Dr. Chetan B. Bhatt
Professor and Head,
Vishwakarma Government Engineering College,
Chandkheda, Ahmedabad
Research Methodo...
Unit - II
© Dr. C. B. Bhatt, VGEC,
Chandkheda
2
 Review of Research Literature: Purpose and use
of literature review, loc...
Presentation Outline
© Dr. C. B.
Bhatt, VGEC, Chandkheda
3
 Research Process
 Literature Search
 Purpose and Use
 Loca...
Research Process
© Dr. C. B.
Bhatt, VGEC, Chandkheda
4
Identify
Topic of
Interest
State
Unsolved
Problem
s
Find or
Develop...
Purpose of Literature Search
© Dr. C. B. Bhatt, VGEC,
Chandkheda
5
 A literature search serves three important
functions
...
Review Report
© Dr. C. B.
Bhatt, VGEC, Chandkheda
6
 The review report demonstrate
 What others have accomplished in you...
Finding Sources
© Dr. C. B.
Bhatt, VGEC, Chandkheda
7
 Sources of literature are –
 Library
 Internet
 Sources are gen...
Primary Sources
© Dr. C. B. Bhatt, VGEC,
Chandkheda
8
 Examples of primary sources are data sets,
computer runs, computer...
Secondary Sources
© Dr. C. B.
Bhatt, VGEC, Chandkheda
9
 Examples of secondary sources include
conferences, proceedings, ...
Tertiary sources
© Dr. C. B.
Bhatt, VGEC, Chandkheda
10
 Examples of tertiary sources include
dictionaries, encyclopedias...
Problems for novice researcher
© Dr. C. B. Bhatt, VGEC, Chandkheda11
 As a beginner
researcher, two of the
most common pr...
Systematic Approach
For literature Search and
Bibliography Management
© Dr. C. B. Bhatt, VGEC, Chandkheda12
Problems for novice researcher
© Dr. C. B. Bhatt, VGEC, Chandkheda13
 As a beginner
researcher, two of the
most common pr...
A Search Plan
© Dr. C. B.
Bhatt, VGEC, Chandkheda
14
 Consider how the topic progress through the
research documentation ...
Citation Index
© Dr. C. B. Bhatt, VGEC,
Chandkheda
15
 A citation index is a kind of bibliographic
database, an index of ...
Universally Available Free Citation Tools
© Dr. C. B.
Bhatt, VGEC, Chandkheda
16
 Universally available free citation too...
Next step in literature search
© Dr. C. B. Bhatt, VGEC,
Chandkheda
17
 After locating and reading at least the abstract o...
Have too few information
© Dr. C. B. Bhatt, VGEC,
Chandkheda
18
 If you have too few or no information, then topic
might ...
Have too many information
© Dr. C. B.
Bhatt, VGEC, Chandkheda
19
 Plan to scale down your search to a manageable
amount.
...
Another sources of information: Search
Engines
© Dr. C. B.
Bhatt, VGEC, Chandkheda
20
 OAIster database (freely accessibl...
Another sources of information: Library
services
© Dr. C. B.
Bhatt, VGEC, Chandkheda
21
 INFLIBNET (http://www.inflibnet....
Lost in Cyber Space/Information Overload
© Dr. C. B. Bhatt, VGEC, Chandkheda22
 As a beginner
researcher, two of the
most...
Tools to Manage Research
© Dr. C. B. Bhatt, VGEC, Chandkheda23
Best Practices
© Dr. C. B.
Bhatt, VGEC, Chandkheda
24
 Keep bibliographic trail
 Keep track of source
 Use tool to sear...
Keep Track of Resources
© Dr. C. B.
Bhatt, VGEC, Chandkheda
25
 Location of resources
 Date of access
 Title
 Authors
...
Search resources on desk-top
© Dr. C. B. Bhatt, VGEC,
Chandkheda
26
 There are many tools available for desk-top
search. ...
Bibliography Management Tools: Features
© Dr. C. B. Bhatt, VGEC,
Chandkheda
27
There are six basic requirements expected f...
Bibliography Management Tools: Off - line
© Dr. C. B.
Bhatt, VGEC, Chandkheda
28
 Some bibliography tools are –
 JABREF
...
Bibliography Management Tools: On - line
© Dr. C. B.
Bhatt, VGEC, Chandkheda
29
 On-line tools
 WebCite (archive web pag...
Writing Style
© Dr. C. B. Bhatt, VGEC,
Chandkheda
30
 There are various research writing style such as –
 APA Style (Ame...
References
© Dr. C. B.
Bhatt, VGEC, Chandkheda
31
 Lois E. Reed, „Performing a literature review‟
(publication journal is...
© Dr. C. B. Bhatt, VGEC, Chandkheda32
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  • Tertiary (Tur – Shee – er – ee) (Tur – Shi – ree) : of the third order
  • Lecture 01 a

    1. 1. Dr. Chetan B. Bhatt Professor and Head, Vishwakarma Government Engineering College, Chandkheda, Ahmedabad Research Methodology
    2. 2. Unit - II © Dr. C. B. Bhatt, VGEC, Chandkheda 2  Review of Research Literature: Purpose and use of literature review, locating relevant information, use of library & electronic databases, preparation & presentation of literature review, research article reviews, theoretical models and frame work. Identification of gaps in research, formulation of research problem, definition of research objectives.
    3. 3. Presentation Outline © Dr. C. B. Bhatt, VGEC, Chandkheda 3  Research Process  Literature Search  Purpose and Use  Locating Relevant Information  Citation Index Services  Search Engine  Bibliography management
    4. 4. Research Process © Dr. C. B. Bhatt, VGEC, Chandkheda 4 Identify Topic of Interest State Unsolved Problem s Find or Develop Solution Generate Related Question s Literature Search Documentation Literature Search (Review) is not one – time process, it is iterative ThesisResearch Papers/Progr ess reportResearch Proposal Synopsi s
    5. 5. Purpose of Literature Search © Dr. C. B. Bhatt, VGEC, Chandkheda 5  A literature search serves three important functions  Gives background information  Demonstrate your familiarities with research in your field  Shows how your work contributes to body of knowledge in your field
    6. 6. Review Report © Dr. C. B. Bhatt, VGEC, Chandkheda 6  The review report demonstrate  What others have accomplished in your filed and how your work differs from works of others.  You demonstrate your understanding of the relevant works of others and your ability to summarize this information, for convenience of your reader
    7. 7. Finding Sources © Dr. C. B. Bhatt, VGEC, Chandkheda 7  Sources of literature are –  Library  Internet  Sources are generally described as –  Primary: primary sources are “materials of that you are directly writing about, the raw material of your own research”  Secondary: books and articles in which other researchers report the results of their research based on (their) primary data or sources  Tertiary: tertiary sources are “books and articles based on secondary sources, on the research of others”
    8. 8. Primary Sources © Dr. C. B. Bhatt, VGEC, Chandkheda 8  Examples of primary sources are data sets, computer runs, computer programs, scale models, drawings, and engineering notebooks. A well-kept engineering notebook can provide valuable information for later documentation of test conditions and assumptions, materials used, observations as well as measurements, and unusual occurrences that prompted further testing.
    9. 9. Secondary Sources © Dr. C. B. Bhatt, VGEC, Chandkheda 9  Examples of secondary sources include conferences, proceedings, journals, and books. Journal articles are often the most current source of information on a topic of study that is new or subject to rapid change. Lists of references at the end of each journal article can provide leads to further sources.  Engineering journals are typically field-specific.
    10. 10. Tertiary sources © Dr. C. B. Bhatt, VGEC, Chandkheda 10  Examples of tertiary sources include dictionaries, encyclopedias, guides, and handbooks. “Dictionaries and encyclopedias are excellent starting points for research. They can provide general background information to help narrow or broaden the focus of a topic, define unfamiliar terms, and offer bibliographies of other sources.
    11. 11. Problems for novice researcher © Dr. C. B. Bhatt, VGEC, Chandkheda11  As a beginner researcher, two of the most common problems one might encounter are –  Not knowing where to find sources  Once sources are located, not knowing how to sift or sort through excess of information to determine what is useful Where are resources? Where I am? What is useful?
    12. 12. Systematic Approach For literature Search and Bibliography Management © Dr. C. B. Bhatt, VGEC, Chandkheda12
    13. 13. Problems for novice researcher © Dr. C. B. Bhatt, VGEC, Chandkheda13  As a beginner researcher, two of the most common problems one might encounter are –  Not knowing where to find sources  Once sources are located, not knowing how to sift or sort through excess of information to determine what is useful Where are resources? Where I am? What is useful? 1. Not knowing where to find sources
    14. 14. A Search Plan © Dr. C. B. Bhatt, VGEC, Chandkheda 14  Consider how the topic progress through the research documentation life cycle.  There are two approaches – 1. Look for books that are currently accepted reference text in your research area and find out who has cited them in recent years. 2. Look for original (seminal) reports, papers or these written by known experts and see who has cited them in recent years.  For these two approaches; Citation Index becomes a very important source.
    15. 15. Citation Index © Dr. C. B. Bhatt, VGEC, Chandkheda 15  A citation index is a kind of bibliographic database, an index of citations between publications, allowing the user to easily establish which later documents cite which earlier documents.  Major citation indexing services There are two publishers of general – purpose academic citation index (available to library for subscription) are –  Thomson Scientific publishes ISI (Institute of Scientific Information) citation index in print and CD form, available on line with name “Web of Science”; which in turn part of “Web of Knowledge”  Elsevier, which publishes “Scopus”, available online only.  IEEE Xplore (http://ieeexplore.ieee.org)  ACM (Association for Computing Machine) Digital Library (http://dl.acm.org)
    16. 16. Universally Available Free Citation Tools © Dr. C. B. Bhatt, VGEC, Chandkheda 16  Universally available free citation tools are –  CiteBase (http://www.citebase.org); not yet complete for academic evaluation. However papers‟ abstract are available.  CiteSeerX (http://citeseer.ist.psu.edu)  Google Scholar (http://scholar.google.com)  Microsoft Academic Search (http://academic.research.microsoft.com)
    17. 17. Next step in literature search © Dr. C. B. Bhatt, VGEC, Chandkheda 17  After locating and reading at least the abstract of these papers  Categorize the available papers by topic and authors‟ technical interest in a topic. (As most of the work is interdisciplinary)  Then look at the reference list for new papers. (As not all citation search provides similar result)  There are two possibility one may have  Have too few information  Have too many information
    18. 18. Have too few information © Dr. C. B. Bhatt, VGEC, Chandkheda 18  If you have too few or no information, then topic might be too narrow –  Look for new topic heading or terms any newly found used for information cataloging. Search for that term in database  If search still yields little information, get help from library personnel or expert in field of your research.
    19. 19. Have too many information © Dr. C. B. Bhatt, VGEC, Chandkheda 19  Plan to scale down your search to a manageable amount.  Specific aspects of a filed of study are often listed in annotated bibliographies.  Journal specific to a field can be a good resource.  Get advice from expert.
    20. 20. Another sources of information: Search Engines © Dr. C. B. Bhatt, VGEC, Chandkheda 20  OAIster database (freely accessible); http://www.oclc.org/oaister/; Union catalog of millions of record available as open resource by Open Archive Initiative  Ebookee (http://ebookee.com) by tradepub (they provide many digital magazine at no charge)  Complete Planet  O‟Reilly‟s CD Bookshelf (book accessible on-line)  WebBrain (mind mapping site, provides perspective of individual/organization)  Google …and other general purpose search engine
    21. 21. Another sources of information: Library services © Dr. C. B. Bhatt, VGEC, Chandkheda 21  INFLIBNET (http://www.inflibnet.ac.in)  Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertation (http://www.ndltd.org) paid service (individual member charge is $25)  etd@iisc (http://etd.ncsi.iisc.ernet.in/); eprints@iisc (http://eprints.iisc.ernet.in/)  The DBLP computer science bibliography (http://dblp.uni-trier.de/db/index.html)
    22. 22. Lost in Cyber Space/Information Overload © Dr. C. B. Bhatt, VGEC, Chandkheda22  As a beginner researcher, two of the most common problems one might encounter are –  Not knowing where to find sources  Once sources are located, not knowing how to sift or sort through excess of information to determine what is useful Information Overload / lost in cyber space Where I am? What is useful? So much of information
    23. 23. Tools to Manage Research © Dr. C. B. Bhatt, VGEC, Chandkheda23
    24. 24. Best Practices © Dr. C. B. Bhatt, VGEC, Chandkheda 24  Keep bibliographic trail  Keep track of source  Use tool to search resources on your desk - top  Use bibliography management tool  Use standard template (Microsoft Office/LaTeX/OpenOffice) for writing papers, reports, and thesis
    25. 25. Keep Track of Resources © Dr. C. B. Bhatt, VGEC, Chandkheda 25  Location of resources  Date of access  Title  Authors  Page numbers  Year of publication  Library Call Number (LCN), International Standard Book Number (ISBN), International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)
    26. 26. Search resources on desk-top © Dr. C. B. Bhatt, VGEC, Chandkheda 26  There are many tools available for desk-top search. Use one of desk-top search tool of your choice.  Copernic Desk Top Search (http://www.copernic.com/en/products/desktop- search/index.html) (free home version)  Google Desk Top Search  Windows Desk Top Search  and ….many more  Disk catalog tool
    27. 27. Bibliography Management Tools: Features © Dr. C. B. Bhatt, VGEC, Chandkheda 27 There are six basic requirements expected from a bibliographic manager. Listed down below is a functional decomposing of these requirements.  Search: Search all the available academic/non-academic databases.  Store: Store the reference and possibly a soft copy of the reference.  Viewer: View soft copy (doc, pdf, etc.).  Annotate: Keep notes on the reference.  Overall: Just a single note on the reference  Anywhere: A note anywhere in the document  Communicate: Import from and export to different formats.  Import (BibTex, End Note, XML, etc.)  Export (BibTex, End Note, XML, etc.)  Platform: Run on different platforms (Linux, Windows, etc.)  Presentation: Present the data to some standard formats.  Formats (MLA, APA, etc.)  Document (doc, pdf, html, etc.)
    28. 28. Bibliography Management Tools: Off - line © Dr. C. B. Bhatt, VGEC, Chandkheda 28  Some bibliography tools are –  JABREF  Microsoft Office Citation and Bibliography Tools  Zotero (Bibliography plug-in for Firefox) and have plug-in to insert citation in MS-Office and OpenOffice.  EndNote by Thomson Reuters (paid)  On-line tools  WebCite (archive web pages)  OttoBib.com (alphabetic citation creation for Books from a list of ISBN)  KnightCite (free online tool hsted
    29. 29. Bibliography Management Tools: On - line © Dr. C. B. Bhatt, VGEC, Chandkheda 29  On-line tools  WebCite (archive web pages)  OttoBib.com (alphabetic citation creation for Books from a list of ISBN); http://www.ottobib.com/  KnightCite (free online tool hosted by Calvin College; http://www.calvin.edu/library/knightcite/)
    30. 30. Writing Style © Dr. C. B. Bhatt, VGEC, Chandkheda 30  There are various research writing style such as –  APA Style (American Psychological Association)  Chicago Manual of Style/ Turabian Style  Colombia Guide to Online Style (CGOS)  MLA (Modern Language Association) Style  Harvard Style  CBE Style (Council of Biology Editors)  LSA (Linguistic Society of America)  Templates are available for all these style and Bibliography management tools generate citation in various style.
    31. 31. References © Dr. C. B. Bhatt, VGEC, Chandkheda 31  Lois E. Reed, „Performing a literature review‟ (publication journal is unknown)  Other resources references are in slide as web link.
    32. 32. © Dr. C. B. Bhatt, VGEC, Chandkheda32
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