INTRODUCTION TO ELECTRICITY
BY: CRISTINA HERNANDE Z
HOW CAN YOU TELL IF ELECTRICITY IS AROUND YOU?
Electricity is everywhere!
Throughout your home and school, electrical outlets where
you can plug in all sorts of electrical appliances.
A cell phone or tablet device contain batteries, which create
fluctuating amounts of electricity.
Static Electricity (An everyday application) The shock you
can get from rubbing your shoes on the carpet and then
touching something metal like a door knob.
A bolt of lightning.
WHAT IS AN ATOM?
The smallest component in all
Made up of 3 smaller particles
o Protons( Positive charged)
o Neutrons ( no charge)
Electrons (negative charge)
Electricity is produced when electrons move
between atoms. Positive atoms look for free
negative electrons and attract them, so that
they can balance.
Conductors and Insulators
Conductors: are materials through which electrons can move
Examples of good conductors
• Copper, Aluminum, Steel, Liquids like saltwater
Insulators: are materials that electrons cannot move around.
• Glass, rubber, plastic or dry wood are good insulators
Without insulators you would not be able to
touch a pan or T.V.
Electrons cannot jump spontaneously through the air to a positively
charged atom. They always need a circuit to move. When a source of
energy, like a battery, is connected to a light bulb the electrons can
move from the battery to the light bulb and back again. We call this
an electric circuit.
A current that flows back and forth is called an alternating current (AC).
CAN ELECTRIC CURRENTS BE
• You can discontinue the current from flowing by putting a
switch into the circuit. You can open the circuit and stop
electrons from moving.
• A section of metal or wire can also be used to create heat.
When an electrical current passes through such metal it can
be slowed down by the flow of resistance.
• This causes friction and makes the wires hot.
• That’s why a person can toast their bread in a toaster or dry
their with warm air from a hairdryer.
• Special switches ,called fuses, protect the wiring in many
buildings incase of wires becoming too Hot
TYPES OF ELECTRICITY
S TAT I C
• happens when there is a
build-up of electrons
• it stays in one place and
then jumps to another
• it does not need a
closed circuit to flow
• Lightning is one form of
happens when electrons
flow freely between
it needs a conductor—
something in which it can
flow an example a wire
current electricity needs a
it is in many appliances in
our homes - TV sets
, laptops, cell phones,
a battery is a form of
HOW BATTERIES WORK
A battery has a working chemical unit cell inside, it helps
produce electric charges. The flat end of the battery has a
negative charge and on the opposite end a positive
When you connect a wire onto both ends a current flows.
When the current passes through a light bulb electric
energy is transformed into light.
The chemicals in the battery keep the ends charged.
As times passes, the chemical becomes weaker and
battery cannot produce any more energy.
HOW ELECTRICITY IS CREATED AND MEASURED
• Generators are used to transform mechanical energy
into electrical energy.
• A magnets interchanges inside a coil of wire.
• When the magnet moves, an electric current is
produced in the wire.
• Electricity is measured in watts, named
after James Watt who invented the steam
HOW ELECTRICITY IS TRANSPORTED
• The electricity formed by a generator travels along cables to a
transformer that alternates the voltage of electricity.
• Power lines carry the high-voltage electricity over very long
• When it reaches your home town another transformer lowers the
voltage and smaller power lines bring it to homes and other