Classroom integration of interactive technologies to support learner autonomy

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Seminar on Education technologies & Language learner autonomy, LaDiLS (Laboratory of Didactics of Foreign Languages), as part of the Language Teaching Centre at the Department of Linguistics and …

Seminar on Education technologies & Language learner autonomy, LaDiLS (Laboratory of Didactics of Foreign Languages), as part of the Language Teaching Centre at the Department of Linguistics and Comparative Studies of Ca’ Foscari University of Venice. 14 October 2013. http://www.unive.it/nqcontent.cfm?a_id=120390
Also blog post here: http://bit.ly/19VK0T2

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  • Article to appear: Whyte, S. (in press). Digital pencil sharpening: technology integration and language learning autonomy. EL.LE Università Ca’ Foscari, Venezia.
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  • 1. LaDiLS, Department of Linguistics and Comparative Studies Ca’ Foscari University of Venice, Italy International seminar: Education technologies & language learner autonomy 14 October 2013 Sharpening pencils in the digital age: classroom integration of interactive technologies to support learner autonomy Shona Whyte Université Nice Sophia Antipolis
  • 2. Shona Whyte applied linguist Department of English Studies Université Nice Sophia Antipolis, France teaching EFL (oral expression, translation) second language acquisition/teaching technology (digital literacy, ICT for FL) teacher education (primary, secondary) research teacher education classroom interaction technology integration
  • 3. Education technologies & language learner autonomy Christian Ludwig (University of Duisburg-Essen) The Use of Education Technology Tools in Foreign Language Learning – Advantages, Constraints and Challenges Shona Whyte (Université Nice Sophia Antipolis) Sharpening pencils in the digital age: classroom integration of interactive technologies to support learner autonomy
  • 4. Sharpening pencils?
  • 5. projector touch sensitive screen computer
  • 6. Pencils versus (IWB) pens
  • 7. pedagogical exercise versus communicative task 3 4 http://bit.ly/1bJesF6
  • 8. Writing the date Primary EFL What is the goal of the activity? 8 year-olds 2nd year of English What teaching method is the teacher using? Opening routine What do you think her general learning objectives might be? Example 3
  • 9. Writing the date goal of activity practice pronunciation, vocabulary and grammar by writing and reciting dates teaching method •PPP (presentation, practice, production) •memorisation as homework •public performance learning objective produce sentences using correct pronunciation, vocabulary and grammar Example 3
  • 10. Story retell Primary EFL 8 year-olds mixed-level class final task Example 4
  • 11. Pupil 1 Pupil 2
  • 12. Story retell What is the goal of the activity? What teaching method is the teacher using? What do you think her general learning objectives might be? Example 4
  • 13. Story retell goal of activity use the target language in communication by retelling a story teaching method •comprehensible input with noticing activities •listening, repeating, recreating story segments; drawing/retelling •public performance learning objective successfully complete communicative activities or tasks Example 4
  • 14. Writing the date Story retell goal of activity practice pronunciation, vocabulary and grammar by writing and reciting dates use the target language in communication by retelling a story teaching method •PPP (presentation, practice, production) •memorisation as homework •public performance •comprehensible input with noticing activities •listening, repeating, recreating story segments; drawing/retelling •public performance learning objective produce sentences using correct pronunciation, vocabulary and grammar successfully complete communicative activities or tasks Scholastic tradition (Communicative or) Task-based Language Teaching (TBLT)
  • 15. principles of teaching and learning
  • 16. learning and teaching a second language
  • 17. second language acquisition
  • 18. second language acquisition 1. interlanguage hypothesis: learner has built-in syllabus with developmental stages (rate but not route of acquisition may vary) 2. interaction hypothesis: meaningful communication and interlocutor feedback drives acquisition 3. noticing hypothesis: focus on form helps learner to notice aspects of L2 and gap with own production (Cook, 1998; Ellis, 2005; Lightbown, 2000; Myles 2002)
  • 19. second language acquisition 1. interlanguage 2. interaction 3. reflection 1. whole-class, lock-step instruction 2. decontextualised, rote learning 3. structural syllabus LIMIT
  • 20. other teaching and learning
  • 21. “the mind is an instrument, you first sharpen it, and then use it” one of the most fatal, erroneous, and dangerous conceptions ever introduced into the theory of education Whitehead, 1904-60
  • 22. The mind is never passive; it is a perpetual activity, delicate, receptive, responsive to stimulus. You cannot postpone its life until you have sharpened it. Whitehead, 1904-60
  • 23. Whatever interest attaches to your subject-matter must be evoked here and now; whatever powers you are strengthening in the pupil, must be exercised here and now; whatever possibilities of mental life your teaching should impart, must be exhibited here and now. Whitehead, 1904-60
  • 24. “isn’t there something I must do first?” Despite my great emotional involvement in work, I just hate to start doing it; it's a battle and a wrench every time. Isn't there something I can (must?) do first? Shouldn't I sharpen my pencils perhaps? Halmos, 1916-2006
  • 25. In fact I never use pencils, but pencil sharpening has become the code phrase for anything that helps to postpone the pain of concentrated creative attention. Halmos, 1916-2006
  • 26. “How long does it take to get to the good stuff?” And the answer, inevitably, is not nearly as long as we make it out to be Robert Duke Head of Music University of Texas at Austin
  • 27. What is “the good stuff”? Why don’t we get straight to it? teaching and learning foreign languages
  • 28. Whitehead’s model of learning 1.romantic 2.precision 3.generalisation methods of second/ foreign language scholastic tradition teaching communicative language teaching task-based language teaching
  • 29. romantic stage ... first apprehension ... ... immediate cognisance of fact ... ... a ferment already stirring in the mind ... Whitehead, 1917/32
  • 30. scholastic tradition romantic stage communicative language teaching task-based language teaching access to cultural knowledge the engagement of learners in communication in order to allow them to develop their communicative competence […or] ability to make meaning (Savignon, 2007, 209) task-based teaching calls for the classroom participants to forget where they are and why they are there and to act in the belief that they can learn the language indirectly through communicating in it rather than directly through studying it. (Ellis, 2006: 31)
  • 31. precision stage ... the stage of grammar, the grammar of language and the grammar of science. It proceeds by forcing on the students' acceptance a given way of analysing the facts, bit by bit. Whitehead, 1917/32
  • 32. precision stage scholastic tradition communicative language teaching task-based language teaching structural syllabus: development of grammatical competence natural approach: no precision stage (Krashen & Terrell) pre-­‐ and post-­‐task ac*vi*es audiolingual method: overlearning of linguistic patterns (Lado & Fries) interaction hypothesis: communication breakdown, negotiation of meaning (Gass, Long) focus on form (Long) CER: development of linguistic (notional/ functional) competencies noticing hypothesis (Schmidt)
  • 33. generalisation stage ... a return to romanticism with the added advantage of classified ideas and relevant technique. It is the fruition which has been the goal of the precise training. Whitehead, 1917/32
  • 34. generalisation stage scholastic tradition communicative language teaching task-based language teaching accurate use of language to structure cultural knowledge […] ask for information, to seek clarification, to use circumlocution […] to negotiate meaning, to stick to the communicative task at hand, […] to take risks, to speak in other than memorized patterns. (Savignon, 2007: 209) engagement in a planned learning activity with a primary focus on making meaning and engaging with real-world authentic language use with a defined communication-based learning outcome (Reinders, 2008)
  • 35. learning spiral 1.romantic 2.precision 3.generalisation generalisation stage = learner autonomy
  • 36. what is “the good stuff”? scholastic tradition CLT/TBLT romantic goal understand the target culture use the target language in communica*on precision stage •explicit learning of linguistic structures, vocabulary, pronunciation •analyse cultural artefacts •task prepara*on •no*cing ac*vi*es •incorpora*ng feedback generalisation phase discuss cultural knowledge without making grammatical errors successfully complete communica*ve ac*vi*es or tasks
  • 37. obstacles & challenges
  • 38. too much precision work, not enough generalisation experiences The pupils have got to be made to feel that they are studying something, and not merely executing intellectual menuets (Whitehead, 1917) For a student of mathematics to hear someone talk about mathematics does hardly any more good than for a student of swimming to hear someone talk about swimming (Halmos, 1975)
  • 39. obstacles & challenges • beliefs about second language learning and teaching • proficiency & self-efficacy • institutional constraints • lack of pedagogical models
  • 40. Writing the date Story retell impoverished and decontextualised input rich, contexutalised input no focus on meaning, no communicative purpose exclusive focus on meaning and communication complex grammar (copula, modal, grammatical inflections) little explicit instruction, only simple grammatical forms produced focus on accuracy focus on fluency one learner performing in front of whole-class volunteers take turns to perform
  • 41. Writing the date Story retell Seems simple to teachers, because they •underestimate the complexity of the activity •overestimate learners’ capacities to reproduce forms Seems difficult to teachers, because they •underestimate learners’ capacities for formulating meaningful utterances •overestimate the difficulty of the activity • less likely to promote language learning - does not involve meaningful communication - rote learning and accurate reproduction more likely to promote language learning - focuses on meaningful communication - provides support for successful task completion
  • 42. Brainstorming about a sales pitch goal of activity learn how to make a good presentation teaching method •comprehensible input •discussion/brainstorming •revision after class learning objective express opinions on topic using appropriate vocabulary and grammar Example 6
  • 43. I tend to use slides like this 1) for myself to use instead of a lesson plan so that I know what’s coming next and 2) for learners to make sure everything is on the slide. They don’t have to take notes and can see it later. This, I think, allows learners to listen more actively because they know the notes will be uploaded on the online platform afterwards. They are not concerned with taking notes so much and more with the lesson itself. I added a slide there because content hadn’t really been discussed. This is something I had not prepared as such. But the IWB allows you to remain flexible.
  • 44. obstacles & challenges • beliefs about second language learning and teaching • proficiency & self-efficacy • institutional constraints • lack of pedagogical models Hubbard, 2008
  • 45. research in teacher education • iTILT • video-conferencing collaborative action research
  • 46. teacher development • high ICT & IWB confidence & strong IWB convictions • wide range of tools and teaching objectives • innovative participation in IWB community
  • 47. It corresponds to the children's experience, because they showed me with the pen, it's giant, and I'm in front. So I thought "Uh-oh. If I'm teaching from the front, there's something wrong." It's called an interactive whiteboard, there's this notion of interactivity, so it's clear that I'm too much in the spotlight. So I need to find a way to get myself on the sidelines, because the goal is for them to be more autonomous.
  • 48. Framework for language teacher development with IWB IWB use teacher development classroom practice 1 • little experience/access • low IWB beliefs • low self-efficacy • limited tool use + teaching goals • peripheral participation • (negative) focus on technology + project • decontextualised language practice • IWB as whiteboard substitute (no software) 2 • more IWB experience • higher IWB beliefs • moderate self-efficacy • different user patterns but limited goals • peripheral participation • (negative) focus on technology + project • technical rather than pedagogical interactivity • limited interactional opportunities 3 • experienced IWB user • high self-efficacy and beliefs • range of tools + goals • core participant in development programme • interest and initiative in range of teaching and technology issues • contextualised language practice • focus on learning opportunities Whyte, S. (2013). Interaction and interactivity in technology-rich second language classrooms: the iTILT project in France. WorldCALL, Glasgow, UK.13 July.
  • 49. authentic tasks • video communication with young beginners • telecollaboration in English between French and German primary classes (English as a lingual franca) • IWB supporting live communication via video link and screen-sharing Whyte, S. (2011). Learning to teach with videoconferencing in primary foreign language classrooms. ReCALL 23(3): 271–293.
  • 50. collaborative action research • collaboration between teachers and researchers • novice-expert teacher tandems • technological and pedagogical support (activity design and implementation) Cutrim Schmid, E., & Whyte, S. (Eds.) (forthcoming). Interactive whiteboards for language teacher professional development. Bloomsbury, January 2014.
  • 51. a major affordance of technology is learner autonomy
  • 52. learner autonomy depends on individual interlanguage development
  • 53. interlanguage development requires 1. rich, contextualised, comprehensible input 2. sustained, repeated, communicative interaction 3. reflection on target language and own language production
  • 54. learner autonomy depends on teacher willingness to provide input, orchestrate communication and guide reflection, and so to ...
  • 55. • value open-ended, communicative tasks • give time and space for learner contributions • refrain from excessive grammar instruction and correction
  • 56. obstacles but also opportunities
  • 57. becoming digitally sharp effective classroom integration of interactive technologies supported by ongoing teacher education can encourage greater learner autonomy in and outside class
  • 58. • http://www.music.utexas.edu/directory/details.aspx?id=36 • http://www.maa.org/sites/default/files/images/upload_library/1/ Portraits/halmos5.gif • http://www.maa.org/sites/default/files/images/upload_library/1/ Portraits/whitehead.gif • Eric T Gunther • icondock.com
  • 59. Sharpening pencils in the digital age: classroom integration of interactive technologies to support learner autonomy Shona Whyte whyte@unice.fr http://efl.unice.fr @whyshona http://bit.ly/19BPgi9