An Educational Evolution: From Conventional Learning, to E‐Learning, to Game‐Based Learning AECT Conference Jacksonville, Florida November 11, 2011 Presenters: Cheryl Christensen, Faculty Pablo Benvenuto, CEO Grand Canyon University StudyBuddyCampus Cheryl.firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com Research Findings: Today, it is estimated that by the time a student graduates from college they will have played 10,000 hours of video games (Prensky, 2001, p. 1). Prensky believes that, in our current culture, students raised with video games have come to expect that level of engagement in learning activities. Research Challenges: “Goal of this study to determine factors that can assist educators in using the technology innovation of computer and video games as instructional tools in order to improve student achievement” (Ertzberger, 2008, p. 12). Hirumi, Appelman, Rieber, and Van Eck (2010), four graduate professors who teach courses in video game development, are working with game developers to prepare future instructional designers to help educators and game designers create instructional games for use in our schools. “Proper balance between education and entertainment is necessary to optimize game‐based learning; a balance thought to be best achieved by combining the expertise of instructional designers and entertainment designers” (p. 38). Begg (2008) reports a “growing enthusiasm from educators, and the apparent willingness of the games industry to engage with the education sector, there remain significant problems in accelerating the emergence of these new activities” (p. 155). James Gee (2003) has stated that he believes the theories of learning used in good video games are close to what he believes are the best theories of learning in cognitive science (Gee, 2003, p. 7).
“Awareness of video games use as instructional tools could be increased through collaboration. Teacher’s are encouraged to network with other teacher’s to create experiences that make them more aware of the video game’s potential for classroom use” (Ertzberger, 2008, p. 117). “It is a belief that we must build a bridge between student’s experiences in and out of school by incorporating into school curricula the tools, technologies and experiences that students acquire outside of the classroom” (Klopfer & Yoon, 2005). “Awareness of video games use as instructional tools could be increased through collaboration. Teacher’s are encouraged to network with other teacher’s to create experiences that make them more aware of the video game’s potential for classroom use” (Ertzberger, 2008, p. 117). According to Suja’ee and Knine (2009) game play supports skills such as strategic thinking, planning, communication, negotiating skills, group decision‐making and data handling (p. 372). “Teachers in this study identified one of the greatest barriers to integrating any new innovation into the classroom would be the lack of time afforded to teachers…lack of time to create and implement the use of video games…simply too busy with all their normal duties to find time to learn a new software or hardware technology” (Ertzberger, 2008, p. 113). “Indeed, 86% of the teachers and 88% of the pre‐service teachers in this study overwhelming stated that games aligned to their curriculum would assist them in integrating video games. If video games are to become an effective tool for instructional purposes, teachers must have games that are directly aligned to their curriculum standards” (Ertzberger, 2008, p. 114). “Sharing resources and helpful ideas can save teachers tremendous amounts of time attempting to align or create games aligned to their curriculum” (Ertzberger, 2008, p. 114). “Desire of participant to receive training in video games and the desire of the participant to use game templates” (Ertzberger, 2008, p. 116). According to Suja’ee and Knine (2009) game play supports skills such as strategic thinking, planning, communication, negotiating skills, group decision‐making and data handling (p. 372).
According to a 2008 Pew study, 97% of youth ages 12‐17 play video games; their game play is diverse, social, and fosters civic engagement (Pew 2008). Games according to Suja’ee and Knine (2009) are “a structured framework for spontaneous play consisting of a goal, obstacles, resources, rewards, penalties and information” (p. 372). Sujaee, M., & Khine, M. (2009). Designing interactive learning: Lessons from video games. International Journal of Instructional Media, 36(4), 371‐81 Boudreau (2010) states: “One thing games can teach us is how to manage assessment better. Currently, schools use standardized tests administered by an outside testing industry. In games, however, assessment and learning are tightly married. Games constantly assess player performance and provide feedback” (p. 2). “With the advent of computers, designers embraced the dream of virtual communication, enthralled with the hardware and software of the present but hoping for further improvements” (Moldenhauer, 2010, p. 225). Regardless of content and intended user group, all MUVEs enable multiple simultaneous participants to (a) access virtual contexts, (b) interact with digital artifacts, (3) represent themselves through “avatars” (in some cases graphical and in others, text‐based), (d) communicate with other participants (in come cases also with computer‐based agents), and (e) take part in experiences incorporating modeling and mentoring about problems similar to those in real world contexts. (Dede, Nelson, Ketelhut, Clarke, & Bowman, 2004) Barab et al. (2009) assert, “well‐designed game play immerses the player in a rich network of fictional interactions and unfolding storylines where he or she must learn about the underlying game grammar to solve the game‐world problems” (p. 307). “Research should be done in the area of editable, template based games” (Ertzberger, 2008, p. 124). References Barab, S., Scott, B., Siyahhan, S., Goldstone, R., Ingram‐Goble, A. Zuiker, S. J., & Warren, S. (2009). Transformational play as a curricular scaffold: Using videogames to support science education. Journal of Science Education & Technology. (18). 305‐320. doi: 10.1007/s10956‐009‐9171‐5 Begg, M. (2008). Leveraging game‐informed healthcare education. Medical Teacher. (30), 155‐158. doi: 10.1080/01421590701874041
Boudreau, D. (2010). Video games offer educators lessons in learning. ASU News [Business, culture & affairs]. Retrieved from http://asunews.asu.edu/20100222_videogaming Dieterle, E. & Clarke, J. (in press). Multi‐user virtual environments for teaching and learning. In M. Pagani (Ed.), Encyclopedia of multimedia technology and networking (2nd ed). Hershey, PA: Idea Group, Inc. Ertzberger, J. (2008). An Exploration of Factors Affecting Teachers’ Use of Video Games as Instructional Tools. (Doctoral Dissertation). Retrieved from ProQuest. (3311370). Federation of American Scientists. (2006). Harnessing the power of video game for learning. Retrieved January 4, 2011 http://www.fas.org/gamesummit/Resources/Harnessing the Power of Games for Learning Pre‐Summit Paper.pdf Gee, J. P. (2003). What video games have to teach us about learning and literacy. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. Klopfer, E., & Yoon, S. (2005). Developing games and simulations for today and tomorrows tech savvy youth. TechTrends, 49(3), 33‐41. Moldenhauer, J. (2010). Virtual conferencing in global design education: Dreams and realities. Visible Language, 44(2), 219‐38. Retrieved from OmniFile Full Text Select database Pew Research Center. (2008). Teens, video games, and civics. Retrieved from http://pewresearch.org/pubs/953/ Prensky, M. (2001). Digital natives, digital immigrants part 1. On the Horizon, 9(5), 1‐ 6. Retrieved from ProQuest Education Journals. (Document ID: 1074252411). Sujaee, M., & Khine, M. (2009). Designing interactive learning: Lessons from video games. International Journal of Instructional Media, 36(4), 371‐81. Retrieved from OmniFile Full Text Select database