Constructivism

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Constructivism

  1. 1. Cognitivism general learning theory cognitivist theories of language
  2. 2. automatic vs controlled processing
  3. 3. interlanguage Selinker learner grammar not L1, not L2
  4. 4. interlanguage Selinker: father of SLA research learner grammar not L1, not L2
  5. 5. Krashen’s monitor model the natural order hypothesis the acquisition/ learning hypothesis the monitor the input hypothesis the affective filter
  6. 6. Noticing   SLA is largely driven by what learners pay attention to and notice in target language input and what they understand the significance of noticed input to be. (Schmidt, 2001)
  7. 7. Cognitivism => Constructivism Re-take cognitivism test next week if you want
  8. 8. Constructivism general learning theory constructivist theories of language
  9. 9. Instructivism vs Constructivism
  10. 10. Piaget adaptation: a combination of t wo complementary processes called assimilation and accommodation. When a learner incorporates the evidence of their senses into their mental world view, perhaps even by distorting their perceptions to fit that view, the information is said to have been assimilated. Conversely, when the learner's mental world view has to be adjusted in order to admit new information, the learner accommodates.
  11. 11. Vygotsky: Zone of proximal development Bruner: scaffolding
  12. 12. Task-based language A task is an activity “where the target language is used by the learner for a communicative purpose (goal) in order to achieve an outcome.” (Jane Willis, 1996:23)
  13. 13. R Ellis A task has several features as follows: 1. A task is a work plan (a plan for learner activity). 2. A task involves a primary focus on meaning. 3. A task involves real-world processes of language use. 4. A task can involve any of the four language skills. 5. A task engages cognitive processes such as selecting, classifying, ordering, and evaluating information in order to carry out the task. 6. A task has a clear defined communicative outcome.
  14. 14. Skehan (1998) 1. Meaning is primary 2. Learners are not given other people’s meaning to regurgitate 3. There is some sort of relationship to comparable real-world activities 4. Task completion has some priority 5. The assessment of the task is in terms of outcome
  15. 15. Explanation & example input interaction intake output feedback nativisation

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