On October 23rd, 2014, we updated our
By continuing to use LinkedIn’s SlideShare service, you agree to the revised terms, so please take a few minutes to review them.
5 Modules Benchmarked to: National Occupational Standards for Purchasing Full attendance plus completion of assessment leads to ILM Level 3 Award in Service Improvement Learning Materials Programme supported by Workbooks and elearning via iLearn Dedicated Client service manager Contract Relationship Management Contracting Solution Provision Commercial Assessment Identity Service Need
Change Evolution? Revolution? Adaption?
Machiavelli “ There is nothing more difficult to take in hand, more perilous to conduct, or more uncertain in its success, than to take the lead in the introduction of a new order of things”
Sir Winston Churchill “ To improve is to change; to be perfect is to change often”
Where are we now? SPECTRE ANALYSIS
“ We trained hard, but it seemed that every time we were beginning to form up into teams we would be reorganised. I was to learn later in life that we tend to meet any new situation by reorganising, and a wonderful method it can be for creating the illusion of progress, while producing confusion, inefficiency and demoralisation.”
Caius Petronius AD 66
Single loop learning tries to keep up!
Double Loop Learning – seeks to create
How can we make the service fit the demand?
Understanding patterns in demand
Thinking outside the square
RUN chart or Time series analysis Use to examine patterns in a a service or process and play back to the delivery team to identity frequency, scale, trends and ownership.
Business Process Mapping
What does the service look like?
What happens first, what happens next?
From the providers view
From the Customers view
Get input from all and get people to draw simple flow charts
Compare them, discuss the differences
Decide what it needs to be against what it is now (Gap analysis)
Draw the improved process
The Service Chain – looking for the weak links
The Kano Questionnaire What value is added at each stage of the process?
Cost of 5 minute interview with middle manager in an interview room
Cost of dealing with transaction by email
Cost of dealing with transaction by phone
Cost of dealing transaction by website
The Pareto Principle 80% of queries handled at 1 st point of contact 20% escalated
The Concept of Fast Fixes
Organisations may have several departments that have direct interaction with the customer.
These include :
Those on the front line - 1st level support
Those who try to fix the problem initially – 2nd level support
Those to whom the problem is sent if it can't be fixed- 3rd level support
Managers who may get involved if the customer is irate
Design for minimum customer handling – Why can’t the first point of contact fix the problem ?
Golden rules of Focus or User Groups
Make sure group is representative
Convenient venue for the participants
Ideally around 10 – 12
Around 90 minutes long
You’ll need a facilitator and note taker
Open questions – one at a time to speak
Around 6 topics- let participants know what they are in advance
Send copies of notes and thanks afterwards
Make sure sample is representative
One side of A4 printed on yellow paper
Minimum questions to increase response, ideally 10
Measure degrees of satisfaction and dissatisfaction (disagree strongly/disagree/agree/agree strongly)
Use 4 tick boxes per question - simple language
Allow room for comment
Design for easy compilation of results
Golden Rules of Surveys
A Questionable Questionnaire
Suppose that a summer camp director had prepared the following questionnaire to use in interviewing the parents of prospective campers.
1. What is your income to the nearest £100 ?
People don’t usually know their income to the nearest 100 nor do they want to reveal their income that closely. Moreover, a researcher should never open a questionnaire with such a personal question.
2. Are you a strong or weak supporter of overnight summer camping for your children ?
What do strong and weak mean ?
A Questionable Questionnaire 2
3. Do your children behave themselves well at summer camp?
Yes ( ) No ( )
Behave is a relative term. Furthermore, are ‘yes’ and ‘no’ the best responses to allow for this question? Besides, will people want to
answer this? Why ask the question in the first place ?
4. How many camps mailed literature to you last April ?
This April ?
Who can remember this?
5. What are the most salient and determinant attributes in your evaluation of summer camps ?
What are ‘salient’ and ‘determinant’ attributes? Don’t use big words
6. Do you think it is right to deprive your child of the opportunity
to grow into a mature person through experience of
A loaded question. Given the bias, how can any parent answer ‘yes’
About your organisation
What would you like your customers to say about your organisation and the way it deals with them ?
What would you like your customers to say about you and the way you deal with them ?
Behavioural Standards for Barpersons
Acknowledges customers arriving at the bar within 30 seconds
Smiles and greets in a polite and friendly manner Serves customers in strict order of arrival
Works from left to right in each segment of the bar
Serves right drink with right change in 3-4 minutes
Why do customers leave?– What the research says 14% are attracted by other suppliers (where they have a choice ) 14% are dissatisfied with the service itself Sources : British Quality Foundation Institute for Customer Service 68% are dissatisfied with the indifferent attitude of just one member of staff
Individual behaviour makes the It is a myth that service quality is the major influence on customer satisfaction – it’s just one! Every individual makes a significant impact customer experience & on the organisations service reputation difference!
Why are people and organisations
often resistant to change?
The Transition Curve 1. SHOCK Shock overwhelmed mismatch between high expectations and reality 6. NEW MODELS Internalisation Seeking understanding why things are different Not until people get out of activity do they understand their lives better 5. EXPERIMENTATION New behaviours, new approaches Tendency here to stereotype i.e. the way things should be done Lot of energy Begin to deal with new reality Lot of anger and frustration 4. LETTING GO "Letting go of past" comfortable attitudes and behaviours 3. FRUSTRATION Awareness that change is necessary Frustration phase How to deal with change 2. FALSE HOPE Temporary retreat Disbelief 7. NEW BEHAVIOUR Incorporate meanings into new behaviours Time Beginning of transition
Understanding how some senior managers feel
It’s best not to give information about ‘work in progress’
It’s best not to say, “I don’t know”.
Don’t be the bearer of bad news.
Don’t give information unless absolutely necessary.
Secrets must be guarded
The average employee cannot handle difficult information.
Information should be dispensed on a “need to know” basis
Transition Period Issues
Uncertainty and anxiety felt about the eventual outcome of the change
People asking questions to which managers do not have the answers
Resistance if the change seems threatening
Uncertainty and ambiguity about roles and responsibilities Maintaining the initial surge of energy and enthusiasm for change
Constant re-appraisal of objectives and priorities
People looking for opportunities & advantages
Planning the desired future state
Difficulty maintaining morale and commitment
Maintaining comfort zones
Understanding Driving & Restraining Forces Force Field Analysis - Lewin RESTRAINING FORCES DRIVING FORCES DESIRED STATE PRESENT STATE UNDESIRED STATE
What's in it for me? Pay-Offs
The behaviourist approach - Skinner
behaviour Cues trigger leads to Pay-Offs
If you were a water molecule......
Understanding how it feels
External & Internal Research and feedback Present state – Desired future state External trends and drivers Moving from the Present state to the Desired state through empowerment . Using a practical model to drive change SPECTRE (Pestle) STAKEHOLDER Analysis & Research GAP analysis SWOT Where are we now? Where do we need to be?
Where Are We Now ? Using SWOT Analysis dynamically to plan the change
The Moebus Strip – puts us all on the same side ‘ People do not resist their own ideas’ - Rowley & Rogers
The ADKAR Model – shifting to fast download for maximum speed of adoption
A wareness of the need for change
D esire to support and participate in the change
K nowledge of how to change
A bility to implement new skills & behaviours
R einforcement to sustain the change
Fast Download gets 50% speed up in adoption (Prosci Consulting study of 1600 companies in 20 countries)
Where Are We Going? “ Our ongoing mission, to seek out new worlds and new civilisations. To boldly go where no one has gone before!”
Rich Pictures What does your ideal future look like?
Yellow Bus Diagram
Tools for Change – Lean Six Sigma
Born out of manufacturing but applicable to service delivery, processes and systems
Coined in 90’s
Mostly derived from the Toyota production system
Focuses on eliminating the 7 wastes
Developed by Motorola in 1986 but drawing on many other established approaches from the previous 50 years
Can be applied to manufacturing or service industries
Designed to reduce error and waste, improve service and reduce cost
Involves all stakeholders
Inspired by the work of Dr Deming
The PDCA cycle
Develop problem description and project goals Collect customer data Review historical data Map the current process Set up a team and define its remit Identify critical quality requirements Evaluate current measurement system Develop a better one if found wanting Collect data Identify process steps that add value Identify root cause for problem areas Target waste Prioritize root causes Map the future state Develop potential solutions Review best practice and adopt if sound Set criteria for selecting solutions Pilot solutions Roll out solutions Document the new process Map the process Set up monitoring & review Train staff Identify lessons learned. DMAIC – Improving existing processes or services Define Measure Analyse Improve Control
The 7 Wastes Poor quality = Defects In service Rework Travel Over supply Access Waiting Inventory Complexity More supply than demand Cost of delivery - Reduce Idle stock, Kit, or space Internal Or external delay Dead time - Reduce Complex Not needed Use triage to fix
The 5 ‘whys’
My car will not start. (the problem)
Why? - The battery is dead. (first why)
Why? - The alternator is not functioning. (second why)
Why? - The alternator belt has broken. (third why)
Why? - The alternator belt was well beyond its useful service life and has never been replaced. (fourth why)
Why? - I have not been maintaining my car according to the recommended service schedule. (fifth why, root cause)
Case study – Practice Nurses
12 Nurses from 12 practices buy 3 brands of dressings Their combined stock takes up 500 square feet of storage Annual wastage runs at 15% How could they use a Six Sigma approach to improve efficiency and save money
CTQ Tree – Critical to Quality Short waits Easy access Cared for Get Well Friendly staff Good Coms.. Happy Patients
The Fishbone or Ishikawa Diagram Maps cause and effect Staff Materials Resources Methods Measures Workplace Problem
No – George did not invent it!
It’s a quality process where you make your service less prone to random variability
How would you make sure your delivery drivers had equal skills and did not waste time on delivery runs?
Choosing between directions
How can we make objective choices about which change options to pursue?
Cost benefit plus
Cost Benefit Analysis to compare alternatives
What delivers the most cost effective solution?
Plus + Time costs?
Plus + Transaction costs between options?
Plus + Are we triaging service delivery at most cost effective level?
Plus + Are Social benefits relevant?
When faced with multiple improvement ideas a PICK chart may be used to determine the most useful. There are four categories on a 2*2 matrix; horizontal is scale of payoff (or benefits), vertical is ease of implementation. PICK Chart Low Pay Back High Pay Back Easy to do Possible Implement Hard to do Kill Challenge
Some tools for Service Design -Kepner Tregoe A nalyze to develop and design alternatives, create a high-level design and evaluate alternatives to select the best design The solution MUST contain these elements It would be a BETTER solution with these elements The best solution delivers all Essentials and scores highest on Desirables Essentials Desirables Compare and score What does the ideal solution look like?