Edmond Rostand (1868-1918) • Background • Born in Marseille, France • Family was wealthy and father was an economist and poet (very educated) • Rostand studied at the College Stanislaus in Paris. • His father wanted him to be a lawyer and he eventually passed the bar exam but he wanted to be a writer instead. • Writing Career • French author • Wrote mostly romantic plays • First drama was called Les Romanesque (The Romantics) which was produced in Paris in 1894. • “Cyrano de Bergerac” • First performed in Paris 1897 • Based on the life of an actual person • All the other kids hated him because of his nose, this is where his bad temper came from. • French satirist and duelist • Actually fought at Ares (setting from play) • Suffered a similar fate to Cyrano of the play • Was also a writer • First production of the play, December 28, 1897. • Has been performed by Gerard Depardieu
Tragedy vs. ComedyTragedy: literature in which the Comedy: literature which dealshero is destroyed by some tragic with life in a light, humorousflaw within his/her character way, often poking fun at people’s mistakes
Literary Elements • Literary elements are most frequently used to aid discussion on a work or better understand a work of literature.
• DESCREPENCY BETWEENIRONY WHAT IS SAID AND WHATVerbal Irony: IS MEANTSituational Irony:Dramatic Irony: Audience knows from 1st act that Roxane was attracted to Christian.Cyrano, however, does not know this and makes assumptions about why Roxane wantsto meet with him.
• Ex: 2 persons in play wore a maskImagery • Roxane when visiting Cyrano at Ragueneau’s pastry shop (Act II) and DeGuiche when he comes to pick up Roxane for the convent (ActUse of details to create a mental image III). . . Each are wearing them so they will notNot only visual but sensational be seen, however they too are blinded by the mask at seeing how the person feels right in front of them. • Ex: dueling imagery – physical, yes but also mixed with language of a duel with images of pursuit, retreat, victory and defeat • Ex: pg 30 • Ex: pg 36 – “Ah, do you love the little birds?”
• Food & Drink – Poetic Puff-PastryIMAGERY CONTINUED • Mask (Act II) – Roxanne cannot see that Cyrano loves her (she shows up at Rageneau’s wearing a mask)
CharacterizationMAJOR CHARACTERS• PROTAGONIST: The main • Major characters are almost character in the story. always round or three- dimensional characters who have• ANTAGONIST: The character good and bad qualities. Their or force that opposes the goals, ambitions, and values protagonist. change. A round character• FOIL: A character who changes as a result of what provides a contrast (often happens to him/her. A character through highlighting who changes inside as a result of comparisons) to what happens to him referred to in literature as a DYNAMIC the protagonist in order character. A dynamic character highlight protaganist’s grows or progresses to a higher characteristics. (AKA level of understanding in the Sidekick) course of the story.
Metaphor• By definition a • Cyrano personifies his metaphor is an image sword (Act I when he or thing used to “takes his sword by the represent an intangible nape and draw out it’s or idea form”@ the Hotel Burgoine• Hyperbole is type of metaphor, ex. Pg 37, “When you light your pipe . . . “
HYPERBOLEPage 37• When you light your pipe . . Neighbors think it is a chimney.
PLOT: the series of events that takeplace in a play.Exposition or Initial incident- the event that “gets the storygoing” - Introduction of main characters - is the “who,when, where and what” part of the play.Rising action: a series of events following the initial incident and leading up to thedramatic climax. Introduction of conflict occurs here.Climax: the turning point or high point of a story, when events can go either wayFalling action: the series of events following the climax – loose ends tied up.Denouement or Conclusion : another term for the ending-it is the French word for “unraveling”).NOTE: Narrative structure of Cyrano with 5 Acts to the play.
Conflict (5 Universal categories)• 1) Man against Man• 2) Man against Society• 3) Man against Himself• 4) Man against Nature• 5) Person against Fate (God)
Man against Society• A character has a conflict or problem with society – the school, the law, the tradition
Man against Himself• A character struggles inside and has trouble deciding what to do
Man against nature• A character has a problem with some element of nature: a snowstorm avalanche, etc.
Person against Fate (God)• A character has to battle what seems to be an uncontrollable problem.• http://video.aol.com/aolvideo/moviefone/clas h-of-the-titans-trailer-no-2/60458686001
SymbolismIn writing, symbolism is the use of a word, phrase or description, which represents a deeper meaning than the words themselves.• Cyrano’s nose – His nose is the barrier between him and love. – This is the barrier that keeps him from telling Roxane he loves her
• The Moon –Ex: Act III – moon is the happy fantasy of Cyrano as he pretends to be a drunken madman that believes he has fallen from the sky. –Ex: Act V – it is his desired destination after death . . . He can chill with other awesome dead guys like Socrates and Galileo
• The White Plume – Ex: Act IV: The plume is a mark of military rank and a target for enemy guns. The fact that de Guiche threw his away in the heat of battle means he is a coward. The fact that Cyrano picks it up is symbolic of his courage, loyalty, commitment to the Gascoyne Guards and honor. He speaks of this plume shortly before he dies in the final act.
• Tears and Blood – Act V Roxanne reads Christian’s dying letter and it is stained with blood from Christian and Cyrano’s tears. Cyrano represents the emotional half of the man that Roxane has fallen in love with, while Christian represents the physical. At the end of the play, Roxane declares that the tears were Cyrano’s and he counters with a reminder that the blood was Christian’s. i.e. both men were pivotal in winning the love of Roxane
• Letters – symbol of deception and love – Cyrano is able to hide his identity while at the same time expressing his true feelings.
Allusion• a brief reference, explicit or indirect, to a person, place or event, or to another literary work or passage • Example: Act I - Cuigy wittingly claims that Cyrano’s name is d’Artagnan (a hero of Alexandre Dumas’s novel written 200 years after the time in which Cyrano de Bergerac is set) . . . Later LeBret admonishes Cyrano to stop trying to be three musketeers in one.
• 1. Samson/jawbone – But when he is brought to them the spirit of the Lord come upon him; he bursts his bonds and slays a thousand Philistines with the jawbone of an ass.A, he is revived by a spring of water which the Lord causes to flow from the jawbone. Later while Samson come upon him; he bursts his bonds and slays a thousand Philistines with the jawbone of an ass. Being thirsty after this exploit, he is revived by a spring of water which the Lord causes to flow from the jawbone. Later while Samson
2954063Punctuatio2954051A few2954062Distracting2954050295406129540492954060Writing29540482954059Logical pr2954047Organizati2954058No errors2954046Action/poi2954057Well is2954045There are2954056Detailsare2954044Extremely29540552954043Introductio2954054Backgroun2954042Excellent2954053Good erro2954041Fairdiscern2954052Poor deve2954040Discuss this rubric Tragedy vs.. Comedy (Genre) • At times, it’s easy to see that Cyrano is a comedy; it’s outlandish, hilarious, features clever verbal sparring and over–the-top wit. At other times, it seems dark; there is death, thwarted love, revenge, etc. The thing to remember is that this dark stuff isn’t so much tragic. Just look at Roxane’s depiction of getting through the enemy Spanish lines, or Cyrano’s absurdly grandiose speeches on his deathbed. These moments aren’t supposed to be tragic, but rather comic in their exaggerations.
Theme– The fundamental and often universal ideas explored in a literary work. The underlying meaning of the story, a.k.a moral.
• Values & Virtue• Inner & Outer Beauty• The Danger in Deception• Love