4 1 2010+P97 Aslides
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4 1 2010+P97 Aslides 4 1 2010+P97 Aslides Presentation Transcript

  • Psychology 9/7A 4 – 01 – 2010
    • Announcements
    • Short history of psychology continued
    • Chapter 1 – Thinking Critically with Psychological Science
  • Announcements
    • Next Tuesday we will be participating in a research survey during the lecture period
    • You should have received notification about a quiz that you need to take
    • You must take the quiz before next Tuesday
    • The quiz will close Tuesday morning at 8am
    • Regarding extra-credit – you may earn a total of 20 points of extra-credit toward your final grade in this class ---in any combination
  • Announcements cont.
    • 9 Introduction to Psychology Introduction to field of psychology, Same as Psychology 7A. No credit for Psychology and Social Behavior 9/Psychology 7A if taken concurrently with, or after, any of the following: Psychology and Social Behavior 11A, B, or C, Psychology 9A, B, or C. Formerly Psychology and Social Behavior P9. (III)
    • 11A, B, C Psychology Fundamentals Designed to provide freshman Psychology and Social Behavior majors with an in-depth survey of general psychology. Same as Psychology 9A, B, C. No credit for Psychology and Social Behavior 9/Psychology 7A if taken concurrently with, or after, any of the following: Psychology and Social Behavior 11A, B, or C, Psychology 9A, B, or C. Formerly Psychology and Social Behavior P11A, B, C. (III)
  • Announcements cont.
    • Discussion Sections – you must enroll in both the lecture and a discussion section
    • The discussion sections are all full?
    • Bring an add card and we will sign it
  • A 15 Minute History of Psychology
    • The story of psychology reaches all the way back to Ancient Greece – where they believed that the mind was separate from the body and lived on after death
  • A 15 Minute History of Psychology
    • Aristotle – used principles of logic and observation that all still used today
    • Deductive reasoning - An example of a deductive argument and hence of deductive reasoning:
    • All men are mortal
    • Aristotle is a man
    • (Therefore,) Aristotle is mortal
    • AKA – syllogisms
  • Darkness, War, Fighting
  • Renaissance
    • The Age of Enlightenment
  • A 15 Minute History of Psychology
    • Rene Descartes – 1596 – 1650
    • Proposed a mechanism for response to external events
    • Dualism – mind and body
    • Pineal gland – believed this is where the mind and body “met”
  • A 15 Minute History of Psychology
    • Francis Bacon – 1561 - 1626
    • founder of the scientific method was fascinated by our human desire to perceive meaning in random events
    • Inductive reasoning  falsifiable hypotheses
    • A requirement of the scientific method
  • A 15 Minute History of Psychology
    • John Locke – helped found empiricism – the view that knowledge originates in experience and that science should therefore rely on observation and experimentation for adding to knowledge – he argued that at birth the mind is a “ blank slate ” or “Tabula Rasa”
    • Empiricism – knowledge originates in experience and that science should therefore, rely on observation and experimentation
  • A 15 Minute History of Psychology
    • Wilhelm Wundt –
    • Developed the first psychological apparatus
    • Widely considered the “father of experimental psychology”
    • Established first psychology laboratory at the University of Leipzig
  • A 15 Minute History of Psychology
    • Edward Titchener
    • Student of Wundt’s
    • Introduced “Structuralism” to attempt to discover the elements of the mind
    • Introspection – the method of self-reflection from which mental elements could be discovered
  • A 15 Minute History of Psychology
    • William James –
    • Functionalism – the function of mental processes (as opposed to the structure)
    • 1890 – Publishes The Principles of Psychology
    • Describes psychology as the “science of mental life”
  • A 15 Minute History of Psychology
    • Sigmund Freud –
    • Founder of the psychoanalytic approach
    • Free associations, analysis of dreams, and fantasies
    • The conscious and unconsciousness mind  The ego, id, and superego
    • Psychosexual personality theory
  • A 15 Minute History of Psychology
    • The Behaviorists –
    • John Watson and B. F. Skinner
    • Redefined psychology as the “Scientific study of observable behavior”
    • They believed this made psychology more “scientific”
    • It took the mind out of psychology
    • Dominant Perspective in psychology from 1920s until the 1960s
  • Psychology’s Big Debate
    • The Nature/Nurture debate
    • Going back to Plato – believed that character and intelligence are inherited (nature)
    • Locke – believed that we are a blank slate (nurture)
    • Descartes believed it was some of both
  • The 3 Levels of Analysis
  • Two Types of Research
    • Basic research = research that adds to the knowledge base and seeks to understand phenomena for their own sake
    • Applied research = research that is design and conducted in an attempt to solve a practical problem
    • Both types of research inform each other
  • The Scientific Approach
    • Sometimes there is a well “duh” reaction to psychology
    • Just confirming to common sense teaches
    • “ just confirms what I already knew”
    • Hindsight Bias - the inclination to see events that have occurred as more predictable than they really are
    • On Monday – everyone knew the Saints were going to beat the Colts
  • Obviously?
    • If you want to teach a habit to persist, reward the desired behavior every time, not just sometimes
    • Traumatic experiences are typically repressed
    • Fears of harmless objects like flowers are just as easy to acquire as fears of potentially dangerous objects, like snakes
    • If you give someone a small gift or do them a favor they will like you more
  • We are so smart…
    • Anagrams –
    • Wreat  Water
    • Etryn  Entry
    • Grabe  Barge
    • Seilnt  Silent
    • Cine  Nice
  • … When we know the answer
    • Anagrams –
    • Unorfed
    • = founder
    • Nicesec
    • = science
    • Dirty room
    • = Dormitory
    • Cash lost in 'em
    • = Slot machines
  • The Scientific Attitude
    • Be Curious – be willing to investigate without leaping to conclusions
    • Be Skeptical – when someone says the question is settled  wonder why  Science requires that the question be ongoing
    • Be Open minded – this is the hardest one – for a bunch of reasons that we are going to talk much more about later
  • The Scientific Method
    • Scientific theory – Uses an integrated set of principles that organize and predict behavior
    • Operational definitions – what are you measuring?
    • Hypothesis testing – what are you predicting?
    • Reporting research
    • Peer review
    • Psychology Journals
  • Replication
    • The ability of others to reproduce research findings
    • When different studies replicate findings they are said to have convergent validity
    • The more the findings replicate the more certain we become that we are witnessing an actual phenomenon – not just an anomaly
  • Psychology Research
    • Case Studies – One person is studied in great detail
    • Sigmund Freud – used this method to study mostly Viennese women
    • What is a weakness of this type of research?
  • Psychology Research
    • Naturalistic Observation
    • Describes behavior
    • Does not explain it
    • Can still be very interesting and revealing
    • Ethnography – systematic study of a naturally occurring phenomenon
  • Psychology Research cont.
    • Surveys
    • A fairly easy way to collect a lot of data
    • Random sampling – increases ability to generalize about the population
    • Large survey samples approach population beliefs better than small ones
  • Wording Effects in Surveys
    • How much do you agree with the following?
    • “ Free healthcare for all people is a good idea”
    • “ Healthcare for all that will cost trillions of dollars in additional taxes and only insures about half of those uninsured is a good idea”
    • “ Given that free healthcare is a human right, the recent health care initiative providing healthcare for all is an idea whose time has come”
  • Wording Effects in Surveys
    • Please give 3 examples of when you have been assertive
    • OR
    • Please give 10 examples of when you have been assertive
    • In general how assertive are you?
    • Availability effects
  • Biased Questions
    • How fast was the car going when it hit the other car?
    • OR
    • How fast was the car going when it smashed into the other car?
  • Bias Resulting from the Sample
    • In survey sampling, bias refers to the tendency of a sample statistic to systematically over- or under-estimate a population parameter
    • A statistic is a characteristic of a sample. Generally, a statistic is used to estimate the value of a population parameter
    • A parameter is a measurable characteristic of a population, such as a mean or a standard deviation
  • Bias Resulting from the Sample cont.
    • A good sample is representative . This means that each sample point represents the attributes of a known number of population elements
    • Undercoverage - occurs when some members of the population are inadequately represented in the sample
    • Nonresponse bias. Sometimes, individuals chosen for the sample are unwilling or unable to participate in the survey
  • Order Effects in Survey
    • “ How interested are you in politics?”
    • Or
    • “ What is the name of your congressman?”
    • And then
    • “ How interested are you in politics?”
    • People who did not know the name of their congressperson reported less interest in politics
  • Types of Survey Research
    • Cross sectional – this is a snapshot in time of how people feel at a given moment
    • Cross sectional research tells us little about causation
    • Longitudinal – asks the same people the same questions multiple times – allows the researchers to examine changes over time
  • Responses to September 11
    • Silver et al., 2002
    • Survey research can inform us about population reactions to important events
    • Nationally representative sample (n=1069)
    • People across the country experienced PTSD like symptoms after 9/11
    • 17% outside NY city reported 9/11 related PTSD symptoms 2 months after the attacks and 5.8% did 6 months later
    • Psychological effects of a major nationwide trauma not limited to those directly exposed
    • Disengaging from coping can signal psychological difficulties up to 6 months after the trauma
  • Correlation
    • The relationship between two things
    • How much do two variables vary together
    • Correlation can be positive or negative
    • Correlation versus causation
    • Illusory correlation
    • Correlation coefficient, “ r ” – a statistic that tells us how closely two things vary together
  • Scatterplots = r
  • More Correlation
  • Perceiving Order in Random Events
    • People often impose order where there is none
    • Uncertainty is scary
    • The “just world”
  • Experiments
    • Key condition of experiments is random assignment
    • Experimental designs
    • Mundane vs. Psychological realism
    • Causality revisited
  • Motivated Skepticism
    • Ditto & Lopez, 1992 (experiment 2)
    • University students exposed “test strips” to saliva (n = 51)
    • Some were told if the strip stayed the same color it indicated an enzyme deficiency – others were told just the opposite – in reality none of the strips changed color
    • Color reaction was supposed take about 20 seconds
    • Subjects in the enzyme deficient group waited longer to submit their test strips back to researchers and also conducted replications to confirm the non-desirable outcome
    • Conclusion – people often search for alternative explanations for negative, but not positive outcomes
  • Describing Data
    • Statistics
    • Measures of central tendency
    • Measures of variation
    • More cases versus less cases
    • Significant differences
  • Average Home Price in L.A.
    • 100k + 100k + 125k+ 150k + 100k + 175k +
    • 200k + 150k + 100k + 5million
    • Equals = $6,200,000
    • Divided by 10 = $620,000
    • Is this a good measure of the “average”
  • Ethics in Research
    • Animals in research
    • IRBs
    • Are these studies ethical?
  • Neuroscience and Behavior
    • Everything “psychological” is also “biological”
    • Early assumptions
    • Interplay of biology and psychology
  • Neural Communication
    • The body’s information system
    • A motor neuron
  • Action Potential
    • Neuron fires impulse
    • The impulse called the “action potential, is a brief electrical charge
    • Action potential
  • Neurotransmitters
    • Acetylcholine
    • Norepinephrine
    • Dopamine
    • GABA
    • Glutamate
    • Serotonin
  • The Peripheral Nervous System
    • The somatic nervous system
    • The autonomic nervous system
    • The sympathetic system
    • The parasympathetic system
  • Central Nervous System
    • Two components
    • The spinal cord
    • The brain
  • The Brain
  • The Forebrain
  • The Cerebrum
  • The Split Brain
  • Nature/Nurture