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LaDiLS, Department of Linguistics and Comparative Studies Ca’ Foscari University of Venice, Italy 
International seminar: ...
Shona Whyte 
applied linguist 
Department of English Studies 
Université Nice Sophia Antipolis, France 
teaching 
EFL (ora...
Education technologies & 
language learner autonomy 
Christian Ludwig (University of Duisburg-Essen) 
The Use of Education...
Sharpening pencils?
projector 
touch sensitive screen 
computer
Pencils versus 
(IWB) pens
pedagogical exercise 
versus communicative task 
3 4 
http://bit.ly/1bJesF6
Writing the date 
Primary EFL What is the goal of the 
activity? 
8 year-olds 
2nd year of English 
What teaching method i...
Writing the date 
goal of activity practice pronunciation, vocabulary 
and grammar by writing and reciting 
dates 
teachin...
Story retell 
Primary EFL 
8 year-olds 
mixed-level class 
final task 
Example 4
Pupil 1 Pupil 2
Story retell 
What is the goal of the 
activity? 
What teaching method is the 
teacher using? 
What do you think her 
gene...
Story retell 
goal of 
activity 
use the target language in communication 
by retelling a story 
teaching 
method 
•compre...
Writing 
the 
date 
Story 
retell 
goal of 
activity 
practice pronunciation, 
vocabulary and grammar by 
writing and reci...
principles of teaching 
and learning
learning and teaching a 
second language
second language acquisition
second 
language 
acquisition 
1. interlanguage hypothesis: learner has built-in syllabus with 
developmental stages (rate...
second 
language 
acquisition 
1. interlanguage 
2. interaction 
3. reflection 
1. whole-class, lock-step instruction 
2. ...
other teaching and 
learning
“the mind is an instrument, you 
first sharpen it, and then use it” 
one of the most fatal, 
erroneous, and 
dangerous con...
The mind is never 
passive; it is a perpetual 
activity, delicate, 
receptive, responsive to 
stimulus. You cannot 
postpo...
Whatever interest attaches to 
your subject-matter must be 
evoked here and now; whatever 
powers you are strengthening 
i...
“isn’t there something I must do first?” 
Despite my great 
emotional involvement in 
work, I just hate to start 
doing it...
In fact I never use 
pencils, but pencil 
sharpening has become 
the code phrase for 
anything that helps to 
postpone the...
“How long does it take to get to the 
good stuff?” 
And the answer, 
inevitably, is not nearly 
as long as we make it out ...
What is “the good stuff”? 
Why don’t we get straight to it? 
teaching and learning foreign languages
Whitehead’s 
model of 
learning 
1.romantic 
2.precision 
3.generalisation 
methods of second/ 
foreign language 
scholast...
romantic stage 
... first apprehension ... 
... immediate cognisance of fact ... 
... a ferment already stirring 
in the m...
scholastic 
tradition 
romantic stage 
communicative 
language teaching 
task-based language 
teaching 
access to 
cultura...
precision stage 
... the stage of grammar, the grammar of 
language and the grammar of science. 
It proceeds by forcing on...
precision stage 
scholastic tradition 
communicative 
language teaching 
task-based 
language teaching 
structural syllabu...
generalisation stage 
... a return to romanticism with the 
added advantage of classified ideas 
and relevant technique. I...
generalisation stage 
scholastic 
tradition 
communicative 
language teaching 
task-based language 
teaching 
accurate use...
learning spiral 
1.romantic 
2.precision 
3.generalisation 
generalisation stage 
= learner autonomy
what is “the good stuff”? 
scholastic tradition CLT/TBLT 
romantic goal understand the target culture use 
the 
target 
la...
obstacles & challenges
too much precision work, not 
enough generalisation experiences 
The pupils have got to be made to feel that they are 
stu...
obstacles & challenges 
• beliefs about second 
language learning and 
teaching 
• proficiency & self-efficacy 
• institut...
Writing the date Story retell 
impoverished and decontextualised 
input 
rich, contexutalised input 
no focus on meaning, ...
Writing the date Story retell 
Seems simple to teachers, 
because they 
•underestimate the complexity of the 
activity 
•o...
Brainstorming about a 
sales pitch 
goal of activity learn how to make a good 
presentation 
teaching 
method 
•comprehens...
I tend to use slides like this 
1) for myself to use instead of a lesson plan so that 
I know what’s coming next and 
2) f...
obstacles & challenges 
• beliefs about second 
language learning and 
teaching 
• proficiency & self-efficacy 
• institut...
research in teacher education 
• iTILT 
• video-conferencing 
collaborative 
action research
teacher development 
• high ICT & IWB 
confidence & strong 
IWB convictions 
• wide range of tools and 
teaching objective...
It corresponds to 
the children's experience, because 
they showed me with the pen, it's giant, 
and I'm in front. 
So I t...
Framework for language teacher development with IWB 
IWB use teacher development classroom practice 
1 
• little experienc...
authentic tasks 
• video communication 
with young beginners 
• telecollaboration in 
English between French 
and German p...
collaborative action 
research 
• collaboration between 
teachers and researchers 
• novice-expert teacher 
tandems 
• tec...
a major affordance of technology is 
learner autonomy
learner autonomy depends on individual 
interlanguage development
interlanguage development requires 
1. rich, contextualised, comprehensible input 
2. sustained, repeated, communicative 
...
learner autonomy depends on teacher 
willingness to provide input, orchestrate 
communication and guide reflection, 
and s...
• value open-ended, communicative tasks 
• give time and space for learner contributions 
• refrain from excessive grammar...
obstacles but also opportunities
becoming digitally sharp 
effective classroom 
integration of interactive 
technologies 
supported by ongoing 
teacher edu...
• http://www.music.utexas.edu/directory/details.aspx?id=36 
• http://www.maa.org/sites/default/files/images/upload_library...
Sharpening pencils in the digital age: 
classroom integration of interactive technologies 
to support learner autonomy 
Sh...
Classroom integration of interactive technologies to support learner autonomy
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Classroom integration of interactive technologies to support learner autonomy

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Seminar on Education technologies & Language learner autonomy, LaDiLS (Laboratory of Didactics of Foreign Languages), as part of the Language Teaching Centre at the Department of Linguistics and Comparative Studies of Ca’ Foscari University of Venice. 14 October 2013. http://www.unive.it/nqcontent.cfm?a_id=120390
Also blog post here: http://bit.ly/19VK0T2

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Transcript of "Classroom integration of interactive technologies to support learner autonomy"

  1. 1. LaDiLS, Department of Linguistics and Comparative Studies Ca’ Foscari University of Venice, Italy International seminar: Education technologies & language learner autonomy 14 October 2013 Sharpening pencils in the digital age: classroom integration of interactive technologies to support learner autonomy Shona Whyte Université Nice Sophia Antipolis
  2. 2. Shona Whyte applied linguist Department of English Studies Université Nice Sophia Antipolis, France teaching EFL (oral expression, translation) second language acquisition/teaching technology (digital literacy, ICT for FL) teacher education (primary, secondary) research teacher education classroom interaction technology integration
  3. 3. Education technologies & language learner autonomy Christian Ludwig (University of Duisburg-Essen) The Use of Education Technology Tools in Foreign Language Learning – Advantages, Constraints and Challenges Shona Whyte (Université Nice Sophia Antipolis) Sharpening pencils in the digital age: classroom integration of interactive technologies to support learner autonomy
  4. 4. Sharpening pencils?
  5. 5. projector touch sensitive screen computer
  6. 6. Pencils versus (IWB) pens
  7. 7. pedagogical exercise versus communicative task 3 4 http://bit.ly/1bJesF6
  8. 8. Writing the date Primary EFL What is the goal of the activity? 8 year-olds 2nd year of English What teaching method is the teacher using? Opening routine What do you think her general learning objectives might be? Example 3
  9. 9. Writing the date goal of activity practice pronunciation, vocabulary and grammar by writing and reciting dates teaching method •PPP (presentation, practice, production) •memorisation as homework •public performance learning objective produce sentences using correct pronunciation, vocabulary and grammar Example 3
  10. 10. Story retell Primary EFL 8 year-olds mixed-level class final task Example 4
  11. 11. Pupil 1 Pupil 2
  12. 12. Story retell What is the goal of the activity? What teaching method is the teacher using? What do you think her general learning objectives might be? Example 4
  13. 13. Story retell goal of activity use the target language in communication by retelling a story teaching method •comprehensible input with noticing activities •listening, repeating, recreating story segments; drawing/retelling •public performance learning objective successfully complete communicative activities or tasks Example 4
  14. 14. Writing the date Story retell goal of activity practice pronunciation, vocabulary and grammar by writing and reciting dates use the target language in communication by retelling a story teaching method •PPP (presentation, practice, production) •memorisation as homework •public performance •comprehensible input with noticing activities •listening, repeating, recreating story segments; drawing/retelling •public performance learning objective produce sentences using correct pronunciation, vocabulary and grammar successfully complete communicative activities or tasks Scholastic tradition (Communicative or) Task-based Language Teaching (TBLT)
  15. 15. principles of teaching and learning
  16. 16. learning and teaching a second language
  17. 17. second language acquisition
  18. 18. second language acquisition 1. interlanguage hypothesis: learner has built-in syllabus with developmental stages (rate but not route of acquisition may vary) 2. interaction hypothesis: meaningful communication and interlocutor feedback drives acquisition 3. noticing hypothesis: focus on form helps learner to notice aspects of L2 and gap with own production (Cook, 1998; Ellis, 2005; Lightbown, 2000; Myles 2002)
  19. 19. second language acquisition 1. interlanguage 2. interaction 3. reflection 1. whole-class, lock-step instruction 2. decontextualised, rote learning 3. structural syllabus LIMIT
  20. 20. other teaching and learning
  21. 21. “the mind is an instrument, you first sharpen it, and then use it” one of the most fatal, erroneous, and dangerous conceptions ever introduced into the theory of education Whitehead, 1904-60
  22. 22. The mind is never passive; it is a perpetual activity, delicate, receptive, responsive to stimulus. You cannot postpone its life until you have sharpened it. Whitehead, 1904-60
  23. 23. Whatever interest attaches to your subject-matter must be evoked here and now; whatever powers you are strengthening in the pupil, must be exercised here and now; whatever possibilities of mental life your teaching should impart, must be exhibited here and now. Whitehead, 1904-60
  24. 24. “isn’t there something I must do first?” Despite my great emotional involvement in work, I just hate to start doing it; it's a battle and a wrench every time. Isn't there something I can (must?) do first? Shouldn't I sharpen my pencils perhaps? Halmos, 1916-2006
  25. 25. In fact I never use pencils, but pencil sharpening has become the code phrase for anything that helps to postpone the pain of concentrated creative attention. Halmos, 1916-2006
  26. 26. “How long does it take to get to the good stuff?” And the answer, inevitably, is not nearly as long as we make it out to be Robert Duke Head of Music University of Texas at Austin
  27. 27. What is “the good stuff”? Why don’t we get straight to it? teaching and learning foreign languages
  28. 28. Whitehead’s model of learning 1.romantic 2.precision 3.generalisation methods of second/ foreign language scholastic tradition teaching communicative language teaching task-based language teaching
  29. 29. romantic stage ... first apprehension ... ... immediate cognisance of fact ... ... a ferment already stirring in the mind ... Whitehead, 1917/32
  30. 30. scholastic tradition romantic stage communicative language teaching task-based language teaching access to cultural knowledge the engagement of learners in communication in order to allow them to develop their communicative competence […or] ability to make meaning (Savignon, 2007, 209) task-based teaching calls for the classroom participants to forget where they are and why they are there and to act in the belief that they can learn the language indirectly through communicating in it rather than directly through studying it. (Ellis, 2006: 31)
  31. 31. precision stage ... the stage of grammar, the grammar of language and the grammar of science. It proceeds by forcing on the students' acceptance a given way of analysing the facts, bit by bit. Whitehead, 1917/32
  32. 32. precision stage scholastic tradition communicative language teaching task-based language teaching structural syllabus: development of grammatical competence natural approach: no precision stage (Krashen & Terrell) pre-­‐ and post-­‐task ac*vi*es audiolingual method: overlearning of linguistic patterns (Lado & Fries) interaction hypothesis: communication breakdown, negotiation of meaning (Gass, Long) focus on form (Long) CER: development of linguistic (notional/ functional) competencies noticing hypothesis (Schmidt)
  33. 33. generalisation stage ... a return to romanticism with the added advantage of classified ideas and relevant technique. It is the fruition which has been the goal of the precise training. Whitehead, 1917/32
  34. 34. generalisation stage scholastic tradition communicative language teaching task-based language teaching accurate use of language to structure cultural knowledge […] ask for information, to seek clarification, to use circumlocution […] to negotiate meaning, to stick to the communicative task at hand, […] to take risks, to speak in other than memorized patterns. (Savignon, 2007: 209) engagement in a planned learning activity with a primary focus on making meaning and engaging with real-world authentic language use with a defined communication-based learning outcome (Reinders, 2008)
  35. 35. learning spiral 1.romantic 2.precision 3.generalisation generalisation stage = learner autonomy
  36. 36. what is “the good stuff”? scholastic tradition CLT/TBLT romantic goal understand the target culture use the target language in communica*on precision stage •explicit learning of linguistic structures, vocabulary, pronunciation •analyse cultural artefacts •task prepara*on •no*cing ac*vi*es •incorpora*ng feedback generalisation phase discuss cultural knowledge without making grammatical errors successfully complete communica*ve ac*vi*es or tasks
  37. 37. obstacles & challenges
  38. 38. too much precision work, not enough generalisation experiences The pupils have got to be made to feel that they are studying something, and not merely executing intellectual menuets (Whitehead, 1917) For a student of mathematics to hear someone talk about mathematics does hardly any more good than for a student of swimming to hear someone talk about swimming (Halmos, 1975)
  39. 39. obstacles & challenges • beliefs about second language learning and teaching • proficiency & self-efficacy • institutional constraints • lack of pedagogical models
  40. 40. Writing the date Story retell impoverished and decontextualised input rich, contexutalised input no focus on meaning, no communicative purpose exclusive focus on meaning and communication complex grammar (copula, modal, grammatical inflections) little explicit instruction, only simple grammatical forms produced focus on accuracy focus on fluency one learner performing in front of whole-class volunteers take turns to perform
  41. 41. Writing the date Story retell Seems simple to teachers, because they •underestimate the complexity of the activity •overestimate learners’ capacities to reproduce forms Seems difficult to teachers, because they •underestimate learners’ capacities for formulating meaningful utterances •overestimate the difficulty of the activity • less likely to promote language learning - does not involve meaningful communication - rote learning and accurate reproduction more likely to promote language learning - focuses on meaningful communication - provides support for successful task completion
  42. 42. Brainstorming about a sales pitch goal of activity learn how to make a good presentation teaching method •comprehensible input •discussion/brainstorming •revision after class learning objective express opinions on topic using appropriate vocabulary and grammar Example 6
  43. 43. I tend to use slides like this 1) for myself to use instead of a lesson plan so that I know what’s coming next and 2) for learners to make sure everything is on the slide. They don’t have to take notes and can see it later. This, I think, allows learners to listen more actively because they know the notes will be uploaded on the online platform afterwards. They are not concerned with taking notes so much and more with the lesson itself. I added a slide there because content hadn’t really been discussed. This is something I had not prepared as such. But the IWB allows you to remain flexible.
  44. 44. obstacles & challenges • beliefs about second language learning and teaching • proficiency & self-efficacy • institutional constraints • lack of pedagogical models Hubbard, 2008
  45. 45. research in teacher education • iTILT • video-conferencing collaborative action research
  46. 46. teacher development • high ICT & IWB confidence & strong IWB convictions • wide range of tools and teaching objectives • innovative participation in IWB community
  47. 47. It corresponds to the children's experience, because they showed me with the pen, it's giant, and I'm in front. So I thought "Uh-oh. If I'm teaching from the front, there's something wrong." It's called an interactive whiteboard, there's this notion of interactivity, so it's clear that I'm too much in the spotlight. So I need to find a way to get myself on the sidelines, because the goal is for them to be more autonomous.
  48. 48. Framework for language teacher development with IWB IWB use teacher development classroom practice 1 • little experience/access • low IWB beliefs • low self-efficacy • limited tool use + teaching goals • peripheral participation • (negative) focus on technology + project • decontextualised language practice • IWB as whiteboard substitute (no software) 2 • more IWB experience • higher IWB beliefs • moderate self-efficacy • different user patterns but limited goals • peripheral participation • (negative) focus on technology + project • technical rather than pedagogical interactivity • limited interactional opportunities 3 • experienced IWB user • high self-efficacy and beliefs • range of tools + goals • core participant in development programme • interest and initiative in range of teaching and technology issues • contextualised language practice • focus on learning opportunities Whyte, S. (2013). Interaction and interactivity in technology-rich second language classrooms: the iTILT project in France. WorldCALL, Glasgow, UK.13 July.
  49. 49. authentic tasks • video communication with young beginners • telecollaboration in English between French and German primary classes (English as a lingual franca) • IWB supporting live communication via video link and screen-sharing Whyte, S. (2011). Learning to teach with videoconferencing in primary foreign language classrooms. ReCALL 23(3): 271–293.
  50. 50. collaborative action research • collaboration between teachers and researchers • novice-expert teacher tandems • technological and pedagogical support (activity design and implementation) Cutrim Schmid, E., & Whyte, S. (Eds.) (forthcoming). Interactive whiteboards for language teacher professional development. Bloomsbury, January 2014.
  51. 51. a major affordance of technology is learner autonomy
  52. 52. learner autonomy depends on individual interlanguage development
  53. 53. interlanguage development requires 1. rich, contextualised, comprehensible input 2. sustained, repeated, communicative interaction 3. reflection on target language and own language production
  54. 54. learner autonomy depends on teacher willingness to provide input, orchestrate communication and guide reflection, and so to ...
  55. 55. • value open-ended, communicative tasks • give time and space for learner contributions • refrain from excessive grammar instruction and correction
  56. 56. obstacles but also opportunities
  57. 57. becoming digitally sharp effective classroom integration of interactive technologies supported by ongoing teacher education can encourage greater learner autonomy in and outside class
  58. 58. • http://www.music.utexas.edu/directory/details.aspx?id=36 • http://www.maa.org/sites/default/files/images/upload_library/1/ Portraits/halmos5.gif • http://www.maa.org/sites/default/files/images/upload_library/1/ Portraits/whitehead.gif • Eric T Gunther • icondock.com
  59. 59. Sharpening pencils in the digital age: classroom integration of interactive technologies to support learner autonomy Shona Whyte whyte@unice.fr http://efl.unice.fr @whyshona http://bit.ly/19BPgi9
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