Credit: T.A.Rector, B.A.Wolpa, J. Hester, P. Scowen, NASA, ESA, and The Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA), STScI.
M16 Eagl...
Credit: Johannes Schedler
H-alpha Emission
due to ionization
H+
H2
H2
Molecular cloud Atmospheric cloud
Size 1014 km 1 km
Mass 1036 gm 1011 gm
Particle Density 103 cm-3 1019 cm-3
Temperature 2...
• the hydrogen data shows more detailed structure than the visual data, including
many "holes" or bubbles in the hydrogen ...
Hydrogen alpha : 3 -> 2
Emitted an 656nm photon
Electron flip its spin ->
emit 21cm photon
Credits: J. Dickey (UMn), F. Lockman (NRAO), SkyView
HI (Neutral Hydrogen) distribution observed at 21cm
Credit: Bina Butt, Ideum/UC Berkeley
Electromagnetic Wave 電磁波
H-alpha (ionized hydrogen) map
CO survey of molecular hydrogen
Spiral Galaxy Messier 81 in infrared by Spitzer
3.6 micron (blue)
4.5 micron (green)
5.8 micron (yellow)
8.0 micron (red) ...
M16 in infrared by Spitzer
Blue - 4.5 micron
Green – 8 micron
Red – 24 micron
SPECTRAL REGION
WAVELENGTH
RANGE
(micrometer)
TEMPERATURE RANGE
(degrees Kelvin)
WHAT WE SEE
Near-Infrared (0.7-1) to 5 74...
Near Infrared Mid/Far Infrared
Credit: NASA, the NICMOS Group (STScI, ESA), and the NICMOS Science Team (University of Arizona), H. Ford (JHU),
G. Illing...
Spitzer Space Telescope (SST)
史匹哲太空望遠鏡
Launched 發射:
Aug 25, 2003
Chandra X-ray Observatory (CXO)
錢德拉X射線天文臺
Launched 發射:
Jul 23, 1999
Credit: Addison Wesley
Atmospheric Window 大氣視窗
Multiwavelength Milky Way 多波段銀河
Credit: Astrophysics Data Facility, Astronomical Data Center, Space Science Data Operation...
The Great Observatories
四大太空天文臺
Credit: NASA, Sky & Telescope
1. Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (CGRO)
2. Hubble Space Tele...
Three cloud configurations
showing GMCs
(configuration a), a GMC
with an H II blister
(configuration b), and a
giant H II ...
Antennae galaxies
CO integrated intensity map (white contours)
overlaid on a true color HST image of the
Antennae galaxies
Credit: Pearson Education, Addison Wesley
Hydrostatic Equilibrium 流體靜力平衡
壓力
重力
Planck image (ESA),
Nature vol 466, page 928–929
Spitzer image SSC2006-16b
NASA/JPL-Caltech/T. Megeath
(University of Tole...
Protoplanetary Disks
Orion Nebula is the home
to tens of what could be the
forming planetary systems.
Credit: NASA,ESA, M....
Credit: NASA/ESA and L. Ricci (ESO)
Credit: Pearson Education, Addison Wesley
太陽風
光球層
太陽風
輻射層
對流層
色球層
日冕
Main Sequence Star
主序星
Credit: Slim Films
Credit: Addison Wesley
Helium is produced from 4 Hydrogen nuclei
P-P Chain 質子質子鏈 (T<18M K)
P-P Chain 質子質子鏈
Credit: Dept. Physics & Astronomy, University of Tennessee
Credit: Pearson Education, Addison Wesley
CNO Cycle (T>18M K)
Credit: Pearson Education, Addison Wesley
Energy Transport
Credit: Pearson Education, Addison Wesley
亞巨星
Triple-alpha process
Credit: C. Aa Diget, University of Aarhus
2He4
2He4
2He4
6C12
Credit: Pearson Education, Addison Wesley
Credit: Pearson Education, Addison Wesley
NGC7293 Helix Nebula 螺旋星雲
Credit: NASA, ESA, C.R. O’Dell(Vanderbilt U.), M. Meixner and P. McCullough (STScI)
Credit: NASA, ESA, G. Bacon(STScI)
White Dwarf
白矮星
C6 Cat’s Eye Nebula 貓眼星雲
Planetary Nebula
行星狀星雲
Credit: NASA, ESA, HEIC, The Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA), J.P. Harri...
Credit: H. Bond (STScI), B. Balick (University of Washington), NASA, ESA
Cosmic Butterflies 星空蝴蝶
Credit: ESA
Credit: Addison Wesley
58
Oxygen is
produced
Neon is
produced
Magnesium
is produced
Silicon is
produced
Sulfur is
produced...
Credit: Pearson Education, Addison Wesley
Credit: NASA, ESA, P. Challis and R. Kirshner (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics)
Credit: T. Rector/University of Alaska Anchorage and WIYN/NOAO/AURA/NSF
NGC6960 Veil Nebula 面紗星雲
Supernova Remnant
超新星殘骸
CCST9012
Human's Place in the Universe
O, Be A Fine Girl (Guy) Kiss Me
A Timeline of Telescope
Credit: Melissa Thomas
Credit: Gemini Observatory
8m
Gemini North Observatory
雙子座北天文台
Credit: Wei-Hao Wang
Mauna Kea 基亞山
10m
Keck Observatory
凱克天文台
8.2m
Subaru Telescope
昴宿望遠鏡
Hyper Suprime-Cam on NAOJ Subaru Telescope
116 CCDs with a total of 870 million pixels
60cm
Credit: ESO
Very Large Telescope (VLT)
Active optics
Until recently, observations
of the motions of stars near
the Milky Way’s center have
been the closest that
astronomers ha...
Credit: ESA
Launch Date 發射日期: 1990-04-24 12:33:51 UT
Dimensions 尺寸: 15.9m 長 x 4.2m 直徑
Mirror Diameter 口徑: 2.4m
Weight 重量: ...
Credit: ESA
2.4m 主鏡
Primary Mirror
0.3m 副鏡
Secondary Mirror
鏡蓋
Aperture Door
支援系統 Support Systems
如電腦、電池、陀螺儀、反作用輪、電子儀器
e.g...
Wide Field Camera 3
Cosmic Origins
Spectrograph
WFC3 Images
(Wide Field Camera 3) 第三代廣角照相機
Credit: NASA, ESA and the Hubble SM4 ERO Team
Stephan's Quintet 史提芬五重星系
NGC 630...
Credit: NASA,
ESA, M. Livio
and the Hubble
20th
Anniversary
Team (STScI)
Carina Nebula 船底星雲
CCD matrix of Kepler
European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT)
Operation start aim at 2018
37m mirror
Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA)
European Extremely
Large Telescope (E-ELT)
Atacama Large
Millimeter Array (ALMA)
James Webb
Space Telescope (JWST)
Large S...
Multiwavelength astronomy
Multiwavelength astronomy
Multiwavelength astronomy
Multiwavelength astronomy
Multiwavelength astronomy
Multiwavelength astronomy
Multiwavelength astronomy
Multiwavelength astronomy
Multiwavelength astronomy
Multiwavelength astronomy
Multiwavelength astronomy
Multiwavelength astronomy
Multiwavelength astronomy
Multiwavelength astronomy
Multiwavelength astronomy
Multiwavelength astronomy
Multiwavelength astronomy
Multiwavelength astronomy
Multiwavelength astronomy
Multiwavelength astronomy
Multiwavelength astronomy
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  • APOD 20080719
  • Multiwavelength astronomy

    1. 1. Credit: T.A.Rector, B.A.Wolpa, J. Hester, P. Scowen, NASA, ESA, and The Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA), STScI. M16 Eagle Nebula 鷹狀星雲
    2. 2. Credit: Johannes Schedler H-alpha Emission due to ionization
    3. 3. H+ H2 H2
    4. 4. Molecular cloud Atmospheric cloud Size 1014 km 1 km Mass 1036 gm 1011 gm Particle Density 103 cm-3 1019 cm-3 Temperature 20 K 260 K Mol./atomic weight 2.3 29 Dynamical time Million years 5 mins
    5. 5. • the hydrogen data shows more detailed structure than the visual data, including many "holes" or bubbles in the hydrogen emission • the hydrogen emission is more widespread than the visual data and shows regions of the galaxy that at visual frequencies are obscured by dust, as well as bridges or spurs that connect spiral arms, and • nevertheless there are some regions that are more prominent at visual frequencies, most notably the galactic nucleus. M101, the Pinwheel Galaxy optical 21 cm – atomic hydrogen combined
    6. 6. Hydrogen alpha : 3 -> 2 Emitted an 656nm photon
    7. 7. Electron flip its spin -> emit 21cm photon
    8. 8. Credits: J. Dickey (UMn), F. Lockman (NRAO), SkyView HI (Neutral Hydrogen) distribution observed at 21cm
    9. 9. Credit: Bina Butt, Ideum/UC Berkeley Electromagnetic Wave 電磁波
    10. 10. H-alpha (ionized hydrogen) map
    11. 11. CO survey of molecular hydrogen
    12. 12. Spiral Galaxy Messier 81 in infrared by Spitzer 3.6 micron (blue) 4.5 micron (green) 5.8 micron (yellow) 8.0 micron (red) Distribution of dust
    13. 13. M16 in infrared by Spitzer Blue - 4.5 micron Green – 8 micron Red – 24 micron
    14. 14. SPECTRAL REGION WAVELENGTH RANGE (micrometer) TEMPERATURE RANGE (degrees Kelvin) WHAT WE SEE Near-Infrared (0.7-1) to 5 740 to (3,000-5,200) Cooler red stars Red giants Dust is transparent Mid-Infrared 5 to (25-40) (92.5-140) to 740 Planets, comets and asteroids Dust warmed by starlight Protoplanetary disks Far-Infrared (25-40) to (200-350) (10.6-18.5) to (92.5- 140) Emission from cold dust Central regions of galaxies Very cold molecular clouds
    15. 15. Near Infrared Mid/Far Infrared
    16. 16. Credit: NASA, the NICMOS Group (STScI, ESA), and the NICMOS Science Team (University of Arizona), H. Ford (JHU), G. Illingworth (UCSC/LO), M.Clampin (STScI), G. Hartig (STScI), the ACS Science Team, The Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA) and ESA
    17. 17. Spitzer Space Telescope (SST) 史匹哲太空望遠鏡 Launched 發射: Aug 25, 2003
    18. 18. Chandra X-ray Observatory (CXO) 錢德拉X射線天文臺 Launched 發射: Jul 23, 1999
    19. 19. Credit: Addison Wesley Atmospheric Window 大氣視窗
    20. 20. Multiwavelength Milky Way 多波段銀河 Credit: Astrophysics Data Facility, Astronomical Data Center, Space Science Data Operations Office, NASA
    21. 21. The Great Observatories 四大太空天文臺 Credit: NASA, Sky & Telescope 1. Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (CGRO) 2. Hubble Space Telescope (HST) 3. Spitzer Space Telescope (SST) 4. Chandra X-ray Observatory (CXO) 31 2 4
    22. 22. Three cloud configurations showing GMCs (configuration a), a GMC with an H II blister (configuration b), and a giant H II region with molecular fragments (configuration c) with stars forming in all of them.
    23. 23. Antennae galaxies
    24. 24. CO integrated intensity map (white contours) overlaid on a true color HST image of the Antennae galaxies
    25. 25. Credit: Pearson Education, Addison Wesley Hydrostatic Equilibrium 流體靜力平衡 壓力 重力
    26. 26. Planck image (ESA), Nature vol 466, page 928–929 Spitzer image SSC2006-16b NASA/JPL-Caltech/T. Megeath (University of Toledo, Ohio)
    27. 27. Protoplanetary Disks Orion Nebula is the home to tens of what could be the forming planetary systems. Credit: NASA,ESA, M. Robberto (STScI) and the HST Orion Treasury Project Team
    28. 28. Credit: NASA/ESA and L. Ricci (ESO)
    29. 29. Credit: Pearson Education, Addison Wesley 太陽風 光球層 太陽風 輻射層 對流層 色球層 日冕 Main Sequence Star 主序星
    30. 30. Credit: Slim Films
    31. 31. Credit: Addison Wesley Helium is produced from 4 Hydrogen nuclei P-P Chain 質子質子鏈 (T<18M K)
    32. 32. P-P Chain 質子質子鏈 Credit: Dept. Physics & Astronomy, University of Tennessee
    33. 33. Credit: Pearson Education, Addison Wesley CNO Cycle (T>18M K)
    34. 34. Credit: Pearson Education, Addison Wesley Energy Transport
    35. 35. Credit: Pearson Education, Addison Wesley 亞巨星
    36. 36. Triple-alpha process Credit: C. Aa Diget, University of Aarhus 2He4 2He4 2He4 6C12
    37. 37. Credit: Pearson Education, Addison Wesley
    38. 38. Credit: Pearson Education, Addison Wesley
    39. 39. NGC7293 Helix Nebula 螺旋星雲 Credit: NASA, ESA, C.R. O’Dell(Vanderbilt U.), M. Meixner and P. McCullough (STScI)
    40. 40. Credit: NASA, ESA, G. Bacon(STScI) White Dwarf 白矮星
    41. 41. C6 Cat’s Eye Nebula 貓眼星雲 Planetary Nebula 行星狀星雲 Credit: NASA, ESA, HEIC, The Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA), J.P. Harrington, K.J. Borkowski (University of Maryland), Nordic Optical Telescope and Romano Corradi (Isaac Newton Group of Telescopes, Spain)
    42. 42. Credit: H. Bond (STScI), B. Balick (University of Washington), NASA, ESA
    43. 43. Cosmic Butterflies 星空蝴蝶 Credit: ESA
    44. 44. Credit: Addison Wesley 58 Oxygen is produced Neon is produced Magnesium is produced Silicon is produced Sulfur is produced Iron is produced
    45. 45. Credit: Pearson Education, Addison Wesley
    46. 46. Credit: NASA, ESA, P. Challis and R. Kirshner (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics)
    47. 47. Credit: T. Rector/University of Alaska Anchorage and WIYN/NOAO/AURA/NSF NGC6960 Veil Nebula 面紗星雲 Supernova Remnant 超新星殘骸
    48. 48. CCST9012 Human's Place in the Universe
    49. 49. O, Be A Fine Girl (Guy) Kiss Me
    50. 50. A Timeline of Telescope Credit: Melissa Thomas
    51. 51. Credit: Gemini Observatory 8m Gemini North Observatory 雙子座北天文台
    52. 52. Credit: Wei-Hao Wang Mauna Kea 基亞山 10m Keck Observatory 凱克天文台 8.2m Subaru Telescope 昴宿望遠鏡
    53. 53. Hyper Suprime-Cam on NAOJ Subaru Telescope 116 CCDs with a total of 870 million pixels 60cm
    54. 54. Credit: ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT)
    55. 55. Active optics
    56. 56. Until recently, observations of the motions of stars near the Milky Way’s center have been the closest that astronomers have come to observing the event horizon of the black hole Sgr A*. The stars’ orbits (dashed lines) reveal that they are in the thrall of a very compact object with a mass of 4.5 million suns. Colored dots mark the stars’ positions each year from 1995 to 2008. The background is a 2008 infrared image of the stars (and others). The star S0-16 comes closest to Sgr A*— within seven light-hours—but even that distance remains 600 times larger than the event horizon’s radius .
    57. 57. Credit: ESA Launch Date 發射日期: 1990-04-24 12:33:51 UT Dimensions 尺寸: 15.9m 長 x 4.2m 直徑 Mirror Diameter 口徑: 2.4m Weight 重量: 11110 kg Orbital altitude 軌道高度: 568 km Orbital time 軌道周期: 96 min 哈勃太空望遠鏡
    58. 58. Credit: ESA 2.4m 主鏡 Primary Mirror 0.3m 副鏡 Secondary Mirror 鏡蓋 Aperture Door 支援系統 Support Systems 如電腦、電池、陀螺儀、反作用輪、電子儀器 e.g. Computers, batteries, gyroscopes, reaction wheels, electronics 太陽能板 Solar Panels 通訊天線 Communication Antennae 精密導星感應器 Fine Guidance Sensors (FGS) 科學儀器 Scientific Instruments (WFC3, ACS, NICMOS, STIS, COS)
    59. 59. Wide Field Camera 3 Cosmic Origins Spectrograph
    60. 60. WFC3 Images (Wide Field Camera 3) 第三代廣角照相機 Credit: NASA, ESA and the Hubble SM4 ERO Team Stephan's Quintet 史提芬五重星系 NGC 6302 Carina Nebula 船底星雲 Omega Cluster 奧米加星團
    61. 61. Credit: NASA, ESA, M. Livio and the Hubble 20th Anniversary Team (STScI) Carina Nebula 船底星雲
    62. 62. CCD matrix of Kepler
    63. 63. European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT) Operation start aim at 2018 37m mirror
    64. 64. Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA)
    65. 65. European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT) Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST)

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