• Perfume takes its name from the Latin word “perfumare” which means to fill with smoke.• The finest modern perfumes are neither wholly synthetic nor completely natural.• The constituents of the perfume are: Vehicle or solvent, fixative and the odoriferous elements.
VEHICLE OR SOLVENT• Helps to project the scent it carries with its volatile nature, is fairly inert to the solute and is not too irritating to the human skin.• The modern solvent for blending and holding perfume materials is highly refined ethyl alcohol mixed with more or less water. The slight natural odor of alcohol is removed by “ deodorizing or prefixation”.
FIXATIVES• a natural or synthetic substance of lower volatility which is used to reduce the evaporation rate of the scent.• Types of fixatives:1. Animal fixative2. Resinous fixative3. Essential-Oil fixative4. Synthetic fixative
• Is the soft, fatty secretion of the perineal glands of civet cat.• Is disagreable in odor due to skatole, on dilution and aging, the skatole disapears and the sweet and floral odor of civetone, a cyclic ketone appears.
• A brownish orange exudate of the perineal glands of the beaver.• The odoriferous component s of the volatile oil of castor are benzyl alcohol, acetophenone, and castorin (a volatile resinous component of unknown structure).
• Dried secretion of the preputial glands of the male musk deer. The odor is due to the cyclic ketone called “muskone”.• The most useful of the animal fixative, imparts body and smoothness to a perfume composition.
• Is the least used, but probably best known of the animal fixative. It is a secretion developed by a sperm whale.• It is composed of 80-85% ambrein, 12-15% ambergris oil which is the active ingredient.
• It is employed as a tincture,which must be matured before it is used. The odor of the tincture is decidedly musty and has great fixative powers.
• Is the newest animal fixative, derived from the glands of the Louisiana Muskrat.• About 90% of unsaponified material in muskrat glands consist of large, odorless cyclic alcohols which are converted to ketones, inceasing the characteristic musk odor nearly 50 times.
• Are normal or pathological exudates from certain plants. Hard resins, e.g, benzoin and gums. - benzoin is the most important of all the harder plant resin. Softer resins, e.g, myrrh and labdanum. - labdanum is the most important in the soft gums. An extract from this gum has an odor suggestive of ambergris and is marked ambrein.
BalsamModerately softOleoresin oily materialExtracts from resinLess viscous
• All these substances, when being prepared for perfume compunding, are dissolved and aged by methods. If solution is brought about in the cold, the mixture is called a “tincture”. If heat is required to give solution, the mixture is an “infusion”.
• Are used for their fixative properties as well as their odor. The more important of these are clary sage, vetiver, patchouli, orris and sandalwood.
• Certain high boiling, comparatively odorless esters are used as fixatives to replace some imported animal fixative. Among them are glyceryl diacetate,ethyl phthalate,and benzyl benzoate.
ODOROUS SUBSTANCES• Most odorous substances used in perfumery come under three headings:1. Essential Oils2. Isolates3. Synthetic or Semisynthetic chemicals
• May be defined as as volatile, odoriferous oils of plants.• “Essential” does not mean “most necessary”, An oil is "essential" in the sense that it carries a distinctive scent, or essence, of the plant.• Essential oils are found in buds, flowers, leaves, bark, stems, fruits, seeds, woods, roots and rhizomes.
The compunds occuring in essential oil maybe classified as follows:1. Esters 9. Terpenes2. Alcohols 10. Hydrocarbons3. Aldehydes4. Acids5. Phenols6. Ketones7. Esters8. Lactones
VOLATILE OILS MAYBE RECOVERED FROM PLANTS BY:• DISTILLATION• EXPRESSION• ENFLEURAGE• INTERACTION WITH VOLATILE SOLVENTS
EXPRESSION• Can yield an oil almost identical to the hand-pressed product, and the method used commercially. Of the hand-pressed processes, the sponge process is the most important, since it produces the highest quality oil.
• Peel trimmed and soaked in water for several hours. Each peel is pressed against a sponge and the oil is ejected into the sponge, which is periodically squeezed dry.
ENFLEURAGE• Is a cold-fat extraction process used on a few type of delicate flowers like jasmine, tuberose, and violet which yield no oil at all on distillation.• This method is no longer used commercially.
INTERACTION WITH VOLATILE SOLVENTSThe solvent must:1. Be selective2. Have a low boiling point3. Be chemically inert to the oil4. Evaporate completely without leaving any odorous residue5. Be low priced and non-flammable
• Are pure chemical compounds whose source is an essential oil or other natural perfume material. Notable examples are eugenol from clove oil, pinene from turpentine, and anethole from anise oil.
SYNTHETICS AND SEMISYNTHETICSCondensation Processes:• Coumarin- it is employed as fixative and enhancing agent for essential oils and tobacco products. Perkin Reaction: CHO CH=CHCOONA CH CHOH OH O
• Diphenyl oxide or ether – is largely used in the soap and perfume industries because of its great stability and strong geranium odor.• Ionone and its homologs possess the so – called violet odor, thus constituting the base of violet perfumes.
• Cinnamic Aldehyde has a cinnamon odor. Although this aldehyde is obtained from Chinese cassia oils, it is sythesized by action of alkali upon mixture of benzaldehyde and acetaldehyde.
Esterification Process• Benzyl Benzoate has a faint aromatic odor, is a fixative and a flavoring material. It occurs naturally in balsams but is prepared commercially by esterification process of benzoic acid with benzyl alcohol.
• Benzyl Acetate is another widely usesd ester because of its low cost and floral odor. It is prepared by esterification of benzyl alcohol, by heating with either an excess of acetic anhydride or acetic acid with mineral acids.
Grignard Process • Phenylethyl alcohol has a rose like odor and occurs in the volatile oil of rose, orange flowers, and others. Mg(ether) CH2CH2OC6H5Br C6H5MgBr C6H5.CH2CH2OMgBr acid C6H5.CH2CH2OH
Nitration Process• Artificial Musks derives its odor from macrocyclic compounds. A practical and economical substitute for the expensive natural fixative.
Oxidation Process• Vanillin is one of the most widely used flavors. It is used as a flavor in perfumery and deodorizing manufactured goods.1. From eugenol from cloves, through isoeugenol, followed by oxidation to vanillin using nitrobenzene as the oxidizing agent.
2.From lignin through an alkaline pressure cook. The vanillin is purified through the sodium bisulfite compound and extraction with benzene or isopropanol. Most of the vanillin in the market is made this way.3.From phenol through guaiacol, following the usual synthetic procedure.
• Heliotropin or piperonal – is an extract of sassafras that has been used for decades in the manufacture of perfumes and soaps. - Heliotropin is a derivative of safrole, Although safroles are known to display antibacterial and antiviral activity, their use in foods has been banned because they are carcinogenic and hepatoxic (toxic to the liver).
• Anisaldehyde – is a colorless oily liquid, whose odor is the same with coumarin. It is made by the oxidation of anethole. OCH3 OCH3 Na2Cr2O7 H2SO4CH = CHCH3 CHO
• Benzaldehyde – is used as a flavoring agent, as an ingredient in pharmaceuticals and as an intermediate in chemical syntheses. Vapor phase: Air , catalystC6H5CH3 C6H5CHO + H2O 500 0C Liquid phase: MoO2.H2SO4 C6H5CH3 C6H5CHO + H2O 40 0C
• Saccharin USP – is approximately 500 times sweeter than sugar. It has been widely used by diabetics and in diet drinks and foods. However, In 1972, the FDA required that all food and beverages containing a saccharin have a warning label.
• Aspartame – is 200 times sweeter than sugar. A combination of saccharin and aspartame is sweeter than either compound alone and aspartame has no objectionable aftertaste as saccharin does. Is not very stable to heat and liquids.
• Terpineols – are among the cheapest synthetics and are widely used in soap because of their woodsy and and floral odors. Is made from turpintine oil. Pine is an imporatant source. SULFURIC ACID FRACTIONAL REACTION DISTILLATION ACETONE
• Menthol – has long been extracted as the levo from oil of Japanese Peppermint and used in cigarettes and many other products as an antiseptic cooling flavor. Hydrogenation from β-pinene yields l-menthol after fractional distillation and crystallization.
• Acetals of aldehydes – have an odor only slightly modified from that of aldehydes but have great alkali resistance. Hence, these acetals are used in soap.
A single fragrance may contain 50 to 100 different compounds and subcompounds. In fact, as many as 300 ingredients may be used. The foundation odors are from eugenols, methyl ionone, and bergamot oil.
FRAGRANCE QUALITY• The majority of domestic perfume houses do not manufacture their own scents; they usually import natural floral oils and have have their synthetics custom- made by aromatic firms.• High quality from batch to batch is ensured by standard tests, such as specific gravity, optical rotation , refractive index, acid
• The best flavoring essences are natural products altered and reinforced by synthetics.• In addition to alcohol as a vehicle, glycerin and isopropyl alcohol are used.• The same fixatives are used, especially vanillin and coumarin, animal types are used sparingly.
Natural Fruit ConcentratesSpecial Processes• Distillation and Extraction of the fruit Pulverize Steam distillation extraction with petroleum ether Removal of ether OIL
• Extraction of the juice- In this system the expressed and filtered juice is extracted directly without distillation.• Concentration of the Juice - the expressed and filtered juice is concentrated in vacuum evaporators with a low degree of heat until the water is largely driven off and the sugar concentration is high enough to inhibit bacterial growth.
• An alternative method is freezing. This is the optimum method of producing concentrates since there is a little injury from heat.
• Vanilla - preparation of vanilla extract: one hundred pounds of a blend of Mexican and Bourbon beans are finely cut up and macerated cold with three successive portions of 35% alcohol of 45 kg each. These extracts are combined to make a fine vanilla extract.
• Chocolate and Cocoa - From cacao bean. Shipped to manufacturing Splitting Fermentation Drying centers Dehusking Cracking Cooling HeatingDegerminating Cacao Nibs
To work up the cacao into chocolate: Cacao NibsPulverize sugar Mixing Concher Chocolate • Monosodium Glutamate - Is an important flavoring agent, yet has no flavor of its own. It accentuates the hidden flavors of food in which it is used.
• When Steffens beet-sugar wastes are used, the steps are:1. Concentration and collection of Steffens Filtrate.2. Hydrolysis, usually with Caustic Soda.3. Neutralization and acidification of the hydrolysate.4. Partial removal of the inorganic salts.
5. Crystallization , separation and purification of the Glutamic Acid.The present production of MSG is largely from fermentation
Food Additives• Are those chemicals combined with foods by the manufacturer to effect certain modifications involving preservation, color, flavor enhancement, and stabilization.1. Intentional additives – are substances added in carefully controlled amounts to preserve the quality of foods, improve its nutritive value, or add flavor.
2. Incidental Additives – are those that, although having no function in finished food become part of it through some phase of production, processing, storage, or packaging.
• Natural Accessory ChemicalsPotatoes contain so much solanine (a deadly poison) that if the amount consumed by the average person in a year was concentrated into a single dose, it would be sufficient to kill a horse.Natural foods are not necessarily better or safer than properly prepared food containing carefully tasted and controlled additives.