Creative Commons


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Lecture delivered at School of Journalism and Communication, University of Queensland, St Lucia, Brisbane, 27 August 2012.

It covers:
- Copyright basics
- What Creative Commons (CC) is
- Case studies
- How to find CC licensed material
- How to attribute CC licensed material

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  • See and
  • ‘Al Jazeera Announces Launch of Free Footage Under Creative Commons License’. Accessed 8 July 2010. Available from:
  • Vast pool of CC licensed material available
  • Licences and conditions are machine-readable and searchable More and more innovative search tools emerging
  • Searches across 10 million of the most “interesting” CC licensed images on FlickrCheck the particular licence
  • Clip art: ‘Warning Notification’ byeastshores <>
  • CC BY 3.0 Au Legal Code: 4B Attribution and Notice Requirementsa. When You Distribute or publicly perform the Work or any Derivative Work or Collection You must keep intact all copyright notices for the Work.b. When You Distribute or publicly perform the Work or any Derivative Work or Collection You must provide, in a manner reasonable to the medium or means You are using: i. the name or pseudonym (if provided) of the Original Author and/or of any other party (such as a sponsor institute, publishing entity or journal) that the Original Author or Licensor has requested be attributed (such as in the copyright notice or terms of use). In this clause 4B these parties are referred to as "Attribution Parties";ii. the title of the Work (if provided); andiii. to the extent reasonably practicable, any Uniform Resource Identifier (such as a web link) that the Licensor specifies should be associated with the Work that refers to the copyright notice or licensing information for the Work.c. For any Derivative Work You Distribute or publicly perform, You must take reasonable steps to clearly identify that changes were made to the Work. For example, a translation could be marked "The original work was translated from English to Spanish".
  • Online -Concise attribution
  • Print/offline document – links in full
  • Creative Commons

    1. 1. Professor Anne Fitzgerald and Cheryl Foong Queensland University of Technology School of Journalism and Communication University of Queensland 27 August 2012
    2. 2. This session …  Copyright basics  What Creative Commons (CC) is  Case studies / business models  How to find CC licensed material  How to attribute CC licensed material
    3. 3. ©all rights reserved
    4. 4. Blogs, books, articles, essays… (literary works, published editions of works)Generic 2.0 ‘_MG_0318’ by Zitona,
    5. 5. Photographs, paintings, images, sculptures… (artistic works)Generic 2.0 ‘take the old machine’ by Angelo González,
    6. 6. Music, sound recordings, radio broadcasts…Generic 2.0 ‘I Giovani e la Musica’ by Super UbO,
    7. 7. Films, Videos, Theatre, TV broadcasts… (cinematograph films, dramatical works, television broadcasts)Generic 2.0 ‘Apollo 11 Video Restoration Press Conference / Newseum’ by NASA Goddard Space Flight Centre,
    8. 8. Copyright Governed by the Copyright Act (Cth) No registration required Copyright exists automatically once criteria in the Act are satisfied Copyright protects original expression  Not ideas, information or facts  But the form in which those ideas, information or facts are expressed
    9. 9. Copyright Bundle of exclusive rights:  E.g. for Literary, dramatic and musical works  Reproduce in material form  Publish  Perform  Communicate to the public  Make an adaptation or translation  Control rental, where work is a computer program or is reproduced in a sound recording: s 31(1)
    10. 10. Copyright In Australia, copyright can be effectively enforced (civil and criminal remedies for infringement) As a result, the consequences of infringement will deter use/reuse unless it is clear that the use is permitted General rule = You need permission/licence to “exercise exclusive economic rights of copyright owner” unless the law provides otherwise
    11. 11. Unless the law provides otherwise… Fair dealingresearch or study (s40)criticism or review (s41)parody or satire (s41A) reporting of news (s42) legal advice (s43) Generic 2.0 That time of year again… by Etwood,
    12. 12. But is the dealing “fair”? "(i) Fair dealing involves questions of degree and impression; it is to be judged by the criterion of a fair minded and honest person, and is an abstract concept; (ii) Fairness is to be judged objectively in relation to the relevant purpose, that is to say, the purpose of criticism or review or the purpose of reporting news; in short, it must be fair and genuine for the relevant purpose …”  TCN Channel Nine Pty Ltd v Network Ten Pty Limited [2002] FCAFC 146 (22 May 2002), [98] per Hely J
    13. 13. CopyrightIn a nutshell… Copyright automatically applies to a lot of material Exclusive rights of the copyright owner are very broad Limited exceptions General rule – you need permission  Importance of clear statement of permitted uses – to avoid infringement
    14. 14. Creative Commons
    15. 15. Creative Commons IS NOT… anti-copyrightCreative Commons IS… A copyright licence (permission) Cannot exist without copyright A new way of managing copyright Free for everyone to use
    16. 16. What is Creative Commons? a standardised system for licensing the use of copyright materials 6 standardised licences  available in plain english (summary), legalese and machine-readable versions Each licence grants a general permission to users to use copyright material  that is, to copy, publish, distribute in digital form, publicly perform  whether the whole or a substantial part of it on specified, standardised conditions
    17. 17. Standard CC Conditions of use Attribution (BY) – attribute the author, and no false attribution [Mandatory] Non Commercial (NC) – no “commercial use” (as defined) No Derivatives (ND) – no changes allowed to original work Share Alike (SA) – changes allowed, but new work is to be distributed under the same licence as the original work * ND and SA cannot be used together
    18. 18. Licences
    19. 19. Baseline Terms Attribution – Name of author and other Attribution parties, Copyright Notice, Title of the work and Licence URL, Identify changes made (where applicable) No suggestion of endorsement Keep notices that refer to Licence or Disclaimers
    20. 20.
    21. 21. Human-readable summary
    22. 22. “Legal Code”
    23. 23. Machine-readable code
    24. 24.
    25. 25.
    26. 26. Attribution
    27. 27. Attribution “In a manner reasonable to the medium you are using” Copyright Notice, Creator’s Name, Other Attribution Parties, Licence (URL/hyperlink), Source and Title of Work (URL/hyperlink)
    28. 28. Noncommercial
    29. 29. Noncommercial Clause 1 Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 Australia – “Commercial” means primarily intended for or directed towards commercial advantage or private monetary compensation.
    30. 30. Noncommercial Study CC has released guidelines and done a recent study on the meaning of this term. There are some clear cases of what is non commercial – private and domestic use – and some clear cases of commercial use – corporations using the material to gain revenue. Defining “Noncommercial”: A Study of How the Online Population Understands “Noncommercial Use, ercial
    31. 31. Adam Curry v Audax (2006) Photos from Flickr published in a magazine sold commercially – Netherlands Court said no permission and no licence to use the photos - as this was commercial use
    32. 32. No Derivative Works
    33. 33. No Derivative Works Clause 1 Attribution-No Derivative Works 3.0 Australia – “Derivative Work" means material in any form that is created by editing, modifying or adapting the Work, a substantial part of the Work, or the Work and other pre-existing works.
    34. 34. No Derivative Works Derivative Works may, for example, include a translation, adaptation, musical arrangement, dramatisation, motion picture version, sound recording, art reproduction, abridgment, condensation, or any other form in which the Work may be transformed or adapted… …except that a Collection will not be considered a Derivative Work for the purpose of this Licence.
    35. 35. Share Alike
    36. 36. Share Alike Clause 4B(a) Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Australia – You may only Distribute or publicly perform a Derivative Work if You apply one of the following licences to it:  i) this Licence;  ii) a later version of this Licence with the same Licence Elements (such as Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 Australia); or
    37. 37. Share Alike  iii) a Creative Commons Unported licence or a licence from another jurisdiction (either this or a later version) that has the same Licence Elements; or  iv) a Creative Commons Compatible Licence. (* note this last option is not available in CC BY NC SA 3.0 Australia)
    38. 38. Permission for Copyright Only Do other rights need to be cleared? Issue over photos See Chang v. Virgin Mobile USA, LLC, 2009 WL 111570 (N.D.Tex. January 16, 2009)
    39. 39. How do people use CC? Licensing out – distributing your work under a CC licence - e.g.  Repositories – Wikipedia, Flickr, YouTube  Institutions/Organisations – ABC, Al Jazeera Licensing in – use CC as a resource – e.g.  use of CC licensing scream in Children of Men a Hollywood film  students in university using CC material in their projects
    40. 40. CC BY SAMost of Wikipedias text and many of its images are dual-licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0 Unported License (CC-BY-SA) and the GNUFree Documentation License (GFDL)The small print:“ Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike License; additional terms may apply. See Terms of Use for details ....”Information for text contributors to Wikimedia projectsTo grow the commons of free knowledge and free culture,all users contributing to Wikimedia projects are requiredto grant broad permissions to the general public to re-distribute and re-use their contributions freely, as long asthe use is attributed and the same freedom to re-use andre-distribute applies to any derivative works. Therefore,for any text you hold the copyright to, bysubmitting it, you agree to license it under theCreative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0Unported License. For compatibility reasons, you arealso required to license it under the GNU FreeDocumentation License. Re-users can choose the license(s)they wish to comply with. Please note that these licensesdo allow commercial uses of your contributions,as long as such uses are compliant with theterms.As an author, you agree to be attributed in any of thefollowing fashions: a) through a hyperlink (where possible)or URL to the article or articles you contributed to, b)through a hyperlink (where possible) or URL to analternative, stable online copy which is freely accessible,which conforms with the license, and which provides creditto the authors in a manner equivalent to the credit givenon this website, or c) through a list of all authors. (Any listof authors may be filtered to exclude very small orirrelevant contributions.)
    41. 41. Trade Adjustment Assistance Community Collegeand Career Training Grant Program (TAACCCT):US $2 billion in funding provided under federal educationfund to create OER resources for use in community colleges P062311PS-0339 by The White House (US Government Work)
    42. 42. AUSTRALIA
    43. 43. AUSTRALIA
    44. 44.  2010 Federal Budget Papers licensed under CC Attribution 2.5 Australia 2011 and 2012 Federal Budget Papers under CC Attribution 3.0 Australia
    45. 45.
    46. 46.  In 2009 the Al Jazeera Network launched a repository of broadcast quality footage under a variety of CC licences Initial focus was on footage of the conflict in Gaza, which was released under a CC BY licence. The aim of allowing the broadest possible reuse (including commercial use) was to make people more aware of these issues as well as profiling the Al Jazeera Network throughout the world.  See Al Jazeera CC Repository at
    47. 47. ABC “80 Days that Changed our Lives” To celebrate ABC’s 80th anniversary , ABC released 22 files capturing historic moments on Wikimedia under CC BY-SA first collection of broadcast “packaged” footage released to Wikimedia Commons under a free license
    48. 48. 
    49. 49.  May 2012 – 3 months on n+Broadcasting+Corporation&date=201205
    50. 50. Wikimedia “What is Wikimedia Commons? Wikimedia Commons is a media file repository making available public domain and freely-licensed educational media content (images, sound and video clips) to everyone, in their own language. It acts as a common repository for the various projects of the Wikimedia Foundation, … Launched on 7 September 2004, Wikimedia Commons hit the 1,000,000 uploaded media file milestone on 30 November 2006 and currently contains 13,546,116 files and 106,660 media collections. … Unlike traditional media repositories, Wikimedia Commons is free. Everyone is allowed to copy, use and modify any files here freely as long as they follow the terms specified by the author; this often means crediting the source and author(s) appropriately and releasing copies/improvements under the same freedom to others. The license conditions of each individual media file can be found on their description page. The Wikimedia Commons database itself and the texts in it are licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License. More information on re-use can be found at Commons:Reusing content outside Wikimedia and Commons:First steps/Reuse.” 
    51. 51. Children of Men
    52. 52. CC licensed material Creative Commons, The Power of Open, available at, licensed under CC BY,
    53. 53. 200 million of 6 billion photos licensed under CC
    54. 54. Generic 2.0 ‘Self-conscious robot’ by NASARobonaut (Kris Kehe),
    55. 55. Photos  Flickr  Browse  Advanced search  Flickr-Storm   Idée Inc. Multicolr Search Lab  Generic 2.0 ‘Everyone needs a getaway’ by kennymatic (Kenny Louie),
    56. 56.
    57. 57.
    58. 58.
    59. 59.
    60. 60.
    61. 61.
    62. 62. Music SoundCloud  Browse:  Search: Free Sound Archive  Opsound  ccMixter  Magnatune  Jamendo  Generic 2.0 ‘Elvis!’ by Kevin Dooley,
    63. 63. Soundcloud - select ‘Show advanced search options’
    64. 64. Video Vimeo  YouTube  Generic 2.0 ‘Afghan Air Force and Afghan National Army Combine Combat Training Exercises’ by isafmedia ,
    65. 65.
    66. 66.
    67. 67.
    68. 68.
    69. 69.  Always check the usage rights Do not assume that the search filters are perfect
    70. 70. Attribution 1. Title of Work (if provided) 2. Creator’s Name or Other Attribution Parties 3. Source of Work (URL/hyperlink) 4. Copyright Notice, Licence (URL/hyperlink) 5. Changes to the source work (if any)
    71. 71. AttributionWhoWhatWhere
    72. 72. AttributionWho is the author/creator?What CC licence is it available under?  What is the name of the work?  What changes have been made?Where can you find it?
    73. 73. Attribution• “In a manner reasonable to the medium you are using” If you were the copyright owner, how would you wish to be attributed?
    74. 74.
    75. 75. Source URL Licence + URL Creator’s name/pseudony m (nickname)
    76. 76.
    77. 77. Event flyer
    78. 78. Attribution Image: crop of SparkFun by Jared Tarbell < /509789392> available under Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) 2.0 Generic licence < d.en>.
    79. 79. [Who] Creator’s name Image: crop of SparkFun by Jared Tarbell < /509789392> available under Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) 2.0 Generic licence < d.en>.
    80. 80. [What] Licence + URL Image: crop of SparkFun by Jared Tarbell < /509789392> available under Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) 2.0 Generic licence < d.en>.
    81. 81. [What] Title Image: crop of SparkFun by Jared Tarbell < /509789392> available under Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) 2.0 Generic licence < d.en>.
    82. 82. [What] Changes Image: crop of SparkFun by Jared Tarbell < /509789392> available under Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) 2.0 Generic licence < d.en>.
    83. 83. [Where] Source of work (URL) Image: crop of SparkFun by Jared Tarbell < /509789392> available under Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) 2.0 Generic licence < d.en>.
    84. 84. CC Australia More information at Twitter: @ccAustralia Facebook: Professor Anne Fitzgerald Publications:,_Anne.html Twitter: @AnneMFitzgerald Cheryl Foong Publications:,_Cheryl.html Twitter: @cherylfoong