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4 1 2010+P97 Aslides

4 1 2010+P97 Aslides






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    4 1 2010+P97 Aslides 4 1 2010+P97 Aslides Presentation Transcript

    • Psychology 9/7A 4 – 01 – 2010
      • Announcements
      • Short history of psychology continued
      • Chapter 1 – Thinking Critically with Psychological Science
    • Announcements
      • Next Tuesday we will be participating in a research survey during the lecture period
      • You should have received notification about a quiz that you need to take
      • You must take the quiz before next Tuesday
      • The quiz will close Tuesday morning at 8am
      • Regarding extra-credit – you may earn a total of 20 points of extra-credit toward your final grade in this class ---in any combination
    • Announcements cont.
      • 9 Introduction to Psychology Introduction to field of psychology, Same as Psychology 7A. No credit for Psychology and Social Behavior 9/Psychology 7A if taken concurrently with, or after, any of the following: Psychology and Social Behavior 11A, B, or C, Psychology 9A, B, or C. Formerly Psychology and Social Behavior P9. (III)
      • 11A, B, C Psychology Fundamentals Designed to provide freshman Psychology and Social Behavior majors with an in-depth survey of general psychology. Same as Psychology 9A, B, C. No credit for Psychology and Social Behavior 9/Psychology 7A if taken concurrently with, or after, any of the following: Psychology and Social Behavior 11A, B, or C, Psychology 9A, B, or C. Formerly Psychology and Social Behavior P11A, B, C. (III)
    • Announcements cont.
      • Discussion Sections – you must enroll in both the lecture and a discussion section
      • The discussion sections are all full?
      • Bring an add card and we will sign it
    • A 15 Minute History of Psychology
      • The story of psychology reaches all the way back to Ancient Greece – where they believed that the mind was separate from the body and lived on after death
    • A 15 Minute History of Psychology
      • Aristotle – used principles of logic and observation that all still used today
      • Deductive reasoning - An example of a deductive argument and hence of deductive reasoning:
      • All men are mortal
      • Aristotle is a man
      • (Therefore,) Aristotle is mortal
      • AKA – syllogisms
    • Darkness, War, Fighting
    • Renaissance
      • The Age of Enlightenment
    • A 15 Minute History of Psychology
      • Rene Descartes – 1596 – 1650
      • Proposed a mechanism for response to external events
      • Dualism – mind and body
      • Pineal gland – believed this is where the mind and body “met”
    • A 15 Minute History of Psychology
      • Francis Bacon – 1561 - 1626
      • founder of the scientific method was fascinated by our human desire to perceive meaning in random events
      • Inductive reasoning  falsifiable hypotheses
      • A requirement of the scientific method
    • A 15 Minute History of Psychology
      • John Locke – helped found empiricism – the view that knowledge originates in experience and that science should therefore rely on observation and experimentation for adding to knowledge – he argued that at birth the mind is a “ blank slate ” or “Tabula Rasa”
      • Empiricism – knowledge originates in experience and that science should therefore, rely on observation and experimentation
    • A 15 Minute History of Psychology
      • Wilhelm Wundt –
      • Developed the first psychological apparatus
      • Widely considered the “father of experimental psychology”
      • Established first psychology laboratory at the University of Leipzig
    • A 15 Minute History of Psychology
      • Edward Titchener
      • Student of Wundt’s
      • Introduced “Structuralism” to attempt to discover the elements of the mind
      • Introspection – the method of self-reflection from which mental elements could be discovered
    • A 15 Minute History of Psychology
      • William James –
      • Functionalism – the function of mental processes (as opposed to the structure)
      • 1890 – Publishes The Principles of Psychology
      • Describes psychology as the “science of mental life”
    • A 15 Minute History of Psychology
      • Sigmund Freud –
      • Founder of the psychoanalytic approach
      • Free associations, analysis of dreams, and fantasies
      • The conscious and unconsciousness mind  The ego, id, and superego
      • Psychosexual personality theory
    • A 15 Minute History of Psychology
      • The Behaviorists –
      • John Watson and B. F. Skinner
      • Redefined psychology as the “Scientific study of observable behavior”
      • They believed this made psychology more “scientific”
      • It took the mind out of psychology
      • Dominant Perspective in psychology from 1920s until the 1960s
    • Psychology’s Big Debate
      • The Nature/Nurture debate
      • Going back to Plato – believed that character and intelligence are inherited (nature)
      • Locke – believed that we are a blank slate (nurture)
      • Descartes believed it was some of both
    • The 3 Levels of Analysis
    • Two Types of Research
      • Basic research = research that adds to the knowledge base and seeks to understand phenomena for their own sake
      • Applied research = research that is design and conducted in an attempt to solve a practical problem
      • Both types of research inform each other
    • The Scientific Approach
      • Sometimes there is a well “duh” reaction to psychology
      • Just confirming to common sense teaches
      • “ just confirms what I already knew”
      • Hindsight Bias - the inclination to see events that have occurred as more predictable than they really are
      • On Monday – everyone knew the Saints were going to beat the Colts
    • Obviously?
      • If you want to teach a habit to persist, reward the desired behavior every time, not just sometimes
      • Traumatic experiences are typically repressed
      • Fears of harmless objects like flowers are just as easy to acquire as fears of potentially dangerous objects, like snakes
      • If you give someone a small gift or do them a favor they will like you more
    • We are so smart…
      • Anagrams –
      • Wreat  Water
      • Etryn  Entry
      • Grabe  Barge
      • Seilnt  Silent
      • Cine  Nice
    • … When we know the answer
      • Anagrams –
      • Unorfed
      • = founder
      • Nicesec
      • = science
      • Dirty room
      • = Dormitory
      • Cash lost in 'em
      • = Slot machines
    • The Scientific Attitude
      • Be Curious – be willing to investigate without leaping to conclusions
      • Be Skeptical – when someone says the question is settled  wonder why  Science requires that the question be ongoing
      • Be Open minded – this is the hardest one – for a bunch of reasons that we are going to talk much more about later
    • The Scientific Method
      • Scientific theory – Uses an integrated set of principles that organize and predict behavior
      • Operational definitions – what are you measuring?
      • Hypothesis testing – what are you predicting?
      • Reporting research
      • Peer review
      • Psychology Journals
    • Replication
      • The ability of others to reproduce research findings
      • When different studies replicate findings they are said to have convergent validity
      • The more the findings replicate the more certain we become that we are witnessing an actual phenomenon – not just an anomaly
    • Psychology Research
      • Case Studies – One person is studied in great detail
      • Sigmund Freud – used this method to study mostly Viennese women
      • What is a weakness of this type of research?
    • Psychology Research
      • Naturalistic Observation
      • Describes behavior
      • Does not explain it
      • Can still be very interesting and revealing
      • Ethnography – systematic study of a naturally occurring phenomenon
    • Psychology Research cont.
      • Surveys
      • A fairly easy way to collect a lot of data
      • Random sampling – increases ability to generalize about the population
      • Large survey samples approach population beliefs better than small ones
    • Wording Effects in Surveys
      • How much do you agree with the following?
      • “ Free healthcare for all people is a good idea”
      • “ Healthcare for all that will cost trillions of dollars in additional taxes and only insures about half of those uninsured is a good idea”
      • “ Given that free healthcare is a human right, the recent health care initiative providing healthcare for all is an idea whose time has come”
    • Wording Effects in Surveys
      • Please give 3 examples of when you have been assertive
      • OR
      • Please give 10 examples of when you have been assertive
      • In general how assertive are you?
      • Availability effects
    • Biased Questions
      • How fast was the car going when it hit the other car?
      • OR
      • How fast was the car going when it smashed into the other car?
    • Bias Resulting from the Sample
      • In survey sampling, bias refers to the tendency of a sample statistic to systematically over- or under-estimate a population parameter
      • A statistic is a characteristic of a sample. Generally, a statistic is used to estimate the value of a population parameter
      • A parameter is a measurable characteristic of a population, such as a mean or a standard deviation
    • Bias Resulting from the Sample cont.
      • A good sample is representative . This means that each sample point represents the attributes of a known number of population elements
      • Undercoverage - occurs when some members of the population are inadequately represented in the sample
      • Nonresponse bias. Sometimes, individuals chosen for the sample are unwilling or unable to participate in the survey
    • Order Effects in Survey
      • “ How interested are you in politics?”
      • Or
      • “ What is the name of your congressman?”
      • And then
      • “ How interested are you in politics?”
      • People who did not know the name of their congressperson reported less interest in politics
    • Types of Survey Research
      • Cross sectional – this is a snapshot in time of how people feel at a given moment
      • Cross sectional research tells us little about causation
      • Longitudinal – asks the same people the same questions multiple times – allows the researchers to examine changes over time
    • Responses to September 11
      • Silver et al., 2002
      • Survey research can inform us about population reactions to important events
      • Nationally representative sample (n=1069)
      • People across the country experienced PTSD like symptoms after 9/11
      • 17% outside NY city reported 9/11 related PTSD symptoms 2 months after the attacks and 5.8% did 6 months later
      • Psychological effects of a major nationwide trauma not limited to those directly exposed
      • Disengaging from coping can signal psychological difficulties up to 6 months after the trauma
    • Correlation
      • The relationship between two things
      • How much do two variables vary together
      • Correlation can be positive or negative
      • Correlation versus causation
      • Illusory correlation
      • Correlation coefficient, “ r ” – a statistic that tells us how closely two things vary together
    • Scatterplots = r
    • More Correlation
    • Perceiving Order in Random Events
      • People often impose order where there is none
      • Uncertainty is scary
      • The “just world”
    • Experiments
      • Key condition of experiments is random assignment
      • Experimental designs
      • Mundane vs. Psychological realism
      • Causality revisited
    • Motivated Skepticism
      • Ditto & Lopez, 1992 (experiment 2)
      • University students exposed “test strips” to saliva (n = 51)
      • Some were told if the strip stayed the same color it indicated an enzyme deficiency – others were told just the opposite – in reality none of the strips changed color
      • Color reaction was supposed take about 20 seconds
      • Subjects in the enzyme deficient group waited longer to submit their test strips back to researchers and also conducted replications to confirm the non-desirable outcome
      • Conclusion – people often search for alternative explanations for negative, but not positive outcomes
    • Describing Data
      • Statistics
      • Measures of central tendency
      • Measures of variation
      • More cases versus less cases
      • Significant differences
    • Average Home Price in L.A.
      • 100k + 100k + 125k+ 150k + 100k + 175k +
      • 200k + 150k + 100k + 5million
      • Equals = $6,200,000
      • Divided by 10 = $620,000
      • Is this a good measure of the “average”
    • Ethics in Research
      • Animals in research
      • IRBs
      • Are these studies ethical?
    • Neuroscience and Behavior
      • Everything “psychological” is also “biological”
      • Early assumptions
      • Interplay of biology and psychology
    • Neural Communication
      • The body’s information system
      • A motor neuron
    • Action Potential
      • Neuron fires impulse
      • The impulse called the “action potential, is a brief electrical charge
      • Action potential
    • Neurotransmitters
      • Acetylcholine
      • Norepinephrine
      • Dopamine
      • GABA
      • Glutamate
      • Serotonin
    • The Peripheral Nervous System
      • The somatic nervous system
      • The autonomic nervous system
      • The sympathetic system
      • The parasympathetic system
    • Central Nervous System
      • Two components
      • The spinal cord
      • The brain
    • The Brain
    • The Forebrain
    • The Cerebrum
    • The Split Brain
    • Nature/Nurture