content• Meaning• Definition• Natures of perception• Factors influencing perception• Process of perception• Interpersonal perception• Perception in organization
• When you change the way you look at things, the things you look at change.
What is Perception? A process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment. People’s behavior is based on their perception of what reality is, not on reality itself. The world as it is perceived is the world that is behaviorally important.
Perception What is Perception? How we view and interpret the events and situations in the world about us. Why is it Important? Because people’s behavior is based on their perception of what reality is, not on reality itself.
Natures of perception• Knowledge about human behavior• Future prediction• Better understanding of needs• Employee interviews• Reducing errors• Assessment of performance• Impression/ loyalty of a Employee
1.Knowledge about human behavior: A basic fact that a human behaviour is an effect caused by the perception. When one perceives would result into effect in the form of behaviour.
• Future prediction: The management may predict the future probable behaviour based on their perceptions about the people.
• Better understanding of needs: It is established fact that, perceptions are supported by the needs. They are need based. If the need is very urgent the perception is different on the other hand if the need can be differed, the perception differs.
• Reducing errors: A proper perception assist in reducing the possibility of committing an errors.
• Impression/ loyalty of a Employee: When evaluating an employee’s loyalty, a manager is involved with person’s perception. This is an important judgement that managers make about employees.
INTERNAL (ENDOGENEOUS) EXTERNAL(EXOGENEOUS)Needs and Desires ContrastPersonality Size Culture IntensityPsychological state FrequencyExpectation StatusExperience Movement
(A) ENDOGENEOUS FACTORS- The factors which taking place within the individual are called ENDOGENEOUS FACTORS.(1) Needs and Desires- An individual says “I NEED HOME”. It means he is presently discomfort with existing rented house or he is feeling inconveniency, with the present.
(2) Personality- Personality of an individual refers to the act of influencing others through their external appearances of actions. To be precise, it deals with the study of characterstics and traits of an individual, relationship between these traits and the way in which a personal adjust to the other people and situation.
(3) Culture – The cultural factors such as values, morality, ethics beliefs, holy practices etc. influencing the perceptions.
(4) Psychological state – we often here people saying ‘he is a moody person?’ The subordinates before meeting the authorities consult with colleagues about ‘mood of the boss’. The statement proves that, an individual may not be always in the same Psychological status. The change in Psychological leads to change in perception.
(5) Experience - Experience and knowledge have a constant bearing on perception. Successful experiences enhance and boost the perceptive abilities and lead to accuracy in perception of a person.
(6) Expectation- The perception depends upon the expectations. If a person always expecting high, he accepts difficulty as challenges and faces them. He perceives them as a positive factors or opportunities.
External factors: Also known as exogenous factors, theyalso influence the perception of a person. Perceptionis affected by the characteristics of perceived object,an event or a person.
(1) Size- The bigger the size of the perceived stimulus, the higher is the probability that it will be noticed. Dominance is established by size and it overrides other things and thereby enhances perceptual selection. For example, a full page advertisement may induce more attention than a small advertisement in some corner of the newspaper.
(2) Intensity – While reading a passage, a person comes across a few lines printed in bold letters. He automatically pays more attention to these lines. Underlined sentences and so the ones in italics are generally more attentively read. The principle that the higher the intensity of external stimulus, the more likely it will be perceived is not always valid. If intensity is so important, why a whisper by a student in a classroom is effective in getting attention by a teacher? Here, the answer lies in the fact that a whisper often contrasts with the rest of the noisy environment, and so gets noticed. Therefore, the intensity factor has to be considered in the light of the situation i.e. frame of reference.
(3) Frequency- Repeated external stimulus is more attention gaining than a single one, so states the frequency principle. Repetition is one of the most frequently used techniques in advertising and is the most common way of attracting the people’s attention. Frequency results in making people aware of the stimulus.
(4) Status – The status of the perceived person has also got influence on the perception. High status people can exert influence on perception of an employee than low status people. When introduced to two people of different ranks, we tend to remember the person holding the higher rank than the other one.
(5) Contrast- Stimuli that contrast with the surrounding environment are more likely to be selected for getting attention. A contrasting effect can be caused by color, or any unusual factor.
Interpersonal perceptionIt is a perception that begins with the perception of another persons. The reactions of other person’s on our actions are analyzed.
PERCEPTION IN ORGANISATIONAL SETTINGThe organisation term means gathering of various people to attain a pre-set common goals. Each individual is district in various matter’s How individual thinks, speaks, acts to day may be different tomorrows. Today’s friend may be tomorrows foe or the best friend.
• The following factors supports the applications of perception in an organizational environment.(1) Personal recruitment and selection.(2) Employee performance Appraisal.
1) Personal recruitment and selection: An important function carried in every organisation is the selection of right candidates to the right job. The usually process is receiving the curriculam vitae from the candidates taking the interview. If it is reference based selection, then get the information about referred from the reference. With this, the interviewer can make certain perceptual judgments about the candidates. With the same information but different judgments the committee will interview the candidates.
(2) Employee performance Appraisal. Here usually the Employees are categorized on the bases of performance. In recent days the performer is only continued and other sent home. The performance of candidates not only depends his personal efforts but unfortunately on the perception of appraiser.