Interaction and interactivity in technology-rich second language classrooms: the iTILT project in France

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WorldCALL 2013 presentation on French EFL teacher development in use of IWB.

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Interaction and interactivity in technology-rich second language classrooms: the iTILT project in France

  1. 1. Interaction and interactivity in technology- rich second language classrooms: the iTILT project in France Shona Whyte Université Nice Sophia Antipolis
  2. 2. Shona Whyte WorldCALL Glasgow 13 July 2013 /40 introduction INTERACTIVY & INTERACTION ๏ the iTILT project on interactive whiteboards (IWBs) for communicative language teaching ๏ discussion of CALL that reaches beyond the hype and the latest gadget to encompass longer term priorities and goals 2
  3. 3. Shona Whyte WorldCALL Glasgow 13 July 2013 /403 projector touch sensitive screen computer
  4. 4. Shona Whyte WorldCALL Glasgow 13 July 2013 /40 background IWB RESEARCH ๏ increased motivation ๏ faster pace ๏ digital hub 4 ๏ easily integrated into any pedagogical approach (e.g., teacher-fronted) ๏ need for ongoing teacher support advantages drawbacks Cutrim Schmid & Whyte, 2012
  5. 5. Shona Whyte WorldCALL Glasgow 13 July 2013 5 Teacher development as IWB user (Beauchamp, 2004) Teacher development as IWB user (Beauchamp, 2004) Teacher development as IWB user (Beauchamp, 2004) beginner apprentice initiate advanced IWB as black/whiteboard substitute, only teacher uses IWB only native software planned learner manipulation of objects (drag and drop) some other software planned learner use of more IWB tools use of more programmes (internet) spontaneous learner use of IWB features and peripherals (slates) use of audio and video files background
  6. 6. Shona Whyte WorldCALL Glasgow 13 July 2013 /406 http://itilt.eu
  7. 7. Shona Whyte WorldCALL Glasgow 13 July 2013 /407 7 countries 6 languages website with video examples of IWB-supported classroom practice with additional materials Dutch English French Spanish Turkish Welsh Belgium France Germany Netherlands Spain Turkey UK primary secondary university vocational 4 sectors 44 teachers, 81 films, 267 clips
  8. 8. Shona Whyte WorldCALL Glasgow 13 July 2013 /408 Whyte, Cutrim Schmid, van HazebrouckThompson & Oberhofer (in press)
  9. 9. Shona Whyte WorldCALL Glasgow 13 July 2013 /40 ITILT RESEARCH 9 ๏ teachers showed high self-efficacy perceptions for ICT, lower confidence with IWB tools, but encouraged learners to use the IWB Hillier, Beauchamp,Whyte (2013) ๏ primary teachers used narrow range of basic tools for circumscribed goals, irrespective of IWB experience Whyte, Beauchamp, Hillier (2012) ๏ teachers had differing views of IWB affordances for language teaching Whyte et al (in press) background
  10. 10. Shona Whyte WorldCALL Glasgow 13 July 2013 /4011 TEACHER A ๏ high ICT confidence & IWB convictions ๏ moderate IWB confidence ๏ limited range of tools and teaching objectives ๏ peripheral participation in IWB community teacher profiles Because I worked before, and now I'm only with the children.   Working with them, not thinking what I'm writing at the moment .... able to concentrate on the pupils. Because there are some people visual and auditive.  And I think that visual can help, because they remember what is written.   Video example Apprentice, level 2
  11. 11. Shona Whyte WorldCALL Glasgow 13 July 2013 /40 study ITILT FRANCE 1. how did French teachers use the IWB over the course of the project? 2. how can teachers' IWB use be accounted for? 3. what interactional opportunities were provided for learners? 12 Research questions
  12. 12. Shona Whyte WorldCALL Glasgow 13 July 2013 /40 method FRENCH DATA ๏ 9 EFL teachers (primary, middle, secondary, university) ๏ 56 classroom clips ๏ 16 teacher and learner interviews ๏ teacher questionnaire data ๏ focus group and online community contributions 13
  13. 13. Shona Whyte WorldCALL Glasgow 13 July 2013 /4014 0 10 20 30 40 50 A B C D E F H I G 40 40 20 30 30 20 40 30 50 20 20 10 10 10 10 20 10 30 3 3 0 3 0 3 0 5 1 IWB teaching age years BACKGROUND DATA primary
  14. 14. Shona Whyte WorldCALL Glasgow 13 July 2013 /4015 0 10 20 30 40 50 A B C D E F H I G 40 40 20 30 30 20 40 30 50 20 20 10 10 10 10 20 10 30 3 3 0 3 0 3 0 5 1 IWB teaching age years middle secondary BACKGROUND DATA
  15. 15. Shona Whyte WorldCALL Glasgow 13 July 2013 /4016 0 10 20 30 40 50 A B C D E F H I G 40 40 20 30 30 20 40 30 50 20 20 10 10 10 10 20 10 30 3 3 0 3 0 3 0 5 1 IWB teaching age years university BACKGROUND DATA
  16. 16. Shona Whyte WorldCALL Glasgow 13 July 2013 /40 analysis QUALITATIVE & QUANTITATIVE ANALYSES ๏ coding of 56 class video clips - IWB tools & features - user: teacher vs learner - teaching objectives ๏ analysis of ICT questionnaire + online community participation ๏ development of IWB language teacher profiles 17
  17. 17. Shona Whyte WorldCALL Glasgow 13 July 2013 /4018
  18. 18. Shona Whyte WorldCALL Glasgow 13 July 2013 /40 teacher profiles 23 TEACHER H ๏ low IWB confidence & convictions ๏ narrow range of tools and teaching objectives ๏ peripheral participation in IWB community I have been able to use the board. I am not very creative with it and my only useful skills so far are flashing up documents that I had already prepared on Open Office and the having the pupils write/highlight on them to do what we would have been doing with photocopies.This saves paper and does make it more generally interactive. It also gets them inter- correcting much more. Video example Beginner, level 1
  19. 19. Shona Whyte WorldCALL Glasgow 13 July 2013 /4024 IWB use by 9 French teachersIWB use by 9 French teachersIWB use by 9 French teachers IWB tools and features IWB user: teacher or learner? Language teaching objectives balance between embedding and activity clear preference for learner use of IWB balanced use of IWB for skills and subskills limited range of tools and features used clear preference for learner use of IWB much more speaking + listening than reading + writing focus on basic features: images + sounds; pen + drag/drop individual learner at IWB, not pairs or groups strong focus on vocabulary, also pronunciation focus on basic features: images + sounds; pen + drag/drop individual learner at IWB, not pairs or groups rare use for grammar Limited range of basic features used to teach oral skills and vocabulary with individual learners at the IWB Limited range of basic features used to teach oral skills and vocabulary with individual learners at the IWB Limited range of basic features used to teach oral skills and vocabulary with individual learners at the IWB
  20. 20. Shona Whyte WorldCALL Glasgow 13 July 2013 /4026 Google+ private stream
  21. 21. Shona Whyte WorldCALL Glasgow 13 July 2013 /4028 Participation in online support network (Whyte & Alexander, 2013) Participation in online support network (Whyte & Alexander, 2013) Participation in online support network (Whyte & Alexander, 2013) passive peripheral core •few posts, none independent •no media •few themes C (primary) I (secondary) G (teacher training) •posts and comments •some media •focus on few themes (technology, project, social) A (primary) E (middle) H (secondary) •greater initiative •more posts + comments •more media (video, links) •variety of themes B, D (primary) F (middle)
  22. 22. Shona Whyte WorldCALL Glasgow 13 July 2013 /4029 IWB user profiles for language teachersIWB user profiles for language teachersIWB user profiles for language teachersIWB user profiles for language teachers Teacher H Teacher A Teacher F Teacher D IWB use ICT/IWB background Project participation Beauchamp framework • pen tool, no IWB software • 100% individual learner • writing • limited IWB access, no experience • high ICT, very low IWB self-efficacy • no IWB convictions peripheral beginner • images, drag & drop • individual learner, whole-class • vocabulary, listening • good IWB access, experience • high ICT, lower IWB self-efficacy • strong IWB convictions peripheral apprentice • range of tools • 100% individual learner • speaking; range of skills • good IWB access • experienced user • high ICT/IWB self- efficacy • strong IWB convictions core initiate • wide range of tools • 88% individual learner • vocabulary, listening • good IWB access • experienced user • high ICT/IWB self- efficacy • strong IWB convictions innovative advanced
  23. 23. Shona Whyte WorldCALL Glasgow 13 July 2013 /4030 TEACHER F ๏ high ICT & IWB confidence & strong IWB convictions ๏ range of tools and teaching objectives ๏ core participation in IWB community teacher profiles They can play it again.  They can listen again.  And they can do it at home too, because I put this at the ENT, so they can do it at home. Video example Initiate, level 3 And what also strikes me is the fact that he is quite autonomous, he can play it again without asking you. Yes, and I'm not even there […] They can be autonomous.  They can work by themselves. F F R
  24. 24. Shona Whyte WorldCALL Glasgow 13 July 2013 /4032 TEACHER D ๏ high ICT & IWB confidence & strong IWB convictions ๏ wide range of tools and teaching objectives ๏ innovative participation in IWB community teacher profiles Et ici qu'est-ce qu'il fallait faire?   [What did you have to do here?] Il fallait, en fait, passer à travers pour aller through [In fact, you had to go through] Voilà parce qu'il passait dans la grotte [That's right because it was going into the cave] Video example Advanced, level 3 Parce que c'est sa maison la grotte [Because the cave is its house]
  25. 25. Shona Whyte WorldCALL Glasgow 13 July 2013 /4034 Framework for language teacher development with IWBFramework for language teacher development with IWBFramework for language teacher development with IWBFramework for language teacher development with IWB 1 2 3 IWB use teacher development classroom practice • little experience/access • low IWB beliefs • low self-efficacy • limited tool use + teaching goals • peripheral participation • (negative) focus on technology + project • decontextualised language practice • IWB as whiteboard substitute (no software) • more IWB experience • higher IWB beliefs • moderate self-efficacy • different user patterns but limited goals • peripheral participation • (negative) focus on technology + project • technical rather than pedagogical interactivity • limited interactional opportunities • experienced IWB user • high self-efficacy and beliefs • range of tools + goals • core participant in development programme • interest and initiative in range of teaching and technology issues • contextualised language practice • focus on learning opportunities
  26. 26. Shona Whyte WorldCALL Glasgow 13 July 2013 /40 more interaction DEVELOPING INTERACTIONAL OPPORTUNITIES ๏ analysing teacher-learner and learner-learner interaction at the IWB ๏ using the IWB to support live communication 35
  27. 27. Shona Whyte WorldCALL Glasgow 13 July 2013 /4036 IWB use for language interaction (Whyte & Cutrim Schmid, in preparation) IWB use for language interaction (Whyte & Cutrim Schmid, in preparation) IWB use for language interaction (Whyte & Cutrim Schmid, in preparation) IWB use for language interaction (Whyte & Cutrim Schmid, in preparation) drill display simulation communication planning/control context task pre-planned language elements limited attempt to contextualise language production & repetition with teacher feedback on form some learner choice in language to be produced limited attempt to contextualise language activity largely controlled by teacher greater space for learner choice role-play: pretend context space for learner choice in shaping activity spontaneous language production genuine exchange of participants’ own reactions learner-centred, meaning- focused activity Cutrim Schmid & Whyte, 2013
  28. 28. Shona Whyte WorldCALL Glasgow 13 July 2013 /4037 ๏ live video communication ๏ young learners of English as a lingua franca ๏ IWB for interactional support interactional opportunities Whyte & Cutrim Schmid (forthcoming)
  29. 29. Shona Whyte WorldCALL Glasgow 13 July 2013 /4038 •Alexander, J. (2013). The IWB in EFL, the IWB for EFL: using the IWB to teach EFL in French educational settings. (Unpublished master's thesis). Université Nice Sophia Antipolis, Nice, France. •Beauchamp, G. (2004).Teacher use of the interactive whiteboard (IWB) in primary schools – Towards an effective transition framework, Technology, Pedagogy and Education13 (3): 327–348. •Cutrim Schmid, E., & Whyte, S. (2013). Interactive Whiteboards in the EFL Classroom: Findings of the European Project iTILT. Guest lecture. Institute of English Studies, Leuphana Universität Lüneberg, Lüneberg, Germany. 18 June. •Cutrim Schmid, E. & Whyte, S. (2012). Interactive Whiteboards in School Settings:Teacher Responses to Socio- constructivist Hegemonies.  Language Learning andTechnology 16 (2), 65-86. [PDF] •Hillier, E., Beauchamp, G., & Whyte, S. (2013).A study of self-efficacy in the use of interactive whiteboards across educational settings: a European perspective from the iTILT project. Educational Futures, 5 (2) [PDF] •Whyte, S. (2011). Learning to teach with videoconferencing in primary foreign language classrooms. ReCALL 23(3): 271–293. •Whyte, S., & Alexander, J. (2013). Learning to Use Interactive Technologies for Language Teaching:Video Diaries for Teacher Support in the iTILT Project. Atelier didactique, SAES, Dijon, 18 May. [PDF] •Whyte, S., Beauchamp, G., & Hillier, E. (2012). Perceptions of the IWB for second language teaching and learning: the iTILT project. In L. Bradley & S.Thouësny (Eds.), CALL: Using, Learning, Knowing, EUROCALL Conference, Gothenburg, Sweden, 22-25 August 2012, Proceedings (pp. 320-6). © Research-publishing.net Dublin. [PDF] •Whyte, S., & Cutrim Schmid, E. (forthcoming). A task-based approach to video communication with the IWB: a French-German primary EFL class exchange. In Cutrim Schmid, E., & Whyte, S. (Eds.). Interactive whiteboards and language teacher professional development. Advances in Digital Language Learning and Teaching (Series editors: Michael Thomas, Mark Warschauer & Mark Peterson). Continuum. •Whyte, S., Cutrim Schmid, E., & van Hazebrouck, S. (2011). Designing IWB Resources for Language Teaching: the iTILT Project. International Conference on ICT for Language Learning, 4th Edition. Simonelli Editore. [PDF] •Whyte, S., Cutrim Schmid, E., van Hazebrouck, S., & Oberhofer, M. (in press). Open educational resources for CALL teacher education: the iTILT interactive whiteboard project.  Computer Assisted Language Learning.
  30. 30. Shona Whyte WorldCALL Glasgow 13 July 2013 /40 contact Interaction and interactivity in technology- rich second language classrooms: the iTILT project in France 39 Shona Whyte whyte@unice.fr http://efl.unice.fr @whyshona http://itilt.eu

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