Stress Management
Chethna Menon
Definition
STRESS
 “a persons adaptive response to stimulus that
places excessive psychological and physical
demands on h...
Eustress & Distress
Proposed by Dr. Hans Selye are the concepts of
“Eustress” , “Distress” and the phenomenon of “
General...
General Adaptation Syndrome.(GAS)
 Refers o the defensive system designed to help a

person to cope with any environmenta...
General Adaptation Syndrome.(GAS)
THE ALARM STAGE
 The external stressors causes biochemical and
psychological changes in...
General Adaptation Syndrome.(GAS)
THE EXHAUSTION STAGE
 If the person is exposed to the stressor for a
longer period wher...
General Adaptation Syndrome.(GAS)
The Causes of stress.
 Extra organizational Stressors
 Organizational Stressors
 Group stressors

 Individual stressor...
Extra Organizational Stressors
 Social & Technological Changes
 Family problems
 Relocation
 Economic & Financial Cond...
Organizational Stressors
Macro – Level organizational stressors – Fred
Luthans.
 ADMINISTRATIVE POLICIES AND
STRATEGIES
o...
Organizational Stressors ( Macro
level)
 ORGANISATIONAL STRUCTURES AND
o
o
o

o
o
o

DESIGN
Centralization and formalizat...
Organizational Stressors ( Macro
level)
 ORGANISATIONAL PROCESS
o
o
o
o

o
o

Tight controls
Only downward communication
...
Organizational Stressors ( Macro
level)
 WORKING CONDITIONS.
o Crowded work area
o Noise, heat or cold
o Polluted air
o S...
Organizational Stressors (Others)
Proposed by Curtis. W. Cook, Philip .L. Hunsaker
and Robert.
E. Coffey.
 High – Stress ...
Group Stressors
 Absence of group Cohesiveness
 Absence of support from other members
 Conflict related to groups.
Individual Stressors
 ROLE CONFLICT AND AMBIGUITY
o Role conflict is a Conflicts among the roles

corresponding to two or...
Individual Stressors
LOCUS OF CONTROL
 The degree of control that an individual exercises
over his work environment is kn...
Individual Stressors
SELF EFFICACY
 Is defined as the self perception of how well a person
can cope with situations as th...
The Effects Of Occupational
Stress.
PHYSICAL PROBLEMS
 Early symptoms are head ache, increase in BP,
sweating, hot flushe...
The Effects Of Occupational
Stress.
BEHAVIORAL PROBLEM.
 Symptoms are sleep disorders, overeating, loss
of appetite, incr...
Stress And Performance
STRATEGIES TO COPE
STRESS
.
Strategies To Cope Stress.
 Various methods can be used to combat stress at

both individual level as well as organizatio...
Methods To Mange Stress
Effectively.
PROBLEM FOCUSED STRATEGY
 Identify the stressors responsible for negative
symptoms e...
Individual Strategies To Cope With
Stress.
 PROBLEM FOCUSED STRATEGIES
o Time management

o Requesting others to help.
o ...
Organizational Strategies To Cope
With Stress.
 PROBLEM FOCUSED STRATEGIES
o Redesigning the job
o Proper selection and p...
Organizational Strategies to cope
with stress.
 EMOTION FOCUSED STRATEGIES
o Providing open communication within the

org...
Stress management and strategies to cope with individual and organisational stress.
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Stress management and strategies to cope with individual and organisational stress.

  1. 1. Stress Management Chethna Menon
  2. 2. Definition STRESS  “a persons adaptive response to stimulus that places excessive psychological and physical demands on him or her”.  Stress is induced by a stimulus known as stressor  Stressors may be physical or psychological in nature and place an excessive demand on an individual. JOB STRESS  “dynamic condition in which an individual is confronted with an opportunity, constraint, or demand related to what he or she desires and for which the outcome is perceived to be both uncertain and important”.
  3. 3. Eustress & Distress Proposed by Dr. Hans Selye are the concepts of “Eustress” , “Distress” and the phenomenon of “ General Adaptation Syndrome”. EUSTRESS  Positive stress. Positive stress is a pleasant form of stress caused by desirable stimuli. Positive stresses enhances a persons performance. For example : Excelling in examination or Job promotion DISTRESS  Negative stress which causes mental agitation. Prolonged exposure to negative stress can have many harmful effects on individuals. For example financial troubles or heavy work load
  4. 4. General Adaptation Syndrome.(GAS)  Refers o the defensive system designed to help a person to cope with any environmental demand perceived as threatening.  GAS outlines three stages of coping with stress. THE ALARM STAGE 2. THE RESISTANCE STAGE. 3. THE EXHAUSTION STAGE. 1.
  5. 5. General Adaptation Syndrome.(GAS) THE ALARM STAGE  The external stressors causes biochemical and psychological changes in the body , such as an increase in blood pressure and rate of respiration. THE RESISTANCE STAGE  On prolonged exposure to a stressor the GAS moves to second stage. Here the person tries to cope with the stressor by devising a plan to complete the task assigned or flee the stressor by delegating the task to some one else.
  6. 6. General Adaptation Syndrome.(GAS) THE EXHAUSTION STAGE  If the person is exposed to the stressor for a longer period where he feels drained and reaches the final stage.  In this stage , the individual is depleted of all energy and may be on the verge of breakdown.  When a person does not want to perform a particular activity or is unable to do it well, he may feel exhausted and frustrated and prolonged exposure to such situation may result in either depression, nervous breakdown or burnout.
  7. 7. General Adaptation Syndrome.(GAS)
  8. 8. The Causes of stress.  Extra organizational Stressors  Organizational Stressors  Group stressors  Individual stressors.
  9. 9. Extra Organizational Stressors  Social & Technological Changes  Family problems  Relocation  Economic & Financial Conditions  Race & Class  Residential & Community Conditions.
  10. 10. Organizational Stressors Macro – Level organizational stressors – Fred Luthans.  ADMINISTRATIVE POLICIES AND STRATEGIES o Downsizing o Competitive Pressures. o Merit pay plans o Rotating work shifts o Bureaucratic rules o Advanced technology
  11. 11. Organizational Stressors ( Macro level)  ORGANISATIONAL STRUCTURES AND o o o o o o DESIGN Centralization and formalization Line – staff conflicts Specialization Role ambiguity and conflict No opportunity for promotion Restrictive , Untrusting Culture.
  12. 12. Organizational Stressors ( Macro level)  ORGANISATIONAL PROCESS o o o o o o Tight controls Only downward communication Little performance feedback Centralized decision making Lack of participation in decisions Punitive appraisal system
  13. 13. Organizational Stressors ( Macro level)  WORKING CONDITIONS. o Crowded work area o Noise, heat or cold o Polluted air o Strong odour o Unsafe, dangerous conditions o Physical or mental strain o Toxic chemicals or radiations
  14. 14. Organizational Stressors (Others) Proposed by Curtis. W. Cook, Philip .L. Hunsaker and Robert. E. Coffey.  High – Stress Jobs  Job role  Poor working conditions  Organizational politics  Poor work relationship.
  15. 15. Group Stressors  Absence of group Cohesiveness  Absence of support from other members  Conflict related to groups.
  16. 16. Individual Stressors  ROLE CONFLICT AND AMBIGUITY o Role conflict is a Conflicts among the roles corresponding to two or more Statuses o Role ambiguity occurs when people are unclear or uncertain about their expectations within a certain role, typically their role in the job or workplace. Role ambiguity arises when the definition of the person's job is vague or ill defined. TYPE A CHARACTERISTICS  Are prone to high levels of stress because they tend to have work loads, put in long hours of work and are under constant pressure to met deadlines. They strive
  17. 17. Individual Stressors LOCUS OF CONTROL  The degree of control that an individual exercises over his work environment is known as locus of control. People with internal locus of control are less vulnerable to stress than those with external locus of control. LEARNED HELPLESSNESS  Behavior of certain individuals who become helpless in a stressful situation and do not attempt to change things. They learn to accept certain stressors as apart of their work life, and believe that nothing they do can change or alter their stressors' he reason could be lack of control based on their personal characteristics, were stable and lasting and were universal in nature.
  18. 18. Individual Stressors SELF EFFICACY  Is defined as the self perception of how well a person can cope with situations as they arise. People with high self efficacy tend to preserve and do a good job without being stressed out . they remain calm even in difficult situations. PSYCHOLOGICAL HARDINESS  Refers to a person’s ability to cope with stress. A person with high level psychological hardiness have the ability to cope with tremendous amount of stress they high an internal locus of control they believe that they are the master of their own fate. They are strongly committed to goals and receptive to change. On the other hand people with low psychological hardiness are nervous prone to stress – related illness.
  19. 19. The Effects Of Occupational Stress. PHYSICAL PROBLEMS  Early symptoms are head ache, increase in BP, sweating, hot flushes, loss of appetite, gastrointestinal disorders and fatigue. Prolonged exposure leads, high BP, ulcers, high level of cholesterol and heart diseases. PSYCHOLOGICAL PROBLEM  Makes a person feel angry , anxious, bored, depressed, dissatisfied, tense, irritated.  Prolonged exposure makes them aggressive, hostile, resentment lower self esteem resulting in poor performance and dissatisfaction
  20. 20. The Effects Of Occupational Stress. BEHAVIORAL PROBLEM.  Symptoms are sleep disorders, overeating, loss of appetite, increased smoking, alcohol consumption, use of addictives like drugs, rude behavior. And nervousness in social interaction such as rapid speech fidgeting.  In extreme cases becomes violent and even attacks other people.
  21. 21. Stress And Performance
  22. 22. STRATEGIES TO COPE STRESS .
  23. 23. Strategies To Cope Stress.  Various methods can be used to combat stress at both individual level as well as organizational level. At either these level stress management focuses on three basic steps. 1. Understanding that stress can have a negative effect on both a person’s behavior and his performance at work. The management as well as employee should understand that poor performance, irritability, aggression, absenteeism etc are all symptoms of stress. 2. The second step is identifying those stressors which affects individuals behavior and performance at work. 3. The final step involves taking constructive measures to help them cope with stress.
  24. 24. Methods To Mange Stress Effectively. PROBLEM FOCUSED STRATEGY  Identify the stressors responsible for negative symptoms either eliminate or modify the stressor. EMOTION FOCUSSED STRATEGY  Teaching people how to control their emotions so that they are not negatively affected by stress.
  25. 25. Individual Strategies To Cope With Stress.  PROBLEM FOCUSED STRATEGIES o Time management o Requesting others to help. o Shifting to another job.  EMOTION FOCUSED STRATEGIES o o o o o Relaxation Exercise Psychological strategies Recreation Companionship
  26. 26. Organizational Strategies To Cope With Stress.  PROBLEM FOCUSED STRATEGIES o Redesigning the job o Proper selection and placement o Training o Team building o Providing various day care facilities
  27. 27. Organizational Strategies to cope with stress.  EMOTION FOCUSED STRATEGIES o Providing open communication within the organization o Employee assistance program o Mentoring o Wellness programs and personal time off.

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