries were both negative and decreased in sentiment from the previous quarter. 10 Energy Resources Subtopics* October 1, 2010 – December 31, 2010 Category Outer Energy U.S. Oil Sands Energy Peak Oil Energy Energy Energy Refineries Continental Supply Domestic Reserves Capacity Security Independence Net Shelf Natural Gas Sentiment 2.39 2.60 2.80 2.40 2.34 1.98 2.99 3.01 3.36 2.03 6,000 4,888 3,643 4,000 2,959Sentiment Volume** Negative Positive 1,304 1,595 2,038 2,000 1,285 1,153 1,028 289 0 -2,000 – 454 – 1,225 – 1,110 – 2,229 -4,000 – 3,250 -6,000 – 4,524 – 4,912 – 5,819 -8,000 – 8,015 -10,000 – 8,759 Neutral 88,767 21,136 22,382 22,799 105,385 34,072 134,113 19,858 17,699 46,155 Volume *Ten of 15 Energy Resources subtopics Chart 2.3 **Number of positive, negative and neutral posts rated by the SM2 social media monitoring tool Chevron Pulse Report - 4Q 2010 Edition, July 2009 - December 2010 | Prepared by Edelman © 2011 Chevron Corporation | 23
  • Energy ResourcesSentiment Trends of Online Conversations The online conversation about Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) increased in positive sentiment by 19 percent from the third quarter to the fourth quarter of 2010. Conversely, the sentiment for discussion about Peak Oil dropped by 19 percent in the fourth quarter of 2010. July 1, 2009 – December 31, 2010 10 Energy Resources 3Q09 4Q09 1Q10 2Q10 3Q10 4Q10 Subtopics* Outer Continental Shelf 3.05 2.96 2.72 2.42 2.01 2.39 Energy Supply 2.72 2.36 2.67 2.43 2.47 2.60 U.S. Domestic Natural Gas 2.36 2.51 2.39 2.83 2.55 2.80 Oil Sands 2.36 2.52 2.24 2.43 2.37 2.40 Energy Reserves 2.49 2.44 2.41 2.45 2.49 2.34 Peak Oil 2.39 2.27 2.34 2.50 2.47 1.98 Energy Capacity 3.21 3.01 2.74 2.69 2.87 2.99 Energy Security 3.15 3.07 2.98 2.85 3.14 3.01 Energy Independence 3.18 2.91 2.96 3.00 3.53 3.36 Refineries 2.33 2.37 1.96 2.00 2.24 2.03 Sentiment Trends of Online Conversations Legend: Positive (3.10–5.00) >0.10 Change: Positive Chart 2.4 *Ten of 15 Energy Resources subtopics Neutral (2.90–3.09) Negative Negative (1.00–2.89)Chevron Pulse Report - 4Q 2010 Edition, July 2009 - December 2010 | Prepared by Edelman © 2011 Chevron Corporation | 24
  • Energy ResourcesAccess: Volume and Net Sentiment of Online Conversations Among the Access subtopics examined, online conversation pertaining to Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) was the most negative in sentiment in the fourth quarter of 2010. Discussion regarding U.S. Domestic Natural Gas was the most positive in sentiment. Oil Shale had the lowest conversation volume in the fourth quarter of 2010. High Volume/ High Volume/ Negative Sentiment October 1, 2010 – December 31, 2010 Positive Sentiment 120,000 100,000 Outer Continental Shelf Volume of Online Conversations 80,000 60,000 40,000 Oil Sands U.S. Domestic Natural Gas 20,000 Arctic National U.S. Domestic Access Wildlife Refuge Oil Shale 0 Low Volume/ Low Volume/ Sentiment of Online Conversations Chart 2.5 Negative Sentiment Positive SentimentChevron Pulse Report - 4Q 2010 Edition, July 2009 - December 2010 | Prepared by Edelman © 2011 Chevron Corporation | 25
  • Energy ResourcesAccess: Volume Trend of Online Conversations Online conversation about the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) continued to be the main driver of discussion regarding Access in the fourth quarter of 2010. OCS spiked in volume during the second quarter of 2010, but fell 42 percent by the fourth quarter of 2010. Access* July 1, 2009 – December 31, 2010 200,000 180,000 160,000 Online Conversation Volume 140,000 Arctic National Wildlife Reserve 120,000 U.S. Domestic Natural Gas 100,000 Outer Continental Shelf 80,000 Oil Sands 60,000 U.S. Domestic Access 40,000 20,000 0 3Q09 4Q09 1Q10 2Q10 3Q10 4Q10 Chart 2.6 *Five of six subtopics about AccessChevron Pulse Report - 4Q 2010 Edition, July 2009 - December 2010 | Prepared by Edelman © 2011 Chevron Corporation | 26
  • Energy ResourcesEnergy Reserves: Volume and Net Sentiment of Online Conversations Among the six Energy Reserves subtopics analyzed, Energy Capacity generated the largest volume of online conversation and a neutral net sentiment in the fourth quarter of 2010. During that time, Peak Oil replaced Refineries as the subtopic with the most negative net sentiment and Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) continued to have the lowest volume of mentions. High Volume/ October 1, 2010 – December 31, 2010 High Volume/ Negative Sentiment Positive Sentiment 160,000 Energy Capacity 140,000 Volume of Online Conversations 120,000 Energy Reserves 100,000 80,000 60,000 Refineries 40,000 Peak Oil 20,000 Energy Supply Strategic Petroleum Reserve 0 Chart 2.7 Low Volume/ Low Volume/ Negative Sentiment Sentiment of Online Conversations Positive SentimentChevron Pulse Report - 4Q 2010 Edition, July 2009 - December 2010 | Prepared by Edelman © 2011 Chevron Corporation | 27
  • Energy ResourcesEnergy Reserves: Volume Trend of Online Conversations The volume of online conversation about five of the six Energy Reserves subtopics examined increased in volume in the fourth quarter of 2010. Peak Oil increased by 95 percent from the third quarter to the fourth quarter of 2010. Energy Reserves* July 1, 2009 – December 31, 2010 160,000 140,000 Online Conversation Volume 120,000 100,000 Energy Capacity Energy Reserves 80,000 Energy Supply Peak Oil 60,000 Refineries 40,000 20,000 0 Chart 2.8 3Q09 4Q09 1Q10 2Q10 3Q10 4Q10 *Five of six subtopics about Energy ReservesChevron Pulse Report - 4Q 2010 Edition, July 2009 - December 2010 | Prepared by Edelman © 2011 Chevron Corporation | 28
  • Energy ResourcesEnergy Security: Volume and Net Sentiment of Online Conversations Among the Energy Resources subtopics, “Foreign” Oil generated the lowest volume of online conversation in the fourth quarter of 2010 after having the highest volume in the previous quarter. It also was the most negative in sentiment. The tone of conversation about Energy Security shifted from slightly positive in the third quarter of 2010 to neutral in the fourth quarter. High Volume/ October 1, 2010 – December 31, 2010 High Volume/ Negative Sentiment Positive Sentiment 22,500 Energy Security 22,000 Volume of Online Conversations 21,500 21,000 Energy Independence 20,500 “Foreign” Oil 20,000 19,500 Chart 2.9 Low Volume/ Low Volume/ Sentiment of Online Conversations Negative Sentiment Positive SentimentChevron Pulse Report - 4Q 2010 Edition, July 2009 - December 2010 | Prepared by Edelman © 2011 Chevron Corporation | 29
  • Energy ResourcesEnergy Security: Volume Trend of Online Conversations After experiencing a decrease in conversation volume in the third quarter of 2010, volume for Energy Independence and “Foreign” Oil increased in the fourth quarter. Discussion about Energy Security continued to grow, increasing by 54 percent from the third to fourth quarter of 2010. Energy Security July 1, 2009 – December 31, 2010 25,000 20,000 Online Conversation Volume 15,000 Energy Independence Energy Security 10,000 "Foreign" Oil 5,000 0 3Q09 4Q09 1Q10 2Q10 3Q10 4Q10 Chart 2.10Chevron Pulse Report - 4Q 2010 Edition, July 2009 - December 2010 | Prepared by Edelman © 2011 Chevron Corporation | 30
  • Energy ResourcesSample of Influencers Active in the Online Conversation Blog Link Description Environmental and Shares insights on environmental and urban issues from an http://greeneconomics.blogspot.com Urban Economics economic perspective. Offers daily insights into the financial, economic and policy FT.com/Energy Source http://blogs.ft.com/energy-source aspects of energy and the environment. OilPrice.com http://oilprice.com Provides investment news and analysis on the energy industry. Discusses issues related to energy shortages and their impact Our Finite World http://ourfiniteworld.com on the economy. Independent commentary and analysis on environmental and Resource Insights http://resourceinsights.blogspot.com natural resource news.Chevron Pulse Report - 4Q 2010 Edition, July 2009 - December 2010 | Prepared by Edelman © 2011 Chevron Corporation | 31
  • The Online Conversation About: ENERGY AND TECHNOLOGYChevron Pulse Report - 4Q 2010 Edition, July 2009 - December 2010 | Prepared by Edelman © 2011 Chevron Corporation | 32
  • Energy and TechnologySummary of the Online Conversation   From July 2009 to December 2010, approximately   Each of the three key topics included under the Energy 12.3 million posts about Energy and Technology and Technology category – Alternatives and emerged online. Renewables, Energy Efficiency and Technology and Innovation – decreased in conversation sentiment   During the 18-month period, the Energy and from the third quarter to the fourth quarter of 2010. Technology conversation garnered a net sentiment of 3.27 – the most positive net sentiment received   From October to December 2010, online discussion about among the three major energy categories during the both Energy Efficiency and Alternatives and Renewables past six quarters. grew in volume by more than 30 percent.   Interest surrounding Energy and Technology drove a majority of the energy-related   Technology and Innovation saw a 4 percent increase in conversation online over the 18-month period, conversation volume in the fourth quarter of 2010 after making up nearly 60 percent of the general energy increasing by 57 percent from the second to third quarter discussion. of 2010.   In the fourth quarter of 2010, conversation sentiment KEY ENERGY AND TECHNOLOGY TOPICS EXAMINED: toward Energy and Technology decreased in •  Energy Efficiency favorability by almost 12 percent from the third quarter of 2010, dropping from 3.41 to 3.01 – the •  Technology and Innovation lowest sentiment score obtained by the category •  Alternatives and Renewables in any of the previous five quarters analyzed.Chevron Pulse Report - 4Q 2010 Edition, July 2009 - December 2010 | Prepared by Edelman © 2011 Chevron Corporation | 33
  • Energy and TechnologyTaxonomy Category ENERGY and TECHNOLOGY Key Topics TECHNOLOGY and ENERGY ALTERNATIVES and INNOVATION EFFICIENCY RENEWABLES Subtopics Deep Water Liquefied Natural Energy Efficiency Biofuels Nuclear Gas (LNG) Energy Exploration and Fuel Efficiency Ethanol Ocean Technologies Development Energy Alternatives and Fuel Cell Carbon Capture Algae Conservation Renewables and Storage Directional (CCS) Geothermal Cellulosic Ethanol Drilling Energy Efficiency Carbon Capture Policy Corn-Based Intercropping Solar Ethanol Carbon Fuel Efficiency Gas-to-Liquids Sequestration Policy Wind Nonfood Biofuels (GTL) Energy Cleantech Hydrogen Biohydrocarbons Innovation Hydraulic Steamflooding Fracturing Clean Energy Seismic Imaging/ Solar-to-Steam Visualization Enhanced Oil Gasification RecoveryChevron Pulse Report - 4Q 2010 Edition, July 2009 - December 2010 | Prepared by Edelman © 2011 Chevron Corporation | 34
  • Energy and TechnologyTopics Explored in the Online Conversation Energy Efficiency Technology and Innovation   Energy Efficiency: Reducing the amount of energy   Deep Water: Exploring and producing oil and gas off needed to perform a process, from heating a home to the coastline in water depths of 1,000 ft or more. powering a factory.   Energy Technologies: Technological processes or   Fuel Efficiency: Efficiency of a particular vehicle innovations associated with producing energy. measured by its total output (i.e., mileage) in   Fuel Cell: An electrochemical cell that combines a comparison to amount of input (i.e., fuel). Also related fuel source (e.g., hydrogen) with an oxidant (e.g., to fuel economy indicated by miles per gallon (mpg) water) to produce an electrical current, commonly or kilometers per liter (km/L). used to power vehicles.   Energy Conservation: Reduction of energy   Directional Drilling: Drilling nonvertical wells that consumption. can extract oil and natural gas from a single point   Energy Efficiency Policy: Local, state and national across a vast territory. policies, through incentives, tax credits and other   Gas-to-Liquids (GTL): Converting gaseous policy mechanisms, that are designed to reduce the compounds into hydrocarbon-based liquids such as amount of energy used. gasoline.   Fuel Efficiency Policy: Regulations and legislation   Intercropping: Energy industry’s adoption of the at the local, state and national levels, such as agricultural practice of growing one crop between emissions performance standards, that are used to the rows of another crop of a separate source; set new thresholds in emission control technology. commonly used to harvest biomass.   Steamflooding: Enhanced oil recovery process of injecting steam into heavy oil reservoirs to heat the crude oil underground, reducing its viscosity and allowing its extraction through wells.Chevron Pulse Report - 4Q 2010 Edition, July 2009 - December 2010 | Prepared by Edelman © 2011 Chevron Corporation | 35
  • Energy and TechnologyTopics Explored in the Online Conversation, continued Technology and Innovation, continued   Energy Innovation: Advancements made in the   Cleantech: Energy products and services that development of energy sources. increase efficiency while reducing costs, energy consumption and environmental impact.   Gasification: Producing gas from coal in order to convert it into transportation fuels such as gasoline or   Hydraulic Fracturing: Recovery of natural gas and diesel. oil from rock formations deep below the earth’s surface through the injection of fluid pressure into   Solar-to-Steam: Generation of steam from captured targeted fractures in the rock. This creates a path sunlight to carry out heavy oil extraction. between the reservoir and the well, increasing the   Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG): Liquid form of natural amount of oil and natural gas that can be recovered. gas for easier storage and/or transportation of natural gas to markets.   Seismic Imaging/Visualization: Three-dimensional imaging of subsurface geology that helps petroleum   Exploration and Development: Exploratory engineers identify possible oil- and gas-bearing ventures and developments of energy resources. formations. The images show a reservoir at different   Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS): Family of stages of depletion, allowing engineers to improve technologies that provide capture and storage of recovery and produce resources more efficiently. carbon dioxide emissions in deep geologic   Enhanced Oil Recovery: Technologies such as formations. thermal recovery or gas injection that can be used to   Carbon Capture: Capturing and compressing of increase the amount of oil that can be extracted from carbon dioxide in the CCS process. an oil field.   Carbon Sequestration: Geo-engineering technique used for the long-term storage of carbon dioxide.Chevron Pulse Report - 4Q 2010 Edition, July 2009 - December 2010 | Prepared by Edelman © 2011 Chevron Corporation | 36
  • Energy and TechnologyTopics Explored in the Online Conversation, continued Alternatives and Renewables   Biofuels: Fuels produced from renewable biological   Ocean: Energy generation through the movement of resources, including vegetable oil – and animal fat – ocean surface waves. based diesel fuels.   Algae: Use of the photosynthetic organism algae to   Ethanol: Flammable, colorless liquid that can be create a biofuel by converting carbon dioxide and used as a fuel or fuel additive. sunlight into oxygen and biomass.   Alternatives and Renewables: Nontraditional   Cellulosic Ethanol: Biofuel produced from wood, sources of energy and those that can be produced grasses or nonedible plant parts. from naturally replenishing resources, such as solar,   Corn-Based Ethanol: Form of ethanol produced wind or wave power. from corn through industrial fermentation and   Geothermal: A source of energy that is generated by distillation. extracting heat from the earth.   Nonfood Biofuels: Ethanol produced from nonfood   Solar: Generation of electricity from sunlight. crops for waste biomass, such as the stalks of wheat and wood.   Wind: Power of wind converted into a usable form of energy that can be harnessed to produce electricity.   Biohydrocarbons: Fuel source produced by mixing   Hydrogen: Generating power from hydrogen and fuel biomass feedstock of plants with hydrogen and another chemical catalyst. cells, which are electrochemical cells that generate electricity through the reactions between hydrogen   Clean Energy: Energy sources that do not pollute and water. the atmosphere or environment when used.   Nuclear: Energy produced from controlled nuclear reactions.Chevron Pulse Report - 4Q 2010 Edition, July 2009 - December 2010 | Prepared by Edelman © 2011 Chevron Corporation | 37
  • Energy and TechnologyVolume and Net Sentiment of Online Conversations Of the three key Energy and Technology topics, online conversation about Alternatives and Renewables generated the highest volume of posts and most positive net sentiment during the fourth quarter of 2010. Discussion about Technology and Innovation dropped in sentiment to a negative net sentiment score of 2.50. Conversation about Energy Efficiency increased in volume in the fourth quarter of 2010 but accounted for the smallest share of conversation under the Energy and Technology category. High Volume/ High Volume/ October 1, 2010 – December 31, 2010 Negative Sentiment Positive Sentiment 1,800,000 1,600,000 Alternatives and Renewables Volume of Online Conversations 1,400,000 1,200,000 Technology and Innovation 1,000,000 800,000 Energy Efficiency 600,000 400,000 200,000 0 Chart 3.1 Low Volume/ Low Volume/ Negative Sentiment Net Sentiment of Online Conversations Positive SentimentChevron Pulse Report - 4Q 2010 Edition, July 2009 - December 2010 | Prepared by Edelman © 2011 Chevron Corporation | 38
  • Energy and TechnologyVolume of Online Conversations Among the 10 Energy and Technology subtopics shown in the chart below, Solar produced the largest volume of online conversation during the fourth quarter of 2010, followed by Fuel Efficiency and Exploration and Development, respectively. 10 Energy and Technology Subtopics* October 1, 2010 – December 31, 2010 Fuel Efficiency 11.23% Solar 15.26% Exploration and Development 10.66% Wind 9.23% Energy Efficiency 6.37% Energy Conservation 7.84% Deep Water 1.41% Nuclear 8.88% Biofuels 3.12% Hydraulic Fracturing 0.60% 0% 2% 4% 6% 8% 10% 12% 14% 16% 18% Percentage of Online Conversations About Energy and Technology – 3.5 Million Total *Ten of 39 Energy and Technology subtopics Chart 3.2Chevron Pulse Report - 4Q 2010 Edition, July 2009 - December 2010 | Prepared by Edelman © 2011 Chevron Corporation | 39
  • Energy and Technology Net Sentiment and Sentiment Volume of Online Conversations Posts related to Energy Efficiency generated the most positive net sentiment among the Energy and Technology subtopics during the fourth quarter of 2010. In contrast, Exploration and Development, Hydraulic Fracturing, Energy Conservation and Deep Water were all negative in sentiment. 10 Energy and Technology Subtopics* October 1, 2010 – December 31, 2010 Category Fuel Solar Exploration and Wind Energy Energy Deep Water Nuclear Biofuels Hydraulic Efficiency Development Efficiency Conservation Fracturing Net Sentiment 3.22 3.73 2.12 3.36 4.08 2.48 2.04 2.30 3.21 2.14 60,000 49,212 32,005 Negative Positive 40,000 24,037Sentiment Volume** 24,412 22,924 20,000 9,795 7,841 7,963 838 733 0 -20,000 – 4,335 – 5,940 – 2,543 – 3,068 – 6,384 – 16,689 – 19,109 – 15,283 -40,000 – 30,068 -60,000 – 47,807 Neutral 276,250 367,699 232,342 222,893 142,650 195,947 34,784 212,401 74,852 13,856 Volume *Ten of 39 Energy and Technology subtopics Chart 3.3 **Number of positive, negative and neutral posts rated by the SM2 social media monitoring tool Chevron Pulse Report - 4Q 2010 Edition, July 2009 - December 2010 | Prepared by Edelman © 2011 Chevron Corporation | 40
  • Energy and TechnologySentiment Trends of Online Conversations Like the previous two quarters, Deep Water received the most negative conversation sentiment score among the Energy and Technology subtopics in the fourth quarter of 2010. Conversation about Exploration and Development fell in sentiment by 44 percent in the fourth quarter of 2010, shifting from a positive to a negative sentiment score. July 1, 2009 – December 31, 2010 10 Energy and 3Q09 4Q09 1Q10 2Q10 3Q10 4Q10 Technology Subtopics* Fuel Efficiency 3.66 3.53 3.36 3.42 3.51 3.22 Solar 3.87 3.53 3.64 3.73 3.68 3.73 Exploration and 3.57 3.56 3.43 3.61 3.78 2.12 Development Wind 3.47 3.04 3.15 3.25 3.14 3.36 Energy Efficiency 4.05 4.05 4.00 4.12 4.05 4.08 Energy Conservation 2.72 2.72 2.42 2.39 2.65 2.48 Deep Water 3.92 3.58 3.56 1.88 2.01 2.04 Nuclear 2.85 2.45 2.38 2.36 2.33 2.30 Biofuels 3.48 3.35 3.23 3.47 3.50 3.21 Hydraulic Fracturing 2.14 2.19 2.29 2.05 2.15 2.14 Sentiment Trends of Online Conversations Legend: Positive (3.10–5.00) >0.10 Change: Positive Chart 3.4 *Ten of 39 Energy and Technology subtopics Neutral (2.90–3.09) Negative Negative (1.00–2.89)Chevron Pulse Report - 4Q 2010 Edition, July 2009 - December 2010 | Prepared by Edelman © 2011 Chevron Corporation | 41
  • Energy and TechnologyEnergy Efficiency: Volume and Net Sentiment of Online Conversations Online conversation regarding Fuel Efficiency was high in volume and positive in sentiment during the fourth quarter of 2010. Though also high in volume, conversation about Energy Conservation was the most negative in sentiment among the five Energy Efficiency subtopics. High Volume/ October 1, 2010 – December 31, 2010 High Volume/ Negative Sentiment Positive Sentiment 350,000 Fuel Efficiency 300,000 Volume of Online Conversations 250,000 Energy Conservation 200,000 Energy Efficiency 150,000 100,000 50,000 Energy Efficiency Policy Fuel Efficiency Policy 0 Chart 3.5 Low Volume/ Low Volume/ Sentiment of Online Conversations Negative Sentiment Positive SentimentChevron Pulse Report - 4Q 2010 Edition, July 2009 - December 2010 | Prepared by Edelman © 2011 Chevron Corporation | 42
  • Energy and TechnologyEnergy Efficiency: Volume Trend of Online Conversations The volume of online discussion about Fuel Efficiency increased by approximately 42 percent from the third quarter to the fourth quarter of 2010. Conversation about Energy Conservation increased in volume by approximately 47 percent in the fourth quarter of 2010 after experiencing a 5 percent drop in conversation volume the previous quarter. Energy Efficiency July 1, 2009 – December 31, 2010 350,000 300,000 Online Conversation Volume 250,000 200,000 Energy Conservation Energy Efficiency Energy Efficiency Policy 150,000 Fuel Efficiency Fuel Efficiency Policy 100,000 50,000 Chart 3.6 0 3Q09 4Q09 1Q10 2Q10 3Q10 4Q10Chevron Pulse Report - 4Q 2010 Edition, July 2009 - December 2010 | Prepared by Edelman © 2011 Chevron Corporation | 43
  • Energy and TechnologyTechnology and Innovation: Volume and Net Sentiment of OnlineConversations During the fourth quarter of 2010, Energy Technologies generated the largest volume of discussion among the 19 Technology and Innovation subtopics. Deep Water was the most negative in sentiment, followed by Exploration and Development and Hydraulic Fracturing, respectively. High Volume/ October 1, 2010 – December 31, 2010 High Volume/ Negative Sentiment Positive Sentiment 600,000 A.  Carbon Capture B.  Carbon Capture and Sequestration C.  Carbon and Sequestration 500,000 Energy Technologies D.  Cleantech Volume of Online Conversations E.  Directional Drilling F.  Fuel Cell G.  Gasification 400,000 H.  Gas-to-Liquids I.  Intercropping J.  Oil Recovery K.  Seismic Imaging/ 300,000 Exploration and Development Visualization L.  Solar-to-Steam M.  Steamflooding N.  Liquefied Natural Gas 200,000 Innovation 100,000 A, C, N B, E, I, M Deep Water D L F Hydraulic Fracturing G H K J 0 Chart 3.7 Low Volume/ Low Volume/ Negative Sentiment Sentiment of Online Conversations Positive SentimentChevron Pulse Report - 4Q 2010 Edition, July 2009 - December 2010 | Prepared by Edelman © 2011 Chevron Corporation | 44
  • Energy and TechnologyTechnology and Innovation: Volume Trend of Online Conversations The volume of online conversation about Exploration and Development increased notably during the fourth quarter of 2010, growing 73 percent compared with the previous quarter. Deep Water decreased approximately 30 percent in conversation volume during the fourth quarter of 2010. Technology and Innovation* July 1, 2009 – December 31, 2010 600,000 500,000 Online Conversation Volume 400,000 Energy Technologies Exploration and Development 300,000 Deep Water Innovation 200,000 Cleantech 100,000 0 Chart 3.8 3Q09 4Q09 1Q10 2Q10 3Q10 4Q10 *Five of 19 subtopics about Technology and InnovationChevron Pulse Report - 4Q 2010 Edition, July 2009 - December 2010 | Prepared by Edelman © 2011 Chevron Corporation | 45
  • Energy and TechnologyAlternatives and Renewables: Volume and Net Sentiment ofOnline Conversations Under the key Alternatives and Renewables topic, the subtopics Solar, Wind, Nuclear, and Alternatives and Renewables accounted for the largest share of online conversation during the fourth quarter of 2010. The majority of the 15 subtopics examined had a positive net sentiment, with the exception of Nuclear and Ethanol. High Volume/ High Volume/ October 1, 2010 – December 31, 2010 Negative Sentiment Positive Sentiment 500,000 A.  Algae B.  Cellulosic Ethanol 450,000 C.  Nonfood Biofuels Solar D.  Ocean Volume of Online Conversations 400,000 350,000 300,000 Nuclear Wind 250,000 Alternatives and 200,000 Renewables 150,000 Clean Energy 100,000 Ethanol Biofuels 50,000 Hydrogen Geothermal D A B, C Biohydrocarbons 0 Corn-Based Ethanol Chart 3.9 Low Volume/ Low Volume/ Negative Sentiment Sentiment of Online Conversations Positive SentimentChevron Pulse Report - 4Q 2010 Edition, July 2009 - December 2010 | Prepared by Edelman © 2011 Chevron Corporation | 46
  • Energy and TechnologyAlternatives and Renewables: Volume Trend of Online Conversations Solar continued to generate the largest volume of online conversation among the Alternatives and Renewables subtopics in the fourth quarter of 2010. Discussion around Nuclear increased in volume by almost 57 percent from the third quarter to the fourth quarter of 2010. Alternatives and Renewables* July 1, 2009 – December 31, 2010 500,000 450,000 400,000 Online Conversation Volume 350,000 300,000 Alternatives and Renewables Clean Energy 250,000 Nuclear 200,000 Solar Wind 150,000 100,000 50,000 0 Chart 3.10 3Q09 4Q09 1Q10 2Q10 3Q10 4Q10 *Five of 15 subtopics about Alternatives and RenewablesChevron Pulse Report - 4Q 2010 Edition, July 2009 - December 2010 | Prepared by Edelman © 2011 Chevron Corporation | 47
  • Energy and TechnologySample of Influencers Active in the Online Conversation Blog Link Description Discusses trends, happenings and innovators in the Clean Break http://www.cleanbreak.ca clean technology and green energy market. Offers guidance on leveraging sustainability, Greenbang http://www.greenbang.com technology and innovation to improve business. Posts advice, tips, and product information in an effort Living Green and Saving Energy http://livinggreenandsavingenergy.com to promote green living and energy. Serves as an online resource for information on the Oilgae http://www.oilgae.com/blog algae fuels industry. Seeks to provide an online forum for people “working to scale the emerging clean economy” in energy Scaling Green http://scalinggreen.com sectors involving renewables, recycling, green building, smart transit and sustainable agriculture.Chevron Pulse Report - 4Q 2010 Edition, July 2009 - December 2010 | Prepared by Edelman © 2011 Chevron Corporation | 48
  • The Online Conversation About: ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTChevron Pulse Report - 4Q 2010 Edition, July 2009 - December 2010 | Prepared by Edelman © 2011 Chevron Corporation | 49
  • Energy and EnvironmentSummary of the Online Conversation   From July 2009 to December 2010, online conversation   Under the Environment, Resources and Policy key topic, the about Energy and Environment was the most negative in subtopic Environment and Oil made up the largest share sentiment compared with the other two major energy of the online discussion during the fourth quarter of 2010, categories examined. It was second in volume, garnering producing nearly 177,600 posts. This was a 22 percent over 6 million posts collectively during the 18-month period. increase in volume for this subtopic from the previous quarter.   During the fourth quarter of 2010, the volume of online   Sustainability remained the most positive subtopic under the discussion about Energy and Environment reached Environment and Energy category during the fourth quarter of more than 1.5 million posts, a growth of more than 2010, with a sentiment score of 4.01 – a trend that has 47 percent from the previous quarter. Sentiment for this spanned the previous five quarters. category decreased slightly, from 2.56 in the third quarter of 2010 to 2.48 in the fourth quarter.   Of the 13 Climate Change subtopics, Global Warming and Cooling produced the most volume in the fourth quarter   Of the two key topics captured under the Energy and of 2010, with almost 485,000 posts – a 70 percent Environment category – Climate Change and Environment, increase from the previous quarter. Resources and Policy – the latter shifted from a neutral net sentiment score in the third quarter to a positive score in   The sentiment score for the Climate Change subtopic Kyoto the fourth quarter of 2010. saw the most substantial drop, going from a positive score of 3.11 in the third quarter of 2010, to a negative score of 2.45 in   The tone of discussion for Climate Change decreased the fourth quarter. from 2.38 in the third quarter of 2010 to 2.26 in the fourth quarter of 2010. The volume of conversation for KEY ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT TOPICS EXAMINED: Climate Change increased by 59 percent from the third quarter to the fourth quarter of 2010. •  Environment, Resources and Policy •  Climate ChangeChevron Pulse Report - 4Q 2010 Edition, July 2009 - December 2010 | Prepared by Edelman © 2011 Chevron Corporation | 50
  • Energy and EnvironmentTaxonomy Category ENERGY and ENVIRONMENT Key Topics ENVIRONMENT RESOURCES and CLIMATE CHANGE POLICY Subtopics Environment and Greenhouse Gas Sustainability Copenhagen Clean Energy (GHG) Environment and Oil Environmental Policy Carbon Tax Emission Control Environment and U.S. Environmental Cap-and-Trade Low-Carbon Fuel Gas Protection Agency (EPA) and Energy Environment and Intergovernmental Climate and Energy Alternatives Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Global Warming and Global Cooling Climate Policy Assembly Bill No. 32 (AB32) Kyoto U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and CarbonChevron Pulse Report - 4Q 2010 Edition, July 2009 - December 2010 | Prepared by Edelman © 2011 Chevron Corporation | 51
  • Energy and EnvironmentTopics Explored in the Online Conversation Environment, Resources and Policy Climate Change   Sustainability: Sustaining the supply of various   Greenhouse Gas (GHG): Encompasses any of the energy resources with minimal effects on the gases whose absorption of solar radiation is environment. responsible for the atmospheric heating phenomenon known as the greenhouse effect.   Environment and Oil: The environment and oil in either a refined or unrefined state.   Carbon Tax: An environmental tax on carbon dioxide emissions that could be implemented by taxing the   Environment and Gas: The environment and natural burning of fossil fuels (e.g., coal, oil) to raise gas. revenues and increase the competitiveness of non-   Environment and Alternatives: The environment carbon technologies. and alternative energy sources, including solar, wind   Cap-and-Trade: An administrative approach to and geothermal. controlling emissions by providing economic   Environment and Clean Energy: The environment incentives for achieving reductions in the emissions and nonpolluting resources such as nuclear power. of pollutants.   Environmental Policy: Environmental policy,   Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change legislation and regulations at the local, state, national (IPCC): An intergovernmental body tasked with and international levels. evaluating the risk of climate change. The panel was   U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and established in 1988 by two organizations under Energy: Energy issues related to the EPA, the the United Nations. federal agency that sets and enforces rules and   Kyoto: The Kyoto Protocol, aimed at combating standards to protect the environment. climate change, was initially adopted on December 11, 2007, in Kyoto, Japan.Chevron Pulse Report - 4Q 2010 Edition, July 2009 - December 2010 | Prepared by Edelman © 2011 Chevron Corporation | 52
  • Energy and EnvironmentTopics Explored in the Online Conversation, continued Climate Change, continued   Emission Control: Standards and regulations   Assembly Bill No. 32 (AB32): California’s climate controlling the amount of pollutants released into the law, formally known as the Global Warming Solutions environment by motor vehicles, industry facilities and Act of 2006, that established a timetable to bring smaller power equipment such as tractors. California into near compliance with the provisions of the Kyoto Protocol. Enforced by the California Air   Low-Carbon Fuel: Lower-carbon-emitting fuels, Resources Board (CARB), the law requires a plan to including some alternative fuels and natural gas. reduce the states greenhouse gas emissions to 1990   Climate and Energy: Energy sources in relation to levels by 2020. climate change.   U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and   Global Warming and Global Cooling: Changes in Carbon: In 2007, the U.S. Supreme Court held that the Earths average atmospheric temperature and the EPA has the right to regulate the emission corresponding changes in climate. of greenhouse gases under the Clean Air Act “unless it is able to provide a scientific reason for not doing   Climate Policy: Legislation designed to regulate so.” The EPA exercised its authority on December 7, greenhouse gas emissions. 2009, when it publicly finalized an “Endangerment   Copenhagen: Commonly referred to as Finding” on greenhouse gases. the Copenhagen summit, the 2009 United Nations Climate Change Conference was held in Copenhagen, Denmark, December 7–18. Global leaders met to negotiate a framework for climate change mitigation around the world.Chevron Pulse Report - 4Q 2010 Edition, July 2009 - December 2010 | Prepared by Edelman © 2011 Chevron Corporation | 53
  • Energy and EnvironmentVolume and Net Sentiment of Online Conversations Online conversation about Environment, Resources and Policy was lower in volume and more positive in sentiment than Climate Change during the fourth quarter of 2010. The tone of discussion about Environment, Resources and Policy moved from neutral to positive in the fourth quarter of 2010. High Volume/ High Volume/ October 1, 2010 – December 31, 2010 Negative Sentiment Positive Sentiment 1,200,000 1,000,000 Climate Change Volume of Online Conversations 800,000 600,000 Environment, Resources and Policy 400,000 200,000 0 Chart 4.1 Low Volume/ Sentiment of Online Conversations Low Volume/ Negative Sentiment Positive SentimentChevron Pulse Report - 4Q 2010 Edition, July 2009 - December 2010 | Prepared by Edelman © 2011 Chevron Corporation | 54
  • Energy and EnvironmentVolume of Online Conversations Global Warming and Cooling continued to have the highest volume of online conversation among the Energy and Environment subtopics, generating approximately 484,500 posts in the fourth quarter of 2010. It was followed by Environment and Oil, with 145,580 posts. 10 Energy and Environment Subtopics* October 1, 2010 – December 31, 2010 Sustainability 8.89% Environment and Oil 16.78% Environment and Alternatives 5.57% Environmental Policy 9.00% Climate and Energy 13.53% Cap-and-Trade 5.00% Greenhouse Gases 7.70% EPA** and Carbon 0.63% Global Warming and Cooling 45.79% Climate Policy 9.82% 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40% 45% 50% Percentage of Online Conversations About Energy and Environment – 1.5 Million Total *Ten of 20 Energy and Environment Subtopics Chart 4.2 **U.S. Environmental Protection AgencyChevron Pulse Report - 4Q 2010 Edition, July 2009 - December 2010 | Prepared by Edelman © 2011 Chevron Corporation | 55
  • Energy and Environment Net Sentiment and Sentiment Volume of Online Conversations Among Energy and Environment subtopics, Sustainability generated the most positive conversation sentiment during the fourth quarter of 2010, followed by Environment and Alternatives. Global Warming and Cooling had the most negative net sentiment. 10 Energy and Environment Subtopics* October 1, 2010 – December 31, 2010 Category Sustainability Environment Environment Environmental Climate and Cap-and- Greenhouse EPA*** and Global Warming Climate and Oil and Policy Energy Trade Gases Carbon and Cooling Policy Net Alternatives Sentiment 4.01 2.84 3.78 3.29 2.83 2.47 2.68 2.17 2.13 2.61 60,000 35,808 40,000Sentiment Volume** Negative Positive 20,000 10,583 9,929 7,002 4,008 5,222 4,046 3,398 3,216 70 0 -20,000 – 1,456 – 1,136 – 2,435 –6,770 – 5,726 – 234 – 12,014 – 8,766 – 5,817 -40,000 -60,000 -80,000 -100,000 -120,000 – 110,016 Neutral 82,031 155,648 52,551 88,754 127,395 42,722 71,763 6,376 338,692 94,850 Volume *Ten of 20 Energy and Environment subtopics **Number of positive, negative and neutral posts rated by the SM2 social media monitoring tool Chart 4.3 ***U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Chevron Pulse Report - 4Q 2010 Edition, July 2009 - December 2010 | Prepared by Edelman © 2011 Chevron Corporation | 56
  • Energy and EnvironmentSentiment Trends of Online Conversations Online conversation about Environment and Oil increased in sentiment by more than 11 percent from the third quarter to the fourth quarter of 2010. During that time, the sentiment for the subtopic, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Carbon, dropped by nearly 17 percent. July 1, 2009 – December 31, 2010 10 Energy and 3Q09 4Q09 1Q010 2Q10 3Q10 4Q10 Environment Subtopics* Sustainability 3.81 3.85 3.80 3.85 3.91 4.01 Environment and Oil 2.80 2.67 2.58 2.13 2.55 2.84 Environment and 3.89 3.80 3.70 3.62 3.78 3.78 Alternatives Environmental Policy 2.97 2.85 2.99 2.54 3.06 3.29 Climate and Energy 2.72 3.13 2.74 2.92 2.85 2.83 Cap-and-Trade 2.47 2.22 2.49 2.47 2.38 2.47 Greenhouse Gases 2.75 2.20 2.68 3.00 2.93 2.68 EPA** and Carbon 1.89 2.13 2.15 2.30 2.60 2.17 Global Warming and 2.33 2.27 2.05 2.36 2.20 2.13 Cooling Climate Policy 2.61 2.41 2.53 2.89 2.68 2.61 Sentiment Trends of Online Conversations Legend: Positive (3.10–5.00) >0.10 Change: Positive Chart 4.4 *Ten of 20 Energy and Environment subtopics Neutral (2.90–3.09) Negative **U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Negative (1.00–2.89)Chevron Pulse Report - 4Q 2010 Edition, July 2009 - December 2010 | Prepared by Edelman © 2011 Chevron Corporation | 57
  • Energy and EnvironmentEnvironment, Resources and Policy: Volume and Net Sentiment ofOnline Conversations In terms of conversation sentiment, Sustainability was the most positive subtopic under the key Environment, Resources and Policy topic during the fourth quarter of 2010. Environment and Oil had the largest volume of online conversation. High Volume/ High Volume/ October 1, 2010 – December 31, 2010 Negative Sentiment Positive Sentiment 200,000 180,000 Environment and Oil Volume of Online Conversations 160,000 140,000 120,000 100,000 Environmental Policy Sustainability 80,000 EPA* and Energy 60,000 Environment and Alternatives 40,000 Environment and Gas 20,000 Environment and Clean Energy 0 Chart 4.5 Low Volume/ Sentiment of Online Conversations Low Volume/ Negative Sentiment Positive Sentiment *U.S. Environmental Protection AgencyChevron Pulse Report - 4Q 2010 Edition, July 2009 - December 2010 | Prepared by Edelman © 2011 Chevron Corporation | 58
  • Energy and EnvironmentEnvironment, Resources and Policy: Volume Trend of Online Conversations From the third quarter to the fourth quarter of 2010, online conversation volume for Environmental Policy increased by almost 44 percent. After a 16 percent decrease in volume in the third quarter of 2010, Environment and Oil discussion increased 22 percent in the fourth quarter to an 18-month high of approximately 177,590 posts. Environment, Resources and Policy* July 1, 2009 – December 31, 2010 200,000 180,000 160,000 Online Conversation Volume 140,000 120,000 Environment and Alternatives Environment and Oil 100,000 Environmental Policy 80,000 Sustainability EPA** and Energy 60,000 40,000 20,000 0 Chart 4.6 3Q09 4Q09 1Q10 2Q10 3Q10 4Q10 *Five of seven subtopics about Environment, Resources and Policy **U.S. Environmental Protection AgencyChevron Pulse Report - 4Q 2010 Edition, July 2009 - December 2010 | Prepared by Edelman © 2011 Chevron Corporation | 59
  • Energy and EnvironmentClimate Change: Volume and Net Sentiment of Online Conversations As with the previous five quarters, online discussion about most of the Climate Change subtopics analyzed were low in volume and negative in sentiment during the fourth quarter of 2010. Global Warming and Cooling had the highest volume of online conversation. High Volume/ October 1, 2010 – December 31, 2010 High Volume/ Negative Sentiment Positive Sentiment 600,000 A. Carbon Tax B.  Copenhagen C.  Intercontinental Panel on Climate Change Volume of Online Conversations 500,000 D.  EPA* and Carbon Global Warming and Cooling E.  Kyoto F.  AB32** G.  Emission Control 400,000 300,000 200,000 Climate and Energy Climate Policy 100,000 Greenhouse Gases Carbon A Low-Carbon B Tax C Fuel D E, F, G 0 Low Volume/ Sentiment of Online Conversations Low Volume/ Chart 4.7 Negative Sentiment Positive Sentiment *U.S. Environmental Protection Agency **California Assembly Bill No. 32Chevron Pulse Report - 4Q 2010 Edition, July 2009 - December 2010 | Prepared by Edelman © 2011 Chevron Corporation | 60
  • Energy and EnvironmentClimate Change: Volume Trend of Online Conversations Online conversation volume for Global Warming and Cooling increased by 70 percent during the fourth quarter of 2010. Additionally, Climate Policy and Climate and Energy increased 61 percent and 44 percent, respectively. Climate Change* July 1, 2009 – December 31, 2010 600,000 500,000 Online Conversation Volume 400,000 Cap-and-Trade Climate and Energy 300,000 Climate Policy Global Warming and Cooling 200,000 Greenhouse Gases 100,000 0 Chart 4.8 3Q09 4Q09 1Q10 2Q10 3Q10 4Q10 *Five of 13 subtopics about Climate ChangeChevron Pulse Report - 4Q 2010 Edition, July 2009 - December 2010 | Prepared by Edelman © 2011 Chevron Corporation | 61
  • Energy and EnvironmentSample of Influencers Active in the Online Conversation Blog Link Description Serves as a source for news, opinion, best practices, and Greenbiz.com http://www.greenbiz.com other resources pertaining to the greening of mainstream business. Covers sustainability-pertinent news, products, and The Sustainability Ninja http://www.sustainabilityninja.com advocates for a greener world. Provides perspective and insights on sustainable living The9Billion http://www.the9billion.com and energy conservation. Delivers news and insights from the National Center for NCPA Environment Blog http://environmentblog.ncpa.org Policy Analysis’ (NCPA) environment team. http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/ Features updates, commentary and analysis on climate Guardian Environment Blog blog+energy change, energy and the environment.Chevron Pulse Report - 4Q 2010 Edition, July 2009 - December 2010 | Prepared by Edelman © 2011 Chevron Corporation | 62
  • Join the Online Conversation About Energy Quarterly updates of the Chevron Pulse Report are published at: http://www.chevronpulsereport.com To join the online conversation about energy, visit: http://www.willyoujoinus.com To find out more about Chevron or to engage with us, visit:   Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/chevron or @chevron   Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/chevron   YouTube: http://www.youtube.com/chevron   LinkedIn: http://www.linkedin.com/companies/chevron   Website: http://www.chevron.com For questions about the report, or to get an alert when the report is updated, please email us at: pulsereport@chevron.com The Chevron Pulse Report(TM) is © 2011 Chevron Corporation. All rights reserved. Chevron hereby grants to any person a royalty-free license to copy the Report in whole or in part. Your license is conditioned upon providing attribution to Chevron (e.g., “Source: Chevron Pulse Report, 4Q 2010 Edition”).Chevron Pulse Report - 4Q 2010 Edition, July 2009 - December 2010 | Prepared by Edelman © 2011 Chevron Corporation | 63