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Cherwin aguado
Cherwin aguado
Cherwin aguado
Cherwin aguado
Cherwin aguado
Cherwin aguado
Cherwin aguado
Cherwin aguado
Cherwin aguado
Cherwin aguado
Cherwin aguado
Cherwin aguado
Cherwin aguado
Cherwin aguado
Cherwin aguado
Cherwin aguado
Cherwin aguado
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Cherwin aguado

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  • 1. Project method The project method is a teaching method that requires the students to present in concrete form the results of information gathered about a concept, principle or innovation.
  • 2. ADVANTAGES 1.It is a teaching method that emphasizes LEARNYNG BY DOING 2.Constructing projects develops the students’ manipulative skill. 3.The planned design of the project tests the students originality in choosing the materials to be used. They become resourceful and innovative. 4.It can be employed among students who are weak in oral communications. The finished product can serves as evidence of learning achieved.
  • 3. 5.The completed project adds to one’s feeling of accomplishment and satisfaction, thus motivating students to continue constructing new projects in school and at home. 6.It instills the values of initiative, industry and creativity. 7.Working on the project in groups develop the spirit of cooperation and sharing of ideas. 8.In addition to learning a concept, students become productive and enterprising.
  • 4. Guidelines for its Effective Use 1. Assign the project to a student / group of the students who is capable and interested. 2. The student / group must be clear about the objectives of the project including the criteria that must be used in evaluating the finished project. 3. The design of the project must be carefully checked before the student / group starts.
  • 5. 4. The materials must be carefully selected as to suitability and durability to avoid wastage. 5. There should be minimal supervision as soon as the construction is going on. 6. Give recognition and simple awards for well- constructed project to add to students’ / group’s feeling of confidence and accomplishment. Outstanding projects can be displayed to serve as models.
  • 6. Cooperative Learning In the earlier part of this chapter, another way to classify teaching approach is to determine the number of students involved, meaning from group to partners to individual students. Here, we begin with cooperative learning. .
  • 7. Cooperative learning make use of a classroom organization where students work in the groups or teams to help each other learn. Concept from small group theory and group dynamics serve as the basis upon which skills in democratic procedures and collaborations are developed. This approach evolved strategies and procedures that can help small groups solve their own problems and acquire information through collective effort. The learning environment is characterized by strong motivation and smooth interpersonal interactions.
  • 8. Characteristic Features 1. It has two important components, namely: a cooperative incentive structure – on where two or more individuals are independent for a reward. They will share if they are successful as a group and a cooperative task structure – a situation in which two or more individuals are allowed, encouraged or required to work together on some tasks, coordinating their efforts to complete the task. 2. Students work in teams to tackle academic tasks. 3. Reward systems are group-oriented rather than individually-oriented. 4. The interactions within the group is controlled by the members themselves.
  • 9. 5. Teams are made up of mixed abilities- high, average and low achievers. 6. Each individual learner is accountable for his/her learning. 7. The group reflects on and evaluates the group process they underwent. GUIDELINES FOR ITS EFFECTIVE USE In order to implement cooperative learning successfully, here are some general guidelines to follow: 1. Heterogeneous grouping wherein high, average and low achievers are mixed in a group. Heterogeneous grouping has been found out to affect the performance of the group since the high achievers can tutor other members of the group, thus raising the group’s achievement level. However, homogeneous grouping may be resorted to at times depending on the objectives of the learning task. 2. Make sure that the students exhibit the necessary social skills to work cooperatively in group situations.
  • 10. 3. Arrange the furniture so that groups of students can sit facing each other during sessions. Provide adequate space for ease and speed in movement. 4. Provide adequate learning tools so as not to make others wait at a time they are needed. 5. Encouraged students to assume responsibility for individual and group learning by offering rewards for achievements. 6. Make sure each group understands the goals, procedures, tasks and methods of evaluation. Advantages of Cooperative Learning 1. Interdependent relationship is strengthened and reinforced when group cooperation is rewarded. 2. Group work develop friendliness, willingness to assist and more worthwhile value of caring and sharing. 3. Cooperation in groups promotes maximum generation and exchange of ideas, tolerance and respect for other people’s point of view.
  • 11. 4. Cooperative learning groups exhibit less competitive behavior compared to whole-class teaching classrooms. 5. The group members gain skills of cooperation and collaboration through experience. PEER TUTORING/PEER TEACHING It is said that “the best way to learn something is to teach it.” Peer tutoring is commonly employed when the teacher request the older, brighter and more cooperative member of the class to tutor (coach, teach, instruct) other classmate. a. Instructional tutoring- Older students help younger ones on a one-to-one or one-to- a group basis. b. Same age tutoring- this arrangement works well with children who can act as interactive pairs, more able ones assist the less able. They can read to each other and discuss.
  • 12. c. Monitorial tutoring- the class maybe divided into groups and monitors are assigned to lead each group. d. Structural tutoring- here a definite procedure is followed. - by trained tutors. e. Semi-structured tutoring- This is a combination of unstructured and structured where the tutor guides his/her tutee through a carefully- planned learning guide but is free to modify it according to the tutees own interest and skills. Instructional Characteristics 1. Tutees receive individualized instruction. 2. The tutees receive more instruction. 3. Rapport between tutor and tutee may be readily established considering that they belong more or less to the same age group. 4.The teacher is free at the same time to do other classroom chores while the member are being handled by the tutors. 5. This kind of arrangement reduces a large class into smaller working groups.
  • 13. 6. Discipline problems are lessened because there are more assistants looking after small groups. 7.The spirit of cooperation, camaraderie and reciprocity are highlighted. 8. The tutors stand to gain more since teaching is an excellent learning situation. The tutors can likewise improve their own self-concept. GUIDELINES FOR EFFECTIVE USE 1. Care in selecting the tutors to assist the rest must be strictly exercised. 2. The teacher must go around and observe how the members of the groups are interacting with one another. 3. Tap students who passes leadership qualities in addition to being knowledgeable and older. 4. Explain well the benefits of this form of arrangement in order to avoid possible resentment since both tutor and tutees are classmates. 5. The tutor must confer with the teacher regarding the nature and extent of assistance they are expected to provide. 6. Prepare both the tutors and the tutees regarding the role each will play in the learning-teaching situation in order to avoid confusion.
  • 14. 7. Make sure the tutor exhibits teaching competence as to the depth and breadth of the subject. 8. The tutors must employ a variety of techniques in “reaching” the tutees since they are more alike in tastes, skills and habits. 9. Instant evaluation by way of performance and oral responses serve as feedback that can indicate progress in the tutorial situation. PARTNER LEARNING As the name of this method implies, this is learning with a partner. A student chooses partner from among his/her classmates. It can be employed when you get your students rehearse what they have learned and explore their understanding of content with a partner.
  • 15. GUIDELINES FOR ITS EFFECTIVE USE 1. To prevent your students from socializing about unrelated topics, given them specific amount of time (say two minutes) and a specific prompt for discussion. 2. Give your students less time than you time they actually need. DEDUCTIVE METHOD VERSUS THE INDUCTIVE METHOD All teaching methods can be classified into two, namely deductive and inductive method. The direct method and the demonstration method of instruction are deductive. The inquiry method, problem solving method, and project method are inductive. DEDUCTIVE METHOD The teacher tells or shows directly what he/she wants to teach. It also referred to as direct instruction.
  • 16. ADVANTAGES OF DEDUCTIVE METHOD 1. Cove inning of the lesson. DISADVANTAGES OF THE DEDUCTIVE METHOD 1. It is not supportive of principle that learning is an active process. 2. Lesson appears uninteresting at first. INDUCTIVE METHOD They begin with questions, problems and details and end up with answers, generalizations, conclusion. Therefore, they will fall under the inductive method of teaching.
  • 17. ADVANTAGES OF THE INDUCTIVE METHOD 1. The learners are more engaged in the teaching-learning process. 2. Learning becomes more interesting at the outset because we begin with the experiences of our students. 3. It helps the development of our learners’ higher-order thinking skills (HOTS). DISADVANTAGES OF THE INDUCTIVE METHOD 1. It requires more time and so less subject matter will be covered. 2. It demands expert facilitating skills on the part of the teacher.

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