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Bioscience in Garyounis University, Benghazi, Libya

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  1. 1. Postgraduate Studies and Research in Physiology and Biomedical Sciences in Libya Osama Tashani
  2. 2. Osama Tashani <ul><li>Born 1958 in Benghazi –Libya </li></ul><ul><li>Myself and my research </li></ul><ul><li>Libya </li></ul><ul><li>University of Garyounis </li></ul><ul><li>Bioscience/biomedical research </li></ul>
  3. 3. How I got involved in Physiology? <ul><li>Veterinary Medicine (Tripoli) 1983 </li></ul><ul><li>Veterinarian at Benghazi Zoo </li></ul><ul><li>Chess Tournaments </li></ul><ul><li>Medical Physiology 1986-1990 </li></ul><ul><li>Respiratory Physiology </li></ul>
  4. 4. Irish Connection <ul><li>1990-1994 </li></ul><ul><li>UCD, Dublin </li></ul><ul><li>Barry F. Leek </li></ul>
  5. 5. Research Experience <ul><li>Identifying visceral sensory receptors </li></ul><ul><li>(single unit recording technique) </li></ul><ul><li>Multi-unit recording </li></ul>
  6. 7. Respiratory-cycle related receptors <ul><li>What other people have discovered: </li></ul><ul><li>Mechanoreceptors in mammals (rabbit) </li></ul><ul><li>(Hering-Breuer Reflex) </li></ul><ul><li>Low P pulmonary CO 2 sensitive receptors in birds </li></ul><ul><li>What we’ve added: </li></ul><ul><li>Electrophysiological evidence of Mechanoreceptors in birds </li></ul>
  7. 8. Domestic fowl as a new experimental model to study hollow organs mechanoreception <ul><li>Bird’s crop is easily accessible. </li></ul><ul><li>Sufficient length of vagus nerves for dissection. </li></ul><ul><li>Hens are cheap. </li></ul><ul><li>Cons: </li></ul><ul><li>Birds are birds. </li></ul><ul><li>Crop is not stomach. </li></ul>
  8. 9. What has been done so far: <ul><li>Recording of both rapidly and slowly adapting mechanoreceptors in the crop </li></ul><ul><li>Localization of some of these mechanoreceptors </li></ul><ul><li>Evidence of arrangement of these mechanoreceptors “ in series” </li></ul>
  9. 10. What is this got to do with Pain Research <ul><li>Visceral nociceptors can be recorded, monitored and examined </li></ul><ul><li>“ signaling of nociception from hollow organs principally involves mechanoreceptors in muscle layers” </li></ul>
  10. 12. Population 6,000,000 Under 14 years of age: 34% Age expectancy: 75 years Birth rate: 25 / 1000 adults
  11. 13. Cities: Tripol i (Tarabulus) 2 million (University of Alfateh) Benghazi 800,000 (University of Garyounis )
  12. 14. Teaching and Research
  13. 15. Ancient Egyptians Greeks Romans Arabs Maltese Spanish Turks Italians Germans French British Who ruled Libya
  14. 17. People: Arabs, Berbers, Turks, Africans, Greeks, Tuarek
  15. 19. Oil 95% of export earnings 25% of GDP 60% of public sector wages Libya has one of the highest per capita GDPs in Africa
  16. 20. University of Garyounis Established as The Libyan University 1955 Became University of Benghazi 1973 Libya has 7 major universities and more than 15 regional institutions
  17. 21. 35 000 students 2000 staff Female/male ratio 5/1
  18. 22. Faculty of Public Health: Epidemiology, Environment, Nutrition Faculty of Science: Biology, Microbiology, Biochemistry and Biophysics Faculty of Medicine: Medical Physiology and Biochemistry Clinical Sciences Faculty of Pharmacy: Pharmacology and Toxicology Department of Psychology Department of Sport Scientific Research Organization Research and Postgraduate Studies in Biosciences in Libya
  19. 23. Numbers and facts: <ul><li>190 postgraduate students in Biosciences </li></ul><ul><li>49 of them are funded by the university </li></ul><ul><li>7 are doing PhD </li></ul><ul><li>M.Sc. Program take an average of three years </li></ul>
  20. 24. Publications: Garyounis (29) Leeds met 149 Leeds 270
  21. 25. Research interests of some groups in Faculty of Science, Garyounis University <ul><li>Toxicological and therapeutic effects of local herbs used in traditional therapy of some diseases. </li></ul><ul><li>(hypoglycaemic action of some herbs) </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation of pulmonary function of different groups in Libya ( establishment of standard normal values and study the effect of pollution…etc) </li></ul>
  22. 26. <ul><li>Diabetes Research: </li></ul><ul><li>Hyperinsulinemia in young adults </li></ul><ul><li>Lipid profiles and effect of fasting </li></ul><ul><li>Obesity and Fitness Research: </li></ul><ul><li>Epidemiology </li></ul><ul><li>Heart variability and fitness of general population in Libya </li></ul>
  23. 27. <ul><li>Microbiology and Parasitology: </li></ul><ul><li>Epidemiology, Strain Characterization </li></ul><ul><li>(e.g: Echinococcus granulosus ) </li></ul><ul><li>Medical genetics </li></ul>Dr Bozraida Prof Bonthron (Leeds) Prof Don McManus Queensland Institute of Medical Research
  24. 28. Problems of Scientific Research in Libya <ul><li>The government’s bureaucracy and limited budget </li></ul><ul><li>Absence of clear objectives and strategy of scientific research </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of Research know-how </li></ul><ul><li>Weak industries </li></ul><ul><li>Political correctness and religious and cultural taboos </li></ul><ul><li>Brain drain </li></ul><ul><li>Many students, few supervisors. </li></ul><ul><li>Social problems (females are many more than males at any level of education) </li></ul><ul><li>Language problem (Arabic and English) </li></ul>
  25. 29. Rise and decline of Arabic as language of science in middle ages Spread of Islam 700 A.D. Mongol invasion of Iraq and the destruction of Grand Bagdad Library 1258 Great translation project and muslim scientific era 800-1200
  26. 30. English words of Arabic Origin <ul><li>Alcohol الكحول </li></ul><ul><li>Algorithm الخوارزمية </li></ul><ul><li>Arsenal دار الصناعة </li></ul><ul><li>Admiral أمير البحر </li></ul><ul><li>Alkali القلي </li></ul><ul><li>Algebra الجبر </li></ul><ul><li>Calibre القالب </li></ul>Coffee قهوة Cotton قطن Hashish حشيش Hazard الزهر Syrup شراب Tariff تعريفة Zero صفر
  27. 31. Al Razi 865 - 925 Iran <ul><li>Razi rejected the Galen’s medical theory and pioneered the concept of mental health and self-esteem </li></ul><ul><li>Best Book was: Alhawi </li></ul><ul><li>Razi was a pure rationalist , extremely confident of the power of reason </li></ul><ul><li>Ethics of Medicine </li></ul>
  28. 32. Ibn Sina (Avicenna) 980-1037 Central Asia (now Uzbekistan ) 14-volume The Canon of Medicine : was a standard medical text in many parts of the world including western Europe for seven centuries It asserts that tuberculosis was contagious, It also describes the symptoms and complications of diabetes . An Arabic edition of the Canons was circulated at Rome in 1593 ,
  29. 33. Ibn Nafis 1213-1288 in Damascus Pulmonary circulation: &quot;The blood from the right chamber of the heart must arrive at the left chamber but there is no direct pathway between them. The thick septum of the heart is not perforated ………………. The blood from the right chamber must flow through the vena arteriosa (pulmonary artery) to the lungs, …………., pass through the arteria venosa (pulmonary vein) to reach the left chamber of the heart and there form the vital spirit...”
  30. 34. How to improve cooperation between Libya and UK <ul><li>Postgraduate Libyan students study at British universities </li></ul><ul><li>Joint research projects with students (researchers) working in Libya </li></ul><ul><li>Visits from Libyan professors, researchers… </li></ul><ul><li>Visits by British scientists to Libya </li></ul><ul><li>Conferences and scientific meetings </li></ul><ul><li>External examiners </li></ul><ul><li>Funds…….?????????? </li></ul>
  31. 35. Thank you شكرا
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