麥克諾特彗星 Comet McNaught C/2006 P1

Comet Lovejoy
C/2011 W3

2007

Credit: ESO

百武彗星 Comet Hyakutake
C/1996 B2

1996

海爾博普彗星 ...
Comet Lovejoy
peak magnitude -2.9
越
光

視星等 Apparent Magnitude

1等星
2等星

0等星

比

2.5
2.52 = 6.3

3等星

光

2.53 = 15.8 倍

4等星
5等星

越
暗

2.54 = 39.8
2.55 = 100
麥克諾特彗星 Comet McNaught C/2006 P1

Comet Lovejoy
C/2011 W3

-5.5 mag
2007

Credit: ESO

百武彗星 Comet Hyakutake
C/1996 B2

0.0 ...
Comet Lemmon
9.75 mag

Feb 28, 2013
30s exposure
Atacama Desert, Chile

Comet Pan-STARRS
2.13 mag

Credit: Yuri Beletsky
Comet Pan-STARRS
Mar 11, 2013
0.57 mag
威斯彗星 Comet West
C/1975 V1

池谷關彗星 Comet Ikeya-Seki
C/1965 S1

哥豪德彗星 Comet Kohoutek
C/1973 E1

-10 mag

0.0 mag

-3 mag

197...
Credit: MattZinger

PR Disaster
Breaking news in Sep 2012 - http://www.astronomynow.com/news/n1209/25comet/
馬王堆帛書 《天文氣象雜占》
Mawangdui “Divination by Astrological and
Meteorological Phenomena”
202 B.C.E. – 25 C.E.

湖南省博物館 Hunan Prov...
《漢書.文帝紀》文穎注曰:「孛、彗、
長三星,其占略同,然其形象小異。孛,
芒短,其光四出,蓬蓬孛孛也;彗,其光
芒長,參參如掃彗。長星,其光芒有一直
指,或竟天,或十丈,或一二丈,無常
也。大法:孛、彗星,多為除舊佈新,改
易君上,亦為火災,...
掃把星/掃帚星 Broom Star
(北魏泰常)三年(十二月,419
C.E.),彗星出天津,入太微,
經北斗,絡紫微,犯天棓,八
十餘日,至漢而滅。太宗復召
諸儒術士問之曰:「今天下未
一,四方岳峙,災咎之應,將
在何國?朕甚畏之,盡情以言,
勿有所隱。」
浩曰:「.........
Comet 1528

凱撒大帝彗星 Caesar‘s Comet C/-43 K1 (44 B.C.E.)

A fourth century comet

Comet 1521
The Great Comet of 1577

• No parallax
observed
• at least 230 times
Earth radius away
• Coma > 1/4 Earth
diameter
• Tail ...
Johannes Hevelius' Cometographia (Danzig, 1668)
The Great Comet of 1680

Coemt 1680
偏心率 Eccentricity
Credit: KAGAYA
The Return of Comet Halley 1910
The dirty snowball model by Fred L. Whipple (1950)
The Pressure of light

Snow line
~5 AU
Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech
This graph shows the number of comets with different orbital inclinations. All comets known as
of December 31, 1989 are in...
Kuiper Belt 凱伯帶
~ 30-50 AU

Kuiper belt objects (KBOs)
Trans-Neptunian Objects (TNOs)

Credit: KAGAYA
Comet
Reservoir

Oort Cloud 奧爾特雲
50,000 to 100,000 AU
Credit: Halley Multicolor Camera Team, Giotto Project, ESA
Stardust 星塵號
Chasing Comet Tail
追蹤彗尾

Credit: NASA/JPL
Comet Wild 2
Aerogel 氣凝膠

Credit: NASA/JPL
Credit: NASA/JPL
Credit: NASA/JPL
Chaotic Early
Solar System
Credit: Nature
Deep Impact 深層撞擊號

Credit: JPL, Pat Rawlings
Comet Tempel
Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/UMD
Face-to-Face With a Comet
Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/UMD
Tempel Fades into Night
Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/UMD
Making a Comet 彗星餐單

Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/R. Hurt (SSC)
Complex
molecules in
space
Prof Kwok discovered
complex organic matter
with both aliphatic
(long-string) and
aromatic (rin...
Cometary volatiles detected
in spectroscopic surveys.
Most listed species are
regarded as primary, except
for HNC, which i...
ISON discovery

Vitali Nevski and Artyom Novichonok

International Scientific Optical Network
http://www.astro.uni-bonn.de/~dfischer/stories/ison.txt
Orbit animation
• http://www.solarsystemscope.com/ison/
Too close to the Sun - Sungrazer

ISON perihelion @ 2.7 Rsun
The number of comets with different perihelion distances. It includes all comets known as of mid2008 except for those with...
http://www.aerith.net/comet/catalog/2012S1/
2012S1.html
Possible scenario

• Case 1: Disintegration well before perihelion
• Case 2: Destruction near perihelion
• Case 3: Surviva...
Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 Impact with Jupiter
休梅克利維9號彗星撞擊木星

P Fragment

Q Fragment

30 Mar 94

11 Jul 94

17 May 94

20 Jul ...
07/23/94 08:08 UT
(5 days after G impact)

07/21/94 06:22 UT
(3 days after G impact,
1.3 days after L impact)

07/18/94 09...
Disintegration

73P/S-W 3

C/1999 S4 (LINEAR)
57P
Roche Limit
洛希極限

Sun's Roche limit for typical comet
= 3.4 R(Sun)
Comet West
• Dynamic new comet from Oort cloud
• Orbit similar to the 1680 comet
• Rocky-ball??
Credit: Addison Wesley
In scale 按比例

951 Gaspra

243 Ida/Dactyl

253 Mathilde

18.2 x 10.5 x 8.9 km

53.6 x 24.0 x 15.2 km

66 x 48 x 46 km

1991...
An Asteroid with Six Comet-like Tails
Rosetta Lander

2014 May
Online resources
• http://ison.astro-campaign.jp/
• http://www.isoncampaign.org/

• http://brucegary.net/ISON/
• http://ww...
• Comets are like cats, they have tails, and they
do precisely what they want – David Levy
• Might not be fascinated for n...
https://www.facebook.com/ISON.hk
The Science of Comet ISON
The Science of Comet ISON
The Science of Comet ISON
The Science of Comet ISON
The Science of Comet ISON
The Science of Comet ISON
The Science of Comet ISON
The Science of Comet ISON
The Science of Comet ISON
The Science of Comet ISON
The Science of Comet ISON
The Science of Comet ISON
The Science of Comet ISON
The Science of Comet ISON
The Science of Comet ISON
The Science of Comet ISON
The Science of Comet ISON
The Science of Comet ISON
The Science of Comet ISON
The Science of Comet ISON
The Science of Comet ISON
The Science of Comet ISON
The Science of Comet ISON
The Science of Comet ISON
The Science of Comet ISON
The Science of Comet ISON
The Science of Comet ISON
The Science of Comet ISON
The Science of Comet ISON
The Science of Comet ISON
The Science of Comet ISON
The Science of Comet ISON
The Science of Comet ISON
The Science of Comet ISON
The Science of Comet ISON
The Science of Comet ISON
The Science of Comet ISON
The Science of Comet ISON
The Science of Comet ISON
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The Science of Comet ISON

  1. 1. 麥克諾特彗星 Comet McNaught C/2006 P1 Comet Lovejoy C/2011 W3 2007 Credit: ESO 百武彗星 Comet Hyakutake C/1996 B2 1996 海爾博普彗星 Comet Hale-Bopp C/1995 O1 Credit: Jerry Lodriguss 荷瑪彗星 Comet 17P/Holmes 2007 2011 1996 Credit: Ivan Eder Credit: Lester Barnes Credit: Jerry Lodriguss 泛星彗星 Comet Pan-STARRS C/2011 L4 2013 Credit: Ignacio Diaz Bobillo Comet Lemmon C/2012 F6 2013 Credit: Gerald Rhemann
  2. 2. Comet Lovejoy peak magnitude -2.9
  3. 3. 越 光 視星等 Apparent Magnitude 1等星 2等星 0等星 比 2.5 2.52 = 6.3 3等星 光 2.53 = 15.8 倍 4等星 5等星 越 暗 2.54 = 39.8 2.55 = 100
  4. 4. 麥克諾特彗星 Comet McNaught C/2006 P1 Comet Lovejoy C/2011 W3 -5.5 mag 2007 Credit: ESO 百武彗星 Comet Hyakutake C/1996 B2 0.0 mag -2.9 mag 海爾博普彗星 Comet Hale-Bopp C/1995 O1 -0.8 mag 1996 2011 1996 Credit: Jerry Lodriguss 荷瑪彗星 Comet 17P/Holmes 泛星彗星 Comet Pan-STARRS C/2011 L4 2.4 mag 2007 Credit: Ivan Eder Credit: Lester Barnes Credit: Jerry Lodriguss Comet Lemmon C/2012 F6 -1 mag 2013 5 mag Credit: Ignacio Diaz Bobillo 2013 Credit: Gerald Rhemann
  5. 5. Comet Lemmon 9.75 mag Feb 28, 2013 30s exposure Atacama Desert, Chile Comet Pan-STARRS 2.13 mag Credit: Yuri Beletsky
  6. 6. Comet Pan-STARRS Mar 11, 2013 0.57 mag
  7. 7. 威斯彗星 Comet West C/1975 V1 池谷關彗星 Comet Ikeya-Seki C/1965 S1 哥豪德彗星 Comet Kohoutek C/1973 E1 -10 mag 0.0 mag -3 mag 1976 1965 1973 Credit: Roger Lynds/NOAO/AURA/NSF Credit: Palomar Observatory
  8. 8. Credit: MattZinger PR Disaster
  9. 9. Breaking news in Sep 2012 - http://www.astronomynow.com/news/n1209/25comet/
  10. 10. 馬王堆帛書 《天文氣象雜占》 Mawangdui “Divination by Astrological and Meteorological Phenomena” 202 B.C.E. – 25 C.E. 湖南省博物館 Hunan Provincial Museum
  11. 11. 《漢書.文帝紀》文穎注曰:「孛、彗、 長三星,其占略同,然其形象小異。孛, 芒短,其光四出,蓬蓬孛孛也;彗,其光 芒長,參參如掃彗。長星,其光芒有一直 指,或竟天,或十丈,或一二丈,無常 也。大法:孛、彗星,多為除舊佈新,改 易君上,亦為火災,長星多為兵革。」 古代十丈 = 現代100度 《黃帝占》的分類 孛星 無尾的彗星 拂星 長10度左右的小彗星 掃星 長20-30度左右的彗星 彗星 長30度以上的大彗星 《說文解字》: 「彗,掃竹也。」 明《天元玉曆祥異賦》
  12. 12. 掃把星/掃帚星 Broom Star
  13. 13. (北魏泰常)三年(十二月,419 C.E.),彗星出天津,入太微, 經北斗,絡紫微,犯天棓,八 十餘日,至漢而滅。太宗復召 諸儒術士問之曰:「今天下未 一,四方岳峙,災咎之應,將 在何國?朕甚畏之,盡情以言, 勿有所隱。」 浩曰:「......天事恒象,百代不 易。《漢書》載王莽篡位之前, 彗星出入,正與今同。......彗孛 者,惡氣之所生,是為僭晉將 滅,劉裕篡位之應也。」 五年,裕果廢其主司馬德文而 自立。南鎮上裕改元赦書。時 太宗幸東南潟滷池射鳥,聞之, 驛召浩,謂之曰:「往年卿言 彗星之占驗矣,朕於今日始信 天道。」 《魏書.崔浩傳》 宋武帝劉裕 崔浩
  14. 14. Comet 1528 凱撒大帝彗星 Caesar‘s Comet C/-43 K1 (44 B.C.E.) A fourth century comet Comet 1521
  15. 15. The Great Comet of 1577 • No parallax observed • at least 230 times Earth radius away • Coma > 1/4 Earth diameter • Tail million km 第谷 Tycho Brahe The Uraniborg - "Castle of the Heavens"
  16. 16. Johannes Hevelius' Cometographia (Danzig, 1668)
  17. 17. The Great Comet of 1680 Coemt 1680
  18. 18. 偏心率 Eccentricity
  19. 19. Credit: KAGAYA
  20. 20. The Return of Comet Halley 1910
  21. 21. The dirty snowball model by Fred L. Whipple (1950)
  22. 22. The Pressure of light Snow line ~5 AU
  23. 23. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech
  24. 24. This graph shows the number of comets with different orbital inclinations. All comets known as of December 31, 1989 are included except those named SMM, SOHO, SOLWIND, and those with a D/ designation.
  25. 25. Kuiper Belt 凱伯帶 ~ 30-50 AU Kuiper belt objects (KBOs) Trans-Neptunian Objects (TNOs) Credit: KAGAYA
  26. 26. Comet Reservoir Oort Cloud 奧爾特雲 50,000 to 100,000 AU
  27. 27. Credit: Halley Multicolor Camera Team, Giotto Project, ESA
  28. 28. Stardust 星塵號 Chasing Comet Tail 追蹤彗尾 Credit: NASA/JPL
  29. 29. Comet Wild 2
  30. 30. Aerogel 氣凝膠 Credit: NASA/JPL
  31. 31. Credit: NASA/JPL
  32. 32. Credit: NASA/JPL
  33. 33. Chaotic Early Solar System
  34. 34. Credit: Nature
  35. 35. Deep Impact 深層撞擊號 Credit: JPL, Pat Rawlings
  36. 36. Comet Tempel Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/UMD
  37. 37. Face-to-Face With a Comet Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/UMD
  38. 38. Tempel Fades into Night Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/UMD
  39. 39. Making a Comet 彗星餐單 Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/R. Hurt (SSC)
  40. 40. Complex molecules in space Prof Kwok discovered complex organic matter with both aliphatic (long-string) and aromatic (ring) features in the Universe 61
  41. 41. Cometary volatiles detected in spectroscopic surveys. Most listed species are regarded as primary, except for HNC, which is in large part a product species. Others may be both primary and product in origin (e.g., H2CO, CO). For each molecular species, the number of comets in which it has been detected is shown on the right margin, and the range of values found among those detections is shown as a color bar (light green). The six species designated “1” on the right margin were detected only in comet Hale-Bopp, the brightest comet of the past several decades.
  42. 42. ISON discovery Vitali Nevski and Artyom Novichonok International Scientific Optical Network
  43. 43. http://www.astro.uni-bonn.de/~dfischer/stories/ison.txt
  44. 44. Orbit animation • http://www.solarsystemscope.com/ison/
  45. 45. Too close to the Sun - Sungrazer ISON perihelion @ 2.7 Rsun
  46. 46. The number of comets with different perihelion distances. It includes all comets known as of mid2008 except for those with perihelion distances exceeding 7.0 au, those named SMM, SOHO, SOLWIND and STEREO and those with a D/ designation
  47. 47. http://www.aerith.net/comet/catalog/2012S1/ 2012S1.html
  48. 48. Possible scenario • Case 1: Disintegration well before perihelion • Case 2: Destruction near perihelion • Case 3: Survival
  49. 49. Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 Impact with Jupiter 休梅克利維9號彗星撞擊木星 P Fragment Q Fragment 30 Mar 94 11 Jul 94 17 May 94 20 Jul 94 Credit: Dr. Hal Weaver and T. Ed Smith (STScI), J.T. Trauger, R.W. Evans (JPL), and NASA
  50. 50. 07/23/94 08:08 UT (5 days after G impact) 07/21/94 06:22 UT (3 days after G impact, 1.3 days after L impact) 07/18/94 09:19 UT (1.5 hours after G impact) 07/18/94 07:38 UT (about 5 minutes after G impact) Credit: R. Evans, J. Trauger, H. Hammel and the HST Comet Science Team and NASA
  51. 51. Disintegration 73P/S-W 3 C/1999 S4 (LINEAR) 57P
  52. 52. Roche Limit 洛希極限 Sun's Roche limit for typical comet = 3.4 R(Sun)
  53. 53. Comet West
  54. 54. • Dynamic new comet from Oort cloud • Orbit similar to the 1680 comet • Rocky-ball??
  55. 55. Credit: Addison Wesley
  56. 56. In scale 按比例 951 Gaspra 243 Ida/Dactyl 253 Mathilde 18.2 x 10.5 x 8.9 km 53.6 x 24.0 x 15.2 km 66 x 48 x 46 km 1991-10-29 Galileo Flyby S-type Main-belt Asteroid 1993-08-28 Galileo Flyby S-type Main Belt Asteroid 1997-06-27 NEAR Flyby C-type Main Belt Asteroid 433 Eros 5535 Annefrank 25143 Itokawa 13 x 13 x 33 km 6.6 x 5.0 x 3.4 km 0.535 x 0.294 x 0.209 km 2000-02-14 NEAR Orbit Insertion S-type NEA 2002-11-02 Stardust Flyby Unknown type 2005-11-20 Hayabusa Landed S-type NEA
  57. 57. An Asteroid with Six Comet-like Tails
  58. 58. Rosetta Lander 2014 May
  59. 59. Online resources • http://ison.astro-campaign.jp/ • http://www.isoncampaign.org/ • http://brucegary.net/ISON/ • http://www.cometography.com/lcomets/2012s 1.html
  60. 60. • Comets are like cats, they have tails, and they do precisely what they want – David Levy • Might not be fascinated for naked eyes • But still fascinated for science
  61. 61. https://www.facebook.com/ISON.hk

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