4 1 2010+P97 Aslides


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4 1 2010+P97 Aslides

  1. 1. Psychology 9/7A 4 – 01 – 2010 <ul><li>Announcements </li></ul><ul><li>Short history of psychology continued </li></ul><ul><li>Chapter 1 – Thinking Critically with Psychological Science </li></ul>
  2. 2. Announcements <ul><li>Next Tuesday we will be participating in a research survey during the lecture period </li></ul><ul><li>You should have received notification about a quiz that you need to take </li></ul><ul><li>You must take the quiz before next Tuesday </li></ul><ul><li>The quiz will close Tuesday morning at 8am </li></ul><ul><li>Regarding extra-credit – you may earn a total of 20 points of extra-credit toward your final grade in this class ---in any combination </li></ul>
  3. 3. Announcements cont. <ul><li>9 Introduction to Psychology Introduction to field of psychology, Same as Psychology 7A. No credit for Psychology and Social Behavior 9/Psychology 7A if taken concurrently with, or after, any of the following: Psychology and Social Behavior 11A, B, or C, Psychology 9A, B, or C. Formerly Psychology and Social Behavior P9. (III) </li></ul><ul><li>11A, B, C Psychology Fundamentals Designed to provide freshman Psychology and Social Behavior majors with an in-depth survey of general psychology. Same as Psychology 9A, B, C. No credit for Psychology and Social Behavior 9/Psychology 7A if taken concurrently with, or after, any of the following: Psychology and Social Behavior 11A, B, or C, Psychology 9A, B, or C. Formerly Psychology and Social Behavior P11A, B, C. (III) </li></ul>
  4. 4. Announcements cont. <ul><li>Discussion Sections – you must enroll in both the lecture and a discussion section </li></ul><ul><li>The discussion sections are all full? </li></ul><ul><li>Bring an add card and we will sign it </li></ul>
  5. 5. A 15 Minute History of Psychology <ul><li>The story of psychology reaches all the way back to Ancient Greece – where they believed that the mind was separate from the body and lived on after death </li></ul>
  6. 6. A 15 Minute History of Psychology <ul><li>Aristotle – used principles of logic and observation that all still used today </li></ul><ul><li>Deductive reasoning - An example of a deductive argument and hence of deductive reasoning: </li></ul><ul><li>All men are mortal </li></ul><ul><li>Aristotle is a man </li></ul><ul><li>(Therefore,) Aristotle is mortal </li></ul><ul><li>AKA – syllogisms </li></ul>
  7. 7. Darkness, War, Fighting
  8. 8. Renaissance <ul><li>The Age of Enlightenment </li></ul>
  9. 9. A 15 Minute History of Psychology <ul><li>Rene Descartes – 1596 – 1650 </li></ul><ul><li>Proposed a mechanism for response to external events </li></ul><ul><li>Dualism – mind and body </li></ul><ul><li>Pineal gland – believed this is where the mind and body “met” </li></ul>
  10. 10. A 15 Minute History of Psychology <ul><li>Francis Bacon – 1561 - 1626 </li></ul><ul><li>founder of the scientific method was fascinated by our human desire to perceive meaning in random events </li></ul><ul><li>Inductive reasoning  falsifiable hypotheses </li></ul><ul><li>A requirement of the scientific method </li></ul>
  11. 11. A 15 Minute History of Psychology <ul><li>John Locke – helped found empiricism – the view that knowledge originates in experience and that science should therefore rely on observation and experimentation for adding to knowledge – he argued that at birth the mind is a “ blank slate ” or “Tabula Rasa” </li></ul><ul><li>Empiricism – knowledge originates in experience and that science should therefore, rely on observation and experimentation </li></ul>
  12. 12. A 15 Minute History of Psychology <ul><li>Wilhelm Wundt – </li></ul><ul><li>Developed the first psychological apparatus </li></ul><ul><li>Widely considered the “father of experimental psychology” </li></ul><ul><li>Established first psychology laboratory at the University of Leipzig </li></ul>
  13. 13. A 15 Minute History of Psychology <ul><li>Edward Titchener </li></ul><ul><li>Student of Wundt’s </li></ul><ul><li>Introduced “Structuralism” to attempt to discover the elements of the mind </li></ul><ul><li>Introspection – the method of self-reflection from which mental elements could be discovered </li></ul>
  14. 14. A 15 Minute History of Psychology <ul><li>William James – </li></ul><ul><li>Functionalism – the function of mental processes (as opposed to the structure) </li></ul><ul><li>1890 – Publishes The Principles of Psychology </li></ul><ul><li>Describes psychology as the “science of mental life” </li></ul>
  15. 15. A 15 Minute History of Psychology <ul><li>Sigmund Freud – </li></ul><ul><li>Founder of the psychoanalytic approach </li></ul><ul><li>Free associations, analysis of dreams, and fantasies </li></ul><ul><li>The conscious and unconsciousness mind  The ego, id, and superego </li></ul><ul><li>Psychosexual personality theory </li></ul>
  16. 16. A 15 Minute History of Psychology <ul><li>The Behaviorists – </li></ul><ul><li>John Watson and B. F. Skinner </li></ul><ul><li>Redefined psychology as the “Scientific study of observable behavior” </li></ul><ul><li>They believed this made psychology more “scientific” </li></ul><ul><li>It took the mind out of psychology </li></ul><ul><li>Dominant Perspective in psychology from 1920s until the 1960s </li></ul>
  17. 17. Psychology’s Big Debate <ul><li>The Nature/Nurture debate </li></ul><ul><li>Going back to Plato – believed that character and intelligence are inherited (nature) </li></ul><ul><li>Locke – believed that we are a blank slate (nurture) </li></ul><ul><li>Descartes believed it was some of both </li></ul>
  18. 18. The 3 Levels of Analysis
  19. 19. Two Types of Research <ul><li>Basic research = research that adds to the knowledge base and seeks to understand phenomena for their own sake </li></ul><ul><li>Applied research = research that is design and conducted in an attempt to solve a practical problem </li></ul><ul><li>Both types of research inform each other </li></ul>
  20. 20. The Scientific Approach <ul><li>Sometimes there is a well “duh” reaction to psychology </li></ul><ul><li>Just confirming to common sense teaches </li></ul><ul><li>“ just confirms what I already knew” </li></ul><ul><li>Hindsight Bias - the inclination to see events that have occurred as more predictable than they really are </li></ul><ul><li>On Monday – everyone knew the Saints were going to beat the Colts </li></ul>
  21. 21. Obviously? <ul><li>If you want to teach a habit to persist, reward the desired behavior every time, not just sometimes </li></ul><ul><li>Traumatic experiences are typically repressed </li></ul><ul><li>Fears of harmless objects like flowers are just as easy to acquire as fears of potentially dangerous objects, like snakes </li></ul><ul><li>If you give someone a small gift or do them a favor they will like you more </li></ul>
  22. 22. We are so smart… <ul><li>Anagrams – </li></ul><ul><li>Wreat  Water </li></ul><ul><li>Etryn  Entry </li></ul><ul><li>Grabe  Barge </li></ul><ul><li>Seilnt  Silent </li></ul><ul><li>Cine  Nice </li></ul>
  23. 23. … When we know the answer <ul><li>Anagrams – </li></ul><ul><li>Unorfed </li></ul><ul><li>= founder </li></ul><ul><li>Nicesec </li></ul><ul><li>= science </li></ul><ul><li>Dirty room </li></ul><ul><li>= Dormitory </li></ul><ul><li>Cash lost in 'em </li></ul><ul><li>= Slot machines </li></ul>
  24. 24. The Scientific Attitude <ul><li>Be Curious – be willing to investigate without leaping to conclusions </li></ul><ul><li>Be Skeptical – when someone says the question is settled  wonder why  Science requires that the question be ongoing </li></ul><ul><li>Be Open minded – this is the hardest one – for a bunch of reasons that we are going to talk much more about later </li></ul>
  25. 25. The Scientific Method <ul><li>Scientific theory – Uses an integrated set of principles that organize and predict behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Operational definitions – what are you measuring? </li></ul><ul><li>Hypothesis testing – what are you predicting? </li></ul><ul><li>Reporting research </li></ul><ul><li>Peer review </li></ul><ul><li>Psychology Journals </li></ul>
  26. 26. Replication <ul><li>The ability of others to reproduce research findings </li></ul><ul><li>When different studies replicate findings they are said to have convergent validity </li></ul><ul><li>The more the findings replicate the more certain we become that we are witnessing an actual phenomenon – not just an anomaly </li></ul>
  27. 27. Psychology Research <ul><li>Case Studies – One person is studied in great detail </li></ul><ul><li>Sigmund Freud – used this method to study mostly Viennese women </li></ul><ul><li>What is a weakness of this type of research? </li></ul>
  28. 28. Psychology Research <ul><li>Naturalistic Observation </li></ul><ul><li>Describes behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Does not explain it </li></ul><ul><li>Can still be very interesting and revealing </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnography – systematic study of a naturally occurring phenomenon </li></ul>
  29. 29. Psychology Research cont. <ul><li>Surveys </li></ul><ul><li>A fairly easy way to collect a lot of data </li></ul><ul><li>Random sampling – increases ability to generalize about the population </li></ul><ul><li>Large survey samples approach population beliefs better than small ones </li></ul>
  30. 30. Wording Effects in Surveys <ul><li>How much do you agree with the following? </li></ul><ul><li>“ Free healthcare for all people is a good idea” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Healthcare for all that will cost trillions of dollars in additional taxes and only insures about half of those uninsured is a good idea” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Given that free healthcare is a human right, the recent health care initiative providing healthcare for all is an idea whose time has come” </li></ul>
  31. 31. Wording Effects in Surveys <ul><li>Please give 3 examples of when you have been assertive </li></ul><ul><li>OR </li></ul><ul><li>Please give 10 examples of when you have been assertive </li></ul><ul><li>In general how assertive are you? </li></ul><ul><li>Availability effects </li></ul>
  32. 32. Biased Questions <ul><li>How fast was the car going when it hit the other car? </li></ul><ul><li>OR </li></ul><ul><li>How fast was the car going when it smashed into the other car? </li></ul>
  33. 33. Bias Resulting from the Sample <ul><li>In survey sampling, bias refers to the tendency of a sample statistic to systematically over- or under-estimate a population parameter </li></ul><ul><li>A statistic is a characteristic of a sample. Generally, a statistic is used to estimate the value of a population parameter </li></ul><ul><li>A parameter is a measurable characteristic of a population, such as a mean or a standard deviation </li></ul>
  34. 34. Bias Resulting from the Sample cont. <ul><li>A good sample is representative . This means that each sample point represents the attributes of a known number of population elements </li></ul><ul><li>Undercoverage - occurs when some members of the population are inadequately represented in the sample </li></ul><ul><li>Nonresponse bias. Sometimes, individuals chosen for the sample are unwilling or unable to participate in the survey </li></ul>
  35. 35. Order Effects in Survey <ul><li>“ How interested are you in politics?” </li></ul><ul><li>Or </li></ul><ul><li>“ What is the name of your congressman?” </li></ul><ul><li>And then </li></ul><ul><li>“ How interested are you in politics?” </li></ul><ul><li>People who did not know the name of their congressperson reported less interest in politics </li></ul>
  36. 36. Types of Survey Research <ul><li>Cross sectional – this is a snapshot in time of how people feel at a given moment </li></ul><ul><li>Cross sectional research tells us little about causation </li></ul><ul><li>Longitudinal – asks the same people the same questions multiple times – allows the researchers to examine changes over time </li></ul>
  37. 37. Responses to September 11 <ul><li>Silver et al., 2002 </li></ul><ul><li>Survey research can inform us about population reactions to important events </li></ul><ul><li>Nationally representative sample (n=1069) </li></ul><ul><li>People across the country experienced PTSD like symptoms after 9/11 </li></ul><ul><li>17% outside NY city reported 9/11 related PTSD symptoms 2 months after the attacks and 5.8% did 6 months later </li></ul><ul><li>Psychological effects of a major nationwide trauma not limited to those directly exposed </li></ul><ul><li>Disengaging from coping can signal psychological difficulties up to 6 months after the trauma </li></ul>
  38. 38. Correlation <ul><li>The relationship between two things </li></ul><ul><li>How much do two variables vary together </li></ul><ul><li>Correlation can be positive or negative </li></ul><ul><li>Correlation versus causation </li></ul><ul><li>Illusory correlation </li></ul><ul><li>Correlation coefficient, “ r ” – a statistic that tells us how closely two things vary together </li></ul>
  39. 39. Scatterplots = r
  40. 40. More Correlation <ul><li> </li></ul>
  41. 41. Perceiving Order in Random Events <ul><li>People often impose order where there is none </li></ul><ul><li>Uncertainty is scary </li></ul><ul><li>The “just world” </li></ul>
  42. 42. Experiments <ul><li>Key condition of experiments is random assignment </li></ul><ul><li>Experimental designs </li></ul><ul><li>Mundane vs. Psychological realism </li></ul><ul><li>Causality revisited </li></ul>
  43. 43. Motivated Skepticism <ul><li>Ditto & Lopez, 1992 (experiment 2) </li></ul><ul><li>University students exposed “test strips” to saliva (n = 51) </li></ul><ul><li>Some were told if the strip stayed the same color it indicated an enzyme deficiency – others were told just the opposite – in reality none of the strips changed color </li></ul><ul><li>Color reaction was supposed take about 20 seconds </li></ul><ul><li>Subjects in the enzyme deficient group waited longer to submit their test strips back to researchers and also conducted replications to confirm the non-desirable outcome </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion – people often search for alternative explanations for negative, but not positive outcomes </li></ul>
  44. 44. Describing Data <ul><li>Statistics </li></ul><ul><li>Measures of central tendency </li></ul><ul><li>Measures of variation </li></ul><ul><li>More cases versus less cases </li></ul><ul><li>Significant differences </li></ul>
  45. 45. Average Home Price in L.A. <ul><li>100k + 100k + 125k+ 150k + 100k + 175k + </li></ul><ul><li>200k + 150k + 100k + 5million </li></ul><ul><li>Equals = $6,200,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Divided by 10 = $620,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Is this a good measure of the “average” </li></ul>
  46. 46. Ethics in Research <ul><li>Animals in research </li></ul><ul><li>IRBs </li></ul><ul><li>Are these studies ethical? </li></ul>
  47. 47. Neuroscience and Behavior <ul><li>Everything “psychological” is also “biological” </li></ul><ul><li>Early assumptions </li></ul><ul><li>Interplay of biology and psychology </li></ul>
  48. 48. Neural Communication <ul><li>The body’s information system </li></ul><ul><li>A motor neuron </li></ul>
  49. 49. Action Potential <ul><li>Neuron fires impulse </li></ul><ul><li>The impulse called the “action potential, is a brief electrical charge </li></ul><ul><li>Action potential </li></ul>
  50. 50. Neurotransmitters <ul><li>Acetylcholine </li></ul><ul><li>Norepinephrine </li></ul><ul><li>Dopamine </li></ul><ul><li>GABA </li></ul><ul><li>Glutamate </li></ul><ul><li>Serotonin </li></ul>
  51. 51. The Peripheral Nervous System <ul><li>The somatic nervous system </li></ul><ul><li>The autonomic nervous system </li></ul><ul><li>The sympathetic system </li></ul><ul><li>The parasympathetic system </li></ul>
  52. 52. Central Nervous System <ul><li>Two components </li></ul><ul><li>The spinal cord </li></ul><ul><li>The brain </li></ul>
  53. 53. The Brain
  54. 54. The Forebrain
  55. 55. The Cerebrum
  56. 56. The Split Brain
  57. 57. Nature/Nurture