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“ the science of food, the nutrients and the substances therein, their action, interaction, and balance in relation to health and disease, and the process by which the organism ingests, absorbs, transport, utilizes, and excretes food substances”- The Council on Food and Nutrition of the American Medical Association
Influences of Food Choices Heredity Health belief Health Status Nutr. Knowledge Religious belief Flavor, texture, appearance Convenience Rural-urban residence Income $$$$ Occupation Education Ethnic identity Peer influences Childhood experiences
Evaluation of American Diet Using the old Food Guide Pyramid Categories
Consumed 1-2 servings of fruit a day (versus recommended 2-4)
Consumed 2-3 servings of vegetables a day (versus recommended 3-5)
Excessive intake in the fats, oils, and sweets group (versus use “sparingly”)
Excessive intake of high fat meats and refined grains
Now in oz. What Counted as a Serving in the Old Pyramid? Bread, Cereal, Rice, and Pasta 1 slice of bread 1 ounce of ready to-eat cereal 1/2 cup of cooked cereal, rice, or pasta Vegetable 1 cup of raw leafy vegetables 1/2 cup of other vegetables, cooked or raw 3/4 cup of vegetable juice Fruit 1 medium apple, banana, orange 1/2 cup of chopped, cooked, or canned fruit 3/4 cup of fruit juice Milk, Yogurt, and Cheese 1 cup of milk or yogurt 1-1/2 ounces of natural cheese 2 ounces processed cheese Meat, Poultry, Fish, Dry Beans, Eggs, and Nuts 2-3 ounces of cooked lean meat, poultry, fish 1/2 cup of cooked dry beans or ½ cup tofu counts as a serving. 2 tablespoons of peanut butter or 1/3 cup of nuts count as 1 ounce of “meat” according to the USDA.
Old USDA Categories (3) Low 1,600 Mod 2,200 High 2,800 Grain Group Servings 6 9 11 Vegetable Group Servings 3 4 5 Fruit Group Servings 2 3 4 Milk Group Servings 2-3 2-3 2-3 Meat Group (ounces) 5 6 7 Total Fat (grams) 53 73 93 Total Added Sugars (teaspoons) 6 12 18 Women who are pregnant or breastfeeding, teenagers, and young adults to age 24 need 3 servings of Dairy or other Calcium-rich foods. “Meat” group amounts are in total ounces.
The MyPyramid of 2005 (See next slide for link & details)