You should be able to: 1. Explain the strategic importance of process selection 2. Describe the influence that process selection has on the organization 3. Compare the basic processing types 4. Explain the need for management of technology 5. List some reasons for redesign of layouts 6. Describe the basic layout types, and the main advantages and disadvantages of each 7. Solve simple line-balancing problems 8. Develop simple process layoutsStudent Slides 6-2
Process selection Refers to deciding on the way production of goods or services will be organized It has major implications for Capacity planning Layout of facilities Equipment Design of work systemsStudent Slides 6-3
Repetitive/ Job Shop Batch Assembly Continuous Description Customized Semi- Standardized Highly standardized goods or standardized goods or Goods or services services goods or services services Advantages Able to handle a Flexibility; easy Low unit Very efficient, very wide variety to add or change cost, high volume, high volume of work products or efficient services Disadvantages Slow, high cost Moderate cost Low flexibility, Very rigid, lack of per unit, per unit, high cost of variety, costly to complex moderate downtime change, very high cost planning and scheduling of downtime scheduling complexityStudent Slides 6-4
Technological Innovation The discovery and development of new or improved products, services, or processes for producing or providing themTechnology The application of scientific discoveries to the development and improvement of products and services and/or the processes that produce or provide themStudent Slides 6-5
Automation Machinery that has sensing and control devices that enable it to operate automatically Fixed automation Programmable automation Flexible automationStudent Slides 6-6
Layout the configuration of departments, work centers, and equipment, with particular emphasis on movement of work (customers or materials) through the system Facilities layout decisions arise when: Designing new facilities Re-designing existing facilitiesStudent Slides 6-7
Product layout Layout that uses standardized processing operations to achieve smooth, rapid, high-volume flow Raw materials Station Station Station Station Finished or customer item 1 2 3 4 Material Material Material Material and/or and/or and/or and/or labor labor labor labor Used for Repetitive Processing Repetitive or ContinuousStudent Slides 6-8
Process layouts Layouts that can handle varied processing requirements Dept. A Dept. C Dept. E Dept. B Dept. D Dept. F Used for Intermittent processingStudent Slides Job Shop or Batch 6-9
Fixed Position layout Layout in which the product or project remains stationary, and workers, materials, and equipment are moved as neededStudent Slides 6-10
Some operational environments use a combination of the three basic layout types: Hospitals Supermarket Shipyards Some organizations are moving away from process layouts in an effort to capture the benefits of product layouts Cellular manufacturing Flexible manufacturing systemsStudent Slides 6-11
Service layouts can be categorized as: product, process, or fixed position Service layout requirements are somewhat different due to such factors as: Degree of customer contact Degree of customization Common service layouts: Warehouse and storage layouts Retail layouts Office layoutsStudent Slides 6-12
Line balancing The process of assigning tasks to workstations in such a way that the workstations have approximately equal time requirements Goal: Obtain task grouping that represent approximately equal time requirements since this minimizes idle time along the line and results in a high utilization of equipment and labor Why is line balancing important? 1. It allows us to use labor and equipment more efficiently. 2. To avoid fairness issues that arise when one workstation must work harder than another.Student Slides 6-13
The main issue in designing process layouts concerns the relative placement of the departmentsMeasuring effectiveness A major objective in designing process layouts is to minimize transportation cost, distance, or timeStudent Slides 6-14
In designing process layouts, the following information is required: 1. A list of departments to be arranged and their dimensions 2. A projection of future work flows between the pairs of work centers 3. The distance between locations and the cost per unit of distance to move loads between them 4. The amount of money to be invested in the layout 5. A list of any special considerations 6. The location of key utilities, access and exit points, etc.Student Slides 6-15
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