Quality Indices


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Quality Indices

  1. 1. Dr. Chetan B. Bhatt Professor and Head, Vishwakarma Government Engineering College, Chandkheda, Ahmedabad Quality Indices
  2. 2. 2  Unit-IV: Research Publication & Presentation:  Thesis, Research paper, Review Article & Technical Reports: Organization of thesis and reports, formatting issues,  citation methods, references,  effective oral presentation of research.  Quality indices of research publication: impact factor, immediacy factor, H- index and other citation indices.
  3. 3. Presentation Outline 3  Why quality indices?  Journal Quality Indices  Impact factor  Immediacy Index  EigenFactor  Scimago Journal Rank Indicator  Author Quality Indices  H-index  G-index  HB-index
  4. 4. Research Process 4 Identify Topic of Interest State Unsolved Problem s Find or Develop Solution Generate Related Question s Literature Search Documentation End research output quality depends on, the quality maintained at all the stages
  5. 5. Historical note 5  There are three factors that led to development of citation indexing back in 1950‟s – 1. Followed by World War – II, there were huge influx of government fund for research. Publication of research finding by researchers burgeon the body of knowledge. In order to retrieve huge document database it became necessary to index it. Manual indexing practice is time consuming and not a cost effective one. 2. Then the current method of subject indexing was not useful because of discipline specific terminology etc. 3. Availability of machine for computation and data processing.
  6. 6. Historical development 6  The Impact Factor was developed by Eugene Garfield, the founder of the Institute for Scientific Information (presently a part of Thomson Reuters), in 1955 following ideas inspired by Vannevar Bush's famous article "As We May Think" in 1945 . (available at http://adammikeal.com/courses/chi/files/jan26.bus h.pdf)  The original article "Citation indexes for science: a new dimension in documentation through association of ideas" by Garfield was published in Science 1955;122:108-111 (available at http://www.garfield.library.upenn.edu/papers/news
  7. 7. Why? 7  Evaluate the scholarly worth of a journal  Rank journals within a discipline  Help you decide where to publish your article for maximum impact  Evaluation for promotion / tenure / grants, or in some countries, even government funding of an institution.  Frequently used as an evaluation source by librarians during journal cancellations or new purchases
  8. 8. Why? 8  Below are some examples* –  In England, hiring panels routinely consider impact factors  By Spanish law, researchers are rewarded for publishing in journals defined by ISI as prestigious (upper third of impact factor listings)  In China, scientists get cash bonuses for publishing in high-impact journals. In some schools, physics students must publish at least 2 articles with a combined Impact Factor of 4 to get their PhD * From the Chronicle of Higher Education (2005) “The Number that is Devouring Science”
  9. 9. Journal Quality Indices 9
  10. 10. Journal Quality Indices 10  Following are quality indices commonly used for journals  Thomson Reuters (Web of Science)  Impact Factor  Immediacy Index  EigenFactor  Scopus (Elsevier)  SCImago Journal Rank (SJR)
  11. 11. Impact Factor (IF) 11  The impact factor is a measure reflecting the average number of citations to articles published in science and social science journals.  It is frequently used as a proxy for the relative importance of a journal within its field, with journals with higher impact factors deemed to be more important than those with lower ones.  The impact factor was devised by Eugene Garfield, the founder of the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI), now part of Thomson Reuters. Impact factors are calculated yearly for those journals that are indexed in Thomson Reuters Journal Citation Reports.
  12. 12. Web of Science 12 Thomson Reuters (formerly ISI) has one, huge database, Web of Science, that…  Indexes selected journals > 8,000 science; > 3,000 social science journals; > 1,800 Arts & Humanities  Tracks “cited references” and “times cited”
  13. 13. Where do we find Impact Factors? 13  Impact factors are listed in Journal Citation Reports JCR)  You can easily get to the JCR from the Web of Science.  Check ISI Web of Knowledge with a new session if necessary at http://www.webofknowledge.com/ to get the up- to-date impact factor scores of 20010/2011 journal ranking performance. (Requires Subscription)  Both the Web of Science and the JCR are based on the same database of journal citations and cited references. Use Web of Science for
  14. 14. Journal Citation Report 14  Journal Citation Reports (JCR) is an annual publication by the Healthcare & Science division of Thomson Reuters. It has been integrated with the Web of Knowledge, by Thomson Reuters, and is accessed from the Web of Science to JCR Web.  It provides information about academic journals in the sciences and social sciences, including impact factors. It was originally published as a part of Science Citation Index, and is compiled from the citation data found there.  Journal Citation Report (Example)
  15. 15. Calculation of Impact Factor 15
  16. 16. Calculation of Impact Factor 16  In a given year, the impact factor of a journal is the average number of citations received per paper published in that journal during the two preceding years.  Calculation  A = the number of times articles published in 2009 and 2010 were cited by indexed journals during 2011.  B = the total number of "citable items" published by that journal in 2009 and 2010. ("Citable items" are usually articles, reviews, proceedings, or notes; not editorials or Letters-to-the-Editor.)  2011 impact factor = A/B.  (Note that 2011 impact factors are actually published in 2012; they cannot be calculated until all of the 2011 publications have been processed by the indexing agency.)
  17. 17. Criticism of Impact Factor 17  Only a limited subset of journals is indexed by ISI  Only uses the articles cited by the ~13,000 “ISI journals”  Some disciplines are especially poorly covered  Biased toward English-language journals  ISI has recently added several hundred non-English journals  Short (two year) snapshot of journal  Some disciplines use older material more or take time to cite new research  JCR now also includes the 5-year data  Is an average; not all articles are equally well-cited
  18. 18. Criticism of Impact Factor 18  Includes self-citations, that is articles in which the article cites other papers in the same journal  Only includes “citable” articles in the denominator of the equation, i.e., articles and reviews  Editors may skew IF by increasing the number of review articles, which bring in more citations (increases the numerator)  Or by increasing the number of “news” items (e.g., Science, general medical journals) , which are cited (appear in numerator) but not considered “citable” (and so aren‟t in the denominator)  It is expensive to subscribe to the JCR
  19. 19. Immediacy Index 19  An immediacy index is a measure of how topical and urgent work published in a scientific journal is.  Along with the better known impact factor measure, it is a calculated each year by the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) for those journals which it indexes; both impact factors and immediacy indices are published annually in the Journal Citation Reports.
  20. 20. Calculation 20  The immediacy index is calculated based on the papers published in a journal in a single calendar year. For example, the 2005 immediacy index for a journal would be calculated as follows:  A = the number of times articles published in 2005 were cited in indexed journals during 2005  B = the number of articles, reviews, proceedings or notes published in 2005  2005 immediacy index = A/B  As with the impact factor, There are some nuances to this: ISI excludes certain article types (such as news items, correspondence, and errata) from the denominator.
  21. 21. EigenFactor 21  The Eigenfactor Project is a non-commercial academic research project sponsored by the Bergstrom lab in the Department of Biology at the University of Washington.  Available free at eigenfactor.org (1995-2009 data)  As with the JCR, only ISI journals are ranked  Uses “all” ISI data, analyzed differently.  all cited and citing references (so includes citations from non-ISI journals, books, dissertations, etc.)
  22. 22. Calculation of Eigenfactor 22  Uses similar algorithm as Google‟s PageRank  By this approach, journals are considered to be influential if they are cited often by other influential journals.  Looks at five years of data  Calculation method
  23. 23. Comments on Eigenfactor score 23  Eigenfactor Score: … the higher the better  For a journal, the number of times articles published in the previous five years have been cited in the current year. It also considers which journals have contributed these citations so that highly cited journals will influence the score more than lesser cited journals (similar to the Google pagerank algorithim). Self citations are removed.  A measure of the journal’s total importance to the scientific community.  Eigenfactor scores are scaled so that the sum of the Eigenfactor scores of all journals listed in Thomson‟s Journal Citation Reports (JCR) is 100.
  24. 24. Article Influence 24  The Article Influence score measures the average influence, per article, of the papers in a journal. As such, it is comparable to Thomson Scientific's Impact Factor.  It is calculated by dividing the Eigenfactor score by the number of articles published. Article Influence scores are normalized so that the mean article in the entire Thomson Journal Citation Reports (JCR) database has an article influence of 1.00.  The Article Influence scores for journals are available at http://www.eigenfactor.org/
  25. 25. Comments on Article Influence 25  Article Influence Score: … the higher the better  The average influence, per article, of the papers in a journal. As such, it is comparable to the Journal Impact Factor.  Article Influence scores are normalized so that the mean article in the entire Thomson Journal Citation Reports (JCR) database has an article influence of 1.00. A score greater than 1.00 indicates that each article in the journal has above-average influence.  Still, as with IFs, it‟s best to “compare” within subjects.
  26. 26. Where to look for EF and AI? 26  Let us we look at EF and AI for control journals  Open http://eigenfactor.org  Choose ISI journals  Select automation and control category  It will display the list of journals with EF and AI, e.g. as given (Automation and control)
  27. 27. SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 27  Developed by Professors Félix de Moya, SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) is a prestige metric based on the idea that „all citations are not created equal‟.  With SJR, the subject field, quality and reputation of the journal have a direct effect on the value of a citation.  SJR is a measure of scientific influence of scholarly journals that accounts for both the number of citations received by a journal and the importance or prestige of the journals where such citations come from.
  28. 28. SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 28  The citation PageRank of a journal calculated on the basis of the Scopus citation data divided by the number of articles published by the journal over 3 years.  Similar to Eigenfactor methods, but based on citations in Scopus instead of Web of Science.  Freely available at scimagojr.com  Covers more journals (~20,000) than JCR because Scopus covers more journals than Web of Science  More international diversity  3 years of citations; no self-citations
  29. 29. SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) Algorithm 29  The SJR indicator, which is inspired by the PageRank algorithm, was developed for extremely large and heterogeneous journal citation networks. It is a size-independent indicator and it ranks journals by their „average prestige per article‟ and can be used for journal comparisons in science evaluation processes.  http://www.scimagojr.com/index.php
  30. 30. Scimago other ranking 30  The Scimago also rank institute, and country for scientific research work.  Download this free report (2011) at: www.scimagoir.com/  Ranks 3,042 institutions, worldwide  Provides 5 indicators of research performance, stressing research output, citations, international collaboration and impact.  Data comes from the Scopus db (analyzed 18,750 research publications, mostly journals and proceedings)  Data is from 2005-2009
  31. 31. Comparing IF, EF, Scimago 31  Higher is better in all the cases Journal JCR Journal Impact Factor (2 year) JCR Journal Impact Factor (5 year) Eigenfactor Article Influence Score (5 year) SCImago Journal Rank (3 year) Science 26.372 30.631 16.539 3.726 Cell 29.887 28.779 18.188 10.735 Nature 28.751 28.751 16.996 4.636 PNAS 9.598 10.369 4.929 2.689 BMC Bioinformatics 3.493 4.221 1.608 .750 Bioinformatics 5.039 6.649 2.406 1.225
  32. 32. Quality Indices for Author (journal) 32
  33. 33. H - index 33  Proposed by JE Hirsch as an index to quantify an individual's scientific research output Remember, Impact Factor is just for journals, though it‟s often used to evaluate authors.  Combines an assessment of both quantity (number of papers) and quality (impact, or citations to these papers).  The index can also be applied to the productivity and impact of a group of scientists, such as a department or university or country.
  34. 34. 34  The index is based on the distribution of citations received by a given researcher's publications. Hirsch writes:  A scientist has index h if h of his/her Np papers have at least h citations each, and the other (Np − h) papers have no more than h citations each.  In other words, a scholar with an index of h has published h papers each of which has been cited in other papers at least h times
  35. 35. Calculating H - index 35  h-index is automatically calculated:  Web of Science  Scopus  Publish or Perish (free download), based on data in Google Scholar  h-index can also be manually calculated for an author based on the number of papers authored and the number of times each paper has been cited.
  36. 36. Determining H - index 36
  37. 37. Finding a h-index value in Web of Science 37
  38. 38. Citation Report (h-index) from Web of Science 38
  39. 39. Finding a h-index value in Scopus 39
  40. 40. Citation Overview (h-index) from Scopus 40
  41. 41. Graph of h-Index from Scopus 41
  42. 42. G - index 42  The g-index is an index for quantifying scientific productivity based on publication record. It was suggested in 2006 by Leo Egghe.  The index is calculated based on the distribution of citations received by a given researcher's publications:  Given a set of articles ranked in decreasing order of the number of citations that they received, the g-index is the (unique) largest number such that the top g articles received (together) at least g2 citations.  In simple terms, this means that an author that produces n articles is expected to have, on average, n citations for each of them, in order to have a g-index of n. In this way, it is similar to the h-index, with the difference that the number of citations per article is not explicit.
  43. 43. H-b index 43  The h-b-index is an extension of the h-index  The h-b-index developed by Michael Banks of the Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research in Germany, takes the index further by evaluating the impact of compounds used in solid-state physics and scientific topics in general.  The h-b-index is defined in the same manner as the h-index, but is based on a topic (or compound) search instead of a scientists name.
  44. 44. H-b index 44  The h-index defined by J. Hirsch is:  A scientist has index h if h of his/her Np papers have at least h citations each, and the other (Np – h) papers have at most h citations each.  For the case of a topic it is useful to define the h-b index in terms of the number of years, n as h = nm If the h-b index is linear with the number of years, then m is given as the gradient. In this respect, a compound or topic with a large m and h-b index can be defined as a hot topic.  Online web programs are available to directly calculate a scientist's M-number and H-index values, such as ScHolarIndex (http://interaction.lille.inria.fr/~roussel/projects/scholarind ex/index.cgi) and Publish and Perish.[2]
  45. 45. 45 THANK you for your kind attention
  46. 46. Basic Journal Information 46  The information given for each journal includes:  The basic bibliographic information of publisher, title abbreviation, language, International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)  The subject categories (there are 171 such categories in the sciences and 54 in the social sciences)