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  • After hearing the story, you notice there’s some parallel between your subject’s personality/ life and the story.

2012 interview 2012 interview Presentation Transcript

  • Gathering Data Through Interviews
  • REVIEWING THE RESEARCH PROCESS Topic Identification Choosing a Research Topic (Assignment 1) Methodology Social Survey (Assignment 2) Interview (Assignment 3) Data Analysis & Interpretation Report Writing (Assignment 4)
  • The Interview
    • An interchange of views
    • on a topic of mutual interest for knowledge production
    • (S Kvale, 1996)
  • Purpose of the interview
    • A communication tool to gather
    • information for a research study
    • from:
    • Primary source
    • Expert
    • General public
  • Why conduct an interview?
    • Obtain information not available elsewhere
    • Obtain first hand information
    • Verify information
    • Seek opinion
    • Get expert knowledge
  • Types of Interview Informal Conversation Standardised Open-ended Questions asked in the natural course of things Exact wording and sequence of questions are predetermined No predetermined question topics or wordings All interviewees are asked the same basic questions in the same order
  • 1. Planning Literature Research Identify information gaps State general goals of the interview From goals to specific objectives Transla te specific objectives into questions
  • Pre-Interview Process
    • Making contact
    • Start off with a telephone call or email
      • Request for an interview
      • Explain area of study
      • Make an appointment
    • Follow up with a formal letter to
      • confirm time and venue of interview
      • re-state what the study is about
      • identify the scope/ area the interview will cover
    • Interview E-mail_vetted.docx
  • 2. Designing Questions
    • Important to identify your specific objectives and translate these into questions
    • Decide on types of questions to use
    • Ask simple, open-ended questions
    • Avoid questions with one or two word answers
    • Plan sequence, rank the questions in case time runs short
  • 2. Designing Questions
    • Framing of questions- must match the education level , cultural standing and knowledge of the interviewee
    • Check the wordings carefully to see if it could be offensive to the person
    • Prepare prompts in case the answer is not specific enough for your information gap
    • Do a trial run on your friends
  • Wording of Questions
    • Wording should be open-ended. Respondents should be able to choose their own terms when answering questions.
    • Questions should be as neutral as possible. Avoid wording that might influence answers, e.g., evocative, judgmental wording.
    • Questions should be asked one at a time.
    • Questions should be worded clearly. This includes knowing any terms particular to the program or the respondents' culture.
    • Be careful asking "why" questions. This type of question infers a cause-effect relationship that may not truly exist. These questions may also cause respondents to feel defensive, e.g., that they have to justify their response, which may inhibit their responses to this and future questions.
  • Types of Topics in Questions
    • One can ask questions about:
    • Behaviors - about what a person has done or is doing
    • Opinions/values - about what a person thinks about a topic
    • Feelings - note that respondents sometimes respond with "I think ..." so be careful to note that you're looking for feelings
    • Knowledge - to get facts about a topic
    • Sensory - about what people have seen, touched, heard, tasted or smelled
    • Background/demographics - standard background questions, such as age, education, etc.
    • Note that the above questions can be asked in terms of past, present or future.
  • Sequence of Questions
    • Get the respondents involved in the interview as soon as possible.
    • Before asking about controversial matters (such as feelings and conclusions), first ask about some facts. With this approach, respondents can more easily engage in the interview before warming up to more personal matters.
    • Intersperse fact-based questions throughout the interview to avoid long lists of fact-based questions, which tends to leave respondents disengaged.
    • Ask questions about the present before questions about the past or future. It's usually easier for them to talk about the present and then work into the past or future.
    • The last questions might be to allow respondents to provide any other information they prefer to add and their impressions of the interview.
    • Interview questions.docx
  • Things to bring:
    • Stiff-backed notebook
    • Trustworthy writing materials
    • Tape recorder
    • Video camera
    • Camera
  • 3. The Actual Interview
    • A social and interpersonal encounter
    • Not a data collection exercise
    • Establish an appropriate atmosphere for participants to feel secure and to talk freely
    • Note the ethical dimension of the interview- ‘on’ and ‘off’ record remarks
  • 3. The Actual Interview
    • Be adept at “active listening”
    • Keep conversation going, motivate participants to provide freely information required
    • Take note of non-verbal communication and gestures
  • Meeting the Interviewee
    • Physical Appearance
    • Be punctual
    • Consider how the location and context of the interview would affect how the interview is conducted
    • Take only as much of the respondent’s time as you need
    • If you plan to record the interview or take photographs, request permission first.
    • Make sure YOU are not in a rush for your next appointment.
    • Respect your interviewee’s wish for ‘off the record’
    • THANK your respondent for time taken.
  • Key skills to practise
    • Listening with interest
    • Probing
    • Paraphrasing
    • Summarising
    • Responding
    • Re-focusing
    • Revising additional questions on the spot
    • Note-taking
    • Common sense
    • Good manners
  • Probing
    • Consider the questions below:
    • What is your occupation?
    • Why did you choose this line of work?
    • Is this what you really wanted? Have
    • you ever consider anything else?
    • Probing to go beyond the surface answers
  • Summarising
    • For situations when interviewee gives you a very long answer that elaborates a few key points
    • Check that you have understood by asking;
    • Example:
    • So what happens in the entire process
    • is basically X, Y and then Z when condition A is present- is that correct?
  • Paraphrasing
    • When answers sound confusing or are full of jargon
    • Seek clarification by paraphrasing/ rephrasing respondent’s answers
    • Example:
    • Would it be fair for me to say X causes Y with Z being produced as a by-product?
    • Do you mean that ……?
  • Re-Focusing
    • Situation: Interviewee gets side-tracked and you need to gently bring them back to the main topic
    • Examples:
    • That’s quite funny ….. But let’s talk about ….
    • Now, going back to what you said earlier on …….
  • Follow-up Questions
    • Allow for further exploration in a related area
    • Based on some interesting or relevant information given by the interviewee
    • Example:
    • Could you tell me the story briefly? ….That’s interesting. Why did your parents hope that you would grow up with that character’s traits?
  • Devising Additional Questions
    • You might have picked up an interesting idea during the interview and followed it up with a question or two to assess its relevance
    • Mark it out in your notes so that at the end of the interview, if there’s still time, you can go back to that thread of conversation and see if you can learn more about it.
  • Video clip on Interview Skills
    • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4eOynrI2eTM
  • The Post-Interview Process
    • Send a thank-you card or letter within a day.
    • Don’t procrastinate… review of the interview immediately.
    • Ask yourself:
    • Are there inconsistencies and discrepancies in the information?
    • Are there gaps in the information?
    • If there are, phone your respondent to check for accuracy or to fill an information gap. (Keep this short)
  • The Post Interview Process
    • Transcribe the interview recording
    • Evaluate and summarise the content and the process of your interview
    • Respect respondent’s views about anonymity and what to include when citing them
    • Never take advantage of a respondent’s indiscreet comments
    • Be sure to send a copy of your transcript to the interviewee to confirm that you’ve represented the person accurately
  • 4. Transcript Writing
    • Essential information to include:
      • Interviewee’s name
      • Title of interview
      • Interviewer’s name
      • Date and venue
      • Purpose of project
  • 4. Transcript Writing
    • A record of the social encounter
    • Field notes and tape recorders are used to assist with transcribing
    • Systematically go through data, line by line
    • Write a a descriptive code by side of each piece of datum
  • 4. Conventions to use
    • Common conventions include:
    • ‘ -----‘ for hesitant pauses,
    • [pause] for pauses,
    • ( ) for side remarks
  • 4. Tightening up the transcript
    • Recordings will have false starts, redundant ‘uhs’ and ‘uhms’. These can be left out.
    • Grammar may be ‘cleaned up’ if it is not the point of the interview.
    • Exemplar Interview Transcription (2011 Y1).docx
  • 5. Analysing Qualitative Data
    • Data on transcript are interpreted data
    • A reflective interaction of the researcher and the data
    • Hence the potential for data loss, distortion and simplification during transcription
  • 6. Verifying
    • Issues of reliability, validity and generalization of the data from interviews should be discussed
    • Subject is multi-disciplined; covering statistics, probability and psychology
  • Final words- Things to consider
    • Many interviewees say what they think interviewer wants.
    • Many interviewees are concerned about coming across well.
    • Many interviewees know more than they tell you.
    • None are obliged to help you
    • Adapted from :
    • -MrColinCheong/2003
    • -Mrs Martina Ong/2004
    • -GE IRS /2005
    • http://www.managementhelp.org/evaluatn/intrview.htm
    • http://www.engl.niu.edu/wac/interview.html
    • Interview_Report[Edited].doc
    • 2009 Y1 RE Exemplar Final Report _Gambling_ with comments.doc
    • 2012 Interview Skills Guidelines.doc