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Stress mental ilness 3

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  • 1. STRESS AND MENTALSTRESS AND MENTAL ILLNESSILLNESS DR LOKESH BABU NEURO PSYCHIATRIST SNEHA MANO VIKASA KLENDRA AND CHETAN B V B PSYCHOTHERAPIST SNEHAMANOVIKASA KENDRA TUMKUR
  • 2. WHAT IS STRESS? IT CAN BE DEFINED AS A DEMAND ON A HUMAN BEING.THE DEMAND CAN BE BIOLOGICAL OR PSYCHOSOCIAL IN NATURE AND IT NEGATIVELY INFLUENCES ON THE HOMEOSTASIS OF BODY,MIND AND PERSONALITY STRESS IS NEGATVE PSYCHOLOGICAL RESPONSES TO THE SITIUATIONS AND EVENTS WHAT IS STRESSOR? STRESS AND STRESSOR IS ALWAYS CONFUSING STESSOR REFERS TO THE IGNITING AGENT,STRESS TO THE RESPONSE
  • 3. STRESS SELYE IS (1936) IS CONSIDERD AS FATHER OF STRESS RESEARCH AND HE MADE IT POPULAR HE DISCOVERED THAT VARIETY OF THE PHYSICAL STIMULS SUCH AS REMOVING KIDNEY,OVARY OR ANY OTHER ORGAN AND PHYSICAL STIMULI THAT PROVOKED BY COLD ,HEAT IS LED TO ULCERATION OF THE GASTRO INTESTINAL TRACT AND INCREASED ACTIVITY IN ADREANAL CORTEX. ACCORDING TO HIM STRSS IS HAVING THREE PHASE ALARAM PHASES HOMEOSTAIC PROCESS ARE DISRUPTED AND RAPID CHANGS OCCUR IN BLOOD PRESSURE,HEART RATE,GLUCOSE LEVALS AND ELECROLYTE BALANCE RSISTANCE PHASE HERE ORGANISM WOULD ACHIEVE ADAPTATION TO THE HARMFULL EFFECTS OF STRESS EXHAUSTION PHASE FURTHER EXPOSURE TO THE STRESSOR LEADS PATHOLOGICAL CHAGES LIKE ULCEAR,IMMUNE
  • 4. STRESS AND BRAIN LIVING ORGANISM STRIVE TOWARDS DYNAMIC EQUILIBRIUM CALLED HOMEOSTASIS IT CAN BE THREATENED BY VARIETIES OF BIOLOGICAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL VAIRIABLES LIMBIC BRAIN [ HIPPOCAMPUS,AMYGDALA AND FRONTALCORTEX ] ARE RESPONSIBLE FOR STRESS RESPONSE STRESS INCREASES THE PRODUCTION OF CORTICOCORTITROPHIN HORMONES AND CHANGES THE LEVAL OF SEROTONIN AND DOPOMINE
  • 5. BIOLOGICAL COPING SYSTEM PHYSIOLGICALLY THER ARE TWO WAYS ALLOSTASIS ALLOSATIC LOAD THE ABILITY TO RE ESTABLISH HOMEOSTSIS THROUGH CERTAIN CHANGES EXCESSIVE OR PROLONGED STRESS DISTURBS HOMEOSTASIS AND ULTIMATLEY LEADS TO DISEASE ADAPTIVE SELF PRESERVATIVE SHORT LASTING SELF DESTRUTIVE LONG LOSTING
  • 6. COPING WITH STRESS INTO ACTION TO PREVENT,REDUCE AND AVOID STRESSOR COPING MECHANISM ARE BROUHHT ACCORDING TO LAZARUS PSYCHOLOGICALLY THERE ARE TWO WA FIGHT OR FLIGHT CONSERVATIVE OR WITHDRAWL ACTIVE PASSIVE GOAL ORIENTED FIND COMPENSETATION GET SOCIAL SUPPORT EVADES SUBMITS OR RESIGNS DENIAL DISTANCESSUPRESSION
  • 7. LAZARUS (1966) LATER INVENTED THAT PSYCHOSOCIAL EVENTS,DEMANDS AND SITUATIONS ALSO IFLUENCES ON THE HOMEOSTSIS OF AN ORGANISM EXAMPEL S FAILURES IN EXAMS,BUSINESS,LOVE ETC LIVING ALONE,DIVORCE,DEATH OF A FAMILY MEMBE FINANCIAL CRISIS,DEPENDENCE, JOB DISSATISFACTION,LOSS,DEPROMOTION THESE STRESSORS INFLUENCES THE EMOTIONS JOY TO DESPONDENCY TRANQULITY TO ANXIETY ,MELLOWNESS TO ANGER INWARD PEACE TO GUILT,GENEROSITY TO ENVY SELF CONFIDENCE TO SHAME,CONTENTMENT TO BITTERNESS
  • 8. STRESS AND HUMAN BEHAVIOUR STRESS EVOKE PSYCHIC TENSION AND IFLUENCES ON BEHAVIOUR STRESSED SUBJECTS MAY BE IRRITABLE TENSE AGGRESSIVE DISTRACTED DISINTRSTED ANXIOUS AGITATED AND SLEEPLESSNESS
  • 9. ANXIETY DISORDERS ANXIETY DISORDER IS MOST PREVALENT MENTAL DISORDER IN THE GENERAL POPULATION EVERY ONE EXPERIENCES ANXIETY AND ANXIETY IS ALERTING SIGNAL;IT WARNS OF IMPENDING DANGER AND ENABELS A PERSON TO TAKE MEASURE TO DEAL WITH A THREAT.ANXIETY IS A RESPONSE TO A THREAT THAT IS UNKNOWN,INTERNAL,VAGUE OR CONFLICTUAL. FEAR IS A RESPONSE TO A KNOWN,EXTERNAL,DEFINITE, OR NON CONFLICTUAL THREAT; FEAR VERSUS ANXIETY
  • 10. BIOLOGICAL CAUSES ACCORDING TO SIGMUND FREUD,CONFLICTS BETWEEN ID,EGO AND SUPER EGO IS RESPONSIBLE FOR ANXIETY ACCORDING TO BEHAVIOURAL AND LEARNING THEORIES ,ANXIETY IS CONDITINAL RESPONSE TO SPECIFIC ENVIORNMENTAL STIMULUS EXISTENTIAL THEORY IS THAT, ANY PERSON EXPERIENCE FEELINGS OF LIVING IN PURPOSLESS LIVING AND ANXIETY RESPONSE IS TO PERCIEVED VOID IN EXISTENCE AND MEANING BIOLOGICALLY; STIMULATION IN AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM CAUSES CORDIVASCULAR (PALPITATION), MUSCULAR(HEAD ACHE, GASTRI INTESTINAL(DIARRHEA) AND RESPIRATORY CHANGES NEURO TRANSMITTERS LIKE NOR EPINEPHRINE, SEROTONIN, GAMA AMINO BUTYRIC ACID ARE ASSOCIATED WITH ANXIETY PSYCHOLOGICAL CAUSES
  • 11. SOCIAL CAUSES FAULTY PARENTING HOSTILE ENVIORNMENT & PEOPLE UNRESOLVED CONFLICTS DEFFECTIVE LEARNING PROCESS COPING SKILLS HIGH TARGETS AND PRESSURE LIMITED SOURCE OF MONEY,TIME,SUPPORT CERTAIN JOBS - DRIVING,BUSINESS, LEADERS,EXECUTIVES,POLICE, ARMY ETC
  • 12. SYMPTOMS IN ANXIETY PSYCHOLOGICAL APPREHENSION, VAGUE FEAR (FEAR OF SOMETHING), LACK OF ATTENTION POOR CONCENTRATION AND LEARNING IMPAIRED MEMORY IN ABILITY TO TAKE PROPER DECISION IRRIATABILTY SHORT TEMPER ILLUSION IMPULSIVE
  • 13. BIOLOGICAL SYMPTOMS INCREASED HEART BEATS MISSED HEART BEAT BREATHING DIFFICULTY CONSTRICTON IN CHEST TREMORS IN HAND LACK OF APPETITE INDIGESION NAUSEAVOMITTING DIARRHOEA FREQUENT URINATION SLEEP DISTURBANCE NIGHTMARE BEDWETTING INABILTY TO SIT AND STAND PREMATURE EJACULATION LACK OF SEXUAL PERFORMANCE INTREST AND SATISFACTION WEAKNESS AND FATIGABILITY
  • 14. TYPES OF ANXIETY DISORDES PANIC DISORDER WITH OR WITHOUT AGROAPHOBIA AGORIPHOBIA WITH OR WITHOUT PANIC DISORDER SPECIFIC PHOBIA SOCIAL PHOBIA OBCESSIVE CIMPULSION DISORDER( O C D ) POST TRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER (PTSD) ACUTE STRESS DISORDER GENEARALIZED ANXIETY DISORDER
  • 15. Feared situationsFeared situations Social (where one may be judged) Performance (where a public performance is required)  Attending functionsAttending functions (weddings* / parties)(weddings* / parties) • Conversation in aConversation in a groupDatinggroupDating • Speaking on the telephoneSpeaking on the telephone • Meeting peopleMeeting people • Eating in a restaurantEating in a restaurant •PUPLIC SPEAKING • Using a keyboard inUsing a keyboard in publicpublic • Playing sportsPlaying sports • Using a public toiletUsing a public toilet • Taking a testTaking a test • Trying on clothes in aTrying on clothes in a shopshop SOCIAL PHOBIA
  • 16. PANIC ATTACK A DISCRETE PERIOD OF INTENSE FEAR OR DISCOMFORT IN WHICH FOLLOWING SYMPTOMS DEVELOP ABRUPTLY PALPITATIONS,POUNDING HEART OR ACCELERATED HEART RATE SWEATING TREMBLING AND SHAKING FEELING OF CHOKENESS CHEST PAIN AND DISCOMFORT NAUSEA AND ABDOMINAL DISTRESS FEELING DIZZY,UNSTEADY,LIGHTHEADED OR FAINT FEAR OF FEAR OF LOOSING CONTROL OR GOING CRAZY NUMBENESS AND TINGLING CHILLS AND HOT FLASHES
  • 17. Anxiety disorder in children EXCESSIVE CRYING NOT TAKING PROPER FOOD VOMITTING AND DIARRHOEA SLEEP DISTURBANCE NIGHTMARES BED WETTING AND LOSS OF BLADDER CONTROL EXCESSIVE THUMB SUCKING PLAYING WITH GENITALS IRRATIONAL FEARS SPEECH DISTURBANCE STAMMERING CONDUCT DISORDERS DRUG ABUSE,SEXUAL PROMISCUITY PSYCHOSOMATIC ILLNESS; HEADACHE ABDOMINAL PAIN DYSENTRY ASTHAMA OBESITY
  • 18. TREATMENT DRUGS ANXIOLYTICS DIAZEPAM CHLORO DIAZEPAM NITRIZEPAM LORAZEPAM ALPROZOLAMPROPRANOLOL PSYCHOTHERAPY COUNSELLING FAMILY THERAPY & BEHAVIOUR THERAPY BIOFEEDBACK, MBT PROGRESSIVE MUSCLE RELAXATION, YOGA,PRANAYAMA MEDITATON
  • 19. (SILENT SUFFERING) DEPRESSED Mood disorders MOOD IS A FEELING PART OF THE MIND ,IT IS PERVASIVE AND SUSTAINED FEELING TONE THAT IS EXPERIENCED INTRNALLY AND INFLUENCES A PERSON’S BEHAVIOUR AND PERCEPTION OF THE WORLD AFFECT IS EXTERNAL EXPRESSION OF THE MOOD MAINLY THREE TYPES OF MOODS ARE THERE NORMAL ELEVATED NORMAL PERSON SENSES CONTROL OVER THE MOODS AND AFFECTS ABNORMAL PERSON SENSES LOSS OF CONTROL AND EXPERIENCES GREAT DISTRESS
  • 20. TYPES OF MOOD DISORDER MOOD EPISODE MOOD DISORDER MAJOR DEPRESSIVE EPISODE MANIC EPISODE MIXED EPISODE HYPOMANIC EPISODE MAJOR DEPRESSIVE DISORDER DYSTHYMIC DISORDER BIPOLAR DISORDER BIPOLAR II DISORDER DEPRESSIVE MOOD DISORDER DUE TO MEDICAL CONDITION SUBSTANCE INDUCED MOOD DISORDER DEPRESSIVE DISORDER NOT OTHERWISE SPECIFIED BIPOLAR I DISORDER CYCLOTHYMIC DISORDER NOT OTHERWISES PECIFIED
  • 21. depression DEPRESSION IS INTERNAL SADNESS AND DISTRESSED FEELING AND EPISODE MUST LAST AT LEAST TWO WEEKS (SUFFERING) MAIN FEATURES OF DEPRESSION FEELING OF SADNESS,CRYING SPELLS SELF BLAMING INFERIROTY GUILT HOPLELESSNESS WORTHLESNESS LACK OF INTRESTS IN MAJOR ACTIVITES DECREASED APPETITE AND SLEEP SEXUAL DYSFUNCTIONS SUCIDAL THOUGHTS,WISHES AND ATTEMPTS MULTIPLE AND VAGUE BODY ACHES
  • 22. TYPES OF DEPRESSIVE DISORDES (UNIPOLAR DEPRESSION) MAJOR DEPRESSIVE DISORDER DYSTHYMIC DISORDER DEPRESSIVE DISORDER NOT OTHERWISE SPECIFIED (ENDOGENEOUS) (NEUROTIC) (DSM 4)
  • 23. TWO TYPES OF DEPRESSION ENDOGENEOUS NEUROTIC DEPRESSION LOW LEVAL DOPAMINE AND SEROTONIN WITH OR WITHOUT STRESS FACTOR RESTLESS AGITATED AVOID PEOPLE GUILT FEELING SUCCESSFUL ATTEMPTS OF SUCIDE
  • 24. CAUSES OF DEPRESSION BIOLOGICAL CAUSES HIGH BP ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES HYPO THYROIDISM PARKINSON’S DISEASE FRONTAL LOBE TUMORS VIRAL INFECTIONS DECREASED NOREPINEPHRINE,SEROTONIN,DOPAMINE LEVALS GENITIC FACTORS GROWTH HORMONE
  • 25. ACCORDING TO SIGMUND FREUD DISTURBANCE IN THE INFANT-MOTHER RELATIONSHIP DURING ORAL PHASE IS VULNERABLE TO DEPRESSION PSYCHOSOCIAL CAUSES EARLY ATTACMENTS,TRAUMATIC SEPERATION,VICTIMIZED BY PARENTS,LIVING UNDER DOMINATION,EXTRODINARY HIGH IDEALS. PERSONALITY DISORDERS LIKE OCD ,HISTRIONIC AND BORDERLINE LOSS OF MONEY,PEOPLE,STATUS ETC UNEXPECTED LIFE EVENTS;DEATH,ACCIDENTS ETC NEEDS ARE NOT FULLFILLED,
  • 26. SOCIAL CAUSES UNEXPECTED LFE EVENTS; DEATH,ACCIDENT ETC LOSS OF MONEY ,PEOPLE ,STATUS,ETC SEPERATION FROM LOVED ONES,LOVE FAILURES, DISTURBED INTERPERSONEL RELATIONSHIPS SIGNIFICANT PERSON DOES NOT RECIPROCATING LOVE,AFFECTION,TRUST ,COOPERATION JOB RELATED PROBLEMS; LACK OF RECOGNITION, NO INCRIMENTS,UNWANTED TRANSFERS,HOSTILE ENVIORNMENT COURT CASE,POLICE HARASMENT,UNEMPLOYMENT,INJUSTICE, EXPLOITATION,CHEATING,INFIDIELITY OF SPOUSE,DIVORCE PAINFULL AND LONG LOSTING DISEASES
  • 27. TREATMENT FOR DEPRESSION ANTI DPRESSANT DRUGS IMIPRAMINE AMITRIPTYLINE DOXEPIN FLOXETINE SERTALINE ELECTRO CONVULSIVE THERAPY INDUCING ELECTRICAL SHOCK FOR 0.5 SECONDS MBT PSYCHOTHERAPY AND COUNSELLING BRAIN POLARAISER FAMILY COGNITIVE PSYCHO ANALYSIS REGRESSION
  • 28. FIRST AID IN DEPRESSION DO NOT BE ALONE SHARE YOUR THOUGHT DO NOT REMAIN IDLE CHANGE THE PLACE AND SITIUATION ALLOW POSITIVE THOUGHT ACCEPT REALITY TRY TO GET SUPPORT AND LOVE DIVERT YOUR ATTENTION BY INVOLVING CREATIVE ACTIVITES PRAY & MEDITATE LOOK AT BRIGHTER SIDES OF THE LIFE AND PERSONALITY

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