1. Project method
The project method is a teaching
method that requires the students to
present in concrete form the results of
information gathered about a concept,
principle or innovation.
1.It is a teaching method that emphasizes LEARNYNG BY
2.Constructing projects develops the students’
3.The planned design of the project tests the students
originality in choosing the materials to be used. They
become resourceful and innovative.
4.It can be employed among students who are weak in
oral communications. The finished product can serves
as evidence of learning achieved.
3. 5.The completed project adds to one’s feeling
of accomplishment and satisfaction, thus
motivating students to continue constructing
new projects in school and at home.
6.It instills the values of initiative, industry
7.Working on the project in groups develop
the spirit of cooperation and sharing of ideas.
8.In addition to learning a concept, students
become productive and enterprising.
4. Guidelines for its Effective Use
1. Assign the project to a student / group of the
students who is capable and interested.
2. The student / group must be clear about the
objectives of the project including the criteria
that must be used in evaluating the finished
3. The design of the project must be carefully
checked before the student / group starts.
5. 4. The materials must be carefully selected as to
suitability and durability to avoid wastage.
5. There should be minimal supervision as soon
as the construction is going on.
6. Give recognition and simple awards for well-
constructed project to add to students’ /
group’s feeling of confidence and
accomplishment. Outstanding projects can
be displayed to serve as models.
6. Cooperative Learning
In the earlier part of this
chapter, another way to classify teaching
approach is to determine the number of
students involved, meaning from group
to partners to individual students.
Here, we begin with cooperative
7. Cooperative learning make use of a classroom
organization where students work in the groups
or teams to help each other learn. Concept from
small group theory and group dynamics serve as
the basis upon which skills in democratic
procedures and collaborations are developed.
This approach evolved strategies and procedures
that can help small groups solve their own
problems and acquire information through
collective effort. The learning environment is
characterized by strong motivation and smooth
8. Characteristic Features
1. It has two important components, namely:
a cooperative incentive structure – on where two or
more individuals are independent for a reward. They will
share if they are successful as a group and
a cooperative task structure – a situation in which two
or more individuals are allowed, encouraged or required
to work together on some tasks, coordinating their efforts
to complete the task.
2. Students work in teams to tackle academic tasks.
3. Reward systems are group-oriented rather than
4. The interactions within the group is controlled by the
9. 5. Teams are made up of mixed abilities- high, average and low achievers.
6. Each individual learner is accountable for his/her learning.
7. The group reflects on and evaluates the group process they underwent.
GUIDELINES FOR ITS EFFECTIVE
In order to implement cooperative learning successfully, here
are some general guidelines to follow:
1. Heterogeneous grouping wherein high, average and low achievers are
mixed in a group. Heterogeneous grouping has been found out to
affect the performance of the group since the high achievers can tutor
other members of the group, thus raising the group’s achievement
level. However, homogeneous grouping may be resorted to at times
depending on the objectives of the learning task.
2. Make sure that the students exhibit the necessary social skills to work
cooperatively in group situations.
10. 3. Arrange the furniture so that groups of students can sit facing each other
during sessions. Provide adequate space for ease and speed in movement.
4. Provide adequate learning tools so as not to make others wait at a time
they are needed.
5. Encouraged students to assume responsibility for individual and group
learning by offering rewards for achievements.
6. Make sure each group understands the goals, procedures, tasks and
methods of evaluation.
Advantages of Cooperative Learning
1. Interdependent relationship is strengthened and reinforced when group
cooperation is rewarded.
2. Group work develop friendliness, willingness to assist and more
worthwhile value of caring and sharing.
3. Cooperation in groups promotes maximum generation and exchange of
ideas, tolerance and respect for other people’s point of view.
11. 4. Cooperative learning groups exhibit less competitive behavior compared to
whole-class teaching classrooms.
5. The group members gain skills of cooperation and collaboration through
PEER TUTORING/PEER TEACHING
It is said that “the best way to learn something is to teach it.”
Peer tutoring is commonly employed when the teacher request the
older, brighter and more cooperative member of the class to tutor (coach,
teach, instruct) other classmate.
a. Instructional tutoring- Older students help younger ones on a one-to-one
or one-to- a group basis.
b. Same age tutoring- this arrangement works well with children who can
act as interactive pairs, more able ones assist the less able. They can read
to each other and discuss.
12. c. Monitorial tutoring- the class maybe divided into groups and monitors
are assigned to lead each group.
d. Structural tutoring- here a definite procedure is followed.
- by trained tutors.
e. Semi-structured tutoring- This is a combination of unstructured and
structured where the tutor guides his/her tutee through a carefully-
planned learning guide but is free to modify it according to the tutees own
interest and skills.
1. Tutees receive individualized instruction.
2. The tutees receive more instruction.
3. Rapport between tutor and tutee may be readily established considering
that they belong more or less to the same age group.
4.The teacher is free at the same time to do other classroom chores while
the member are being handled by the tutors.
5. This kind of arrangement reduces a large class into smaller working
13. 6. Discipline problems are lessened because there are more assistants looking
after small groups.
7.The spirit of cooperation, camaraderie and reciprocity are highlighted.
8. The tutors stand to gain more since teaching is an excellent learning
The tutors can likewise improve their own self-concept.
GUIDELINES FOR EFFECTIVE USE
1. Care in selecting the tutors to assist the rest must be strictly exercised.
2. The teacher must go around and observe how the members of the groups
are interacting with one another.
3. Tap students who passes leadership qualities in addition to being
knowledgeable and older.
4. Explain well the benefits of this form of arrangement in order to avoid
possible resentment since both tutor and tutees are classmates.
5. The tutor must confer with the teacher regarding the nature and extent of
assistance they are expected to provide.
6. Prepare both the tutors and the tutees regarding the role each will play in
the learning-teaching situation in order to avoid confusion.
14. 7. Make sure the tutor exhibits teaching competence as to the depth and breadth of
8. The tutors must employ a variety of techniques in “reaching” the tutees since they
are more alike in tastes, skills and habits.
9. Instant evaluation by way of performance and oral responses serve as feedback
that can indicate progress in the tutorial situation.
As the name of this method implies, this is learning with a partner. A student
chooses partner from among his/her classmates. It can be employed when you get
your students rehearse what they have learned and explore their understanding of
content with a partner.
15. GUIDELINES FOR ITS EFFECTIVE USE
1. To prevent your students from socializing about unrelated topics, given them
specific amount of time (say two minutes) and a specific prompt for discussion.
2. Give your students less time than you time they actually need.
DEDUCTIVE METHOD VERSUS THE
All teaching methods can be classified into two, namely deductive and
inductive method. The direct method and the demonstration method of
instruction are deductive. The inquiry method, problem solving method, and
project method are inductive.
The teacher tells or shows directly what he/she wants to teach. It also
referred to as direct instruction.
16. ADVANTAGES OF DEDUCTIVE METHOD
1. Cove inning of the lesson.
DISADVANTAGES OF THE DEDUCTIVE
1. It is not supportive of principle that learning is an active process.
2. Lesson appears uninteresting at first.
They begin with questions, problems and details and end up with answers,
generalizations, conclusion. Therefore, they will fall under the inductive method of
17. ADVANTAGES OF THE INDUCTIVE
1. The learners are more engaged in the teaching-learning process.
2. Learning becomes more interesting at the outset because we begin with the
experiences of our students.
3. It helps the development of our learners’ higher-order thinking skills (HOTS).
DISADVANTAGES OF THE INDUCTIVE
1. It requires more time and so less subject matter will be covered.
2. It demands expert facilitating skills on the part of the teacher.