The Egyptian pyramids are ancient pyramid-shaped masonry structures located in Egypt. Most were built as tombs for the country's Pharaohs and their consorts during the Old and Middle Kingdom periods
What is the significance of the preserving of the dead for the ancient Egyptians?
Ancient Egyptians believed in life after death, that is why preserving the body of the dead was important to keep their soul alive, enabling them to transcend into the heavens. They make tombs to protect these preserved bodies. Pyramids for Pharaohs represent a gigantic stairway for the Pharaoh to climb to join the sun god in the sky
Historical Development of EGYPTIAN PYRAMIDS
By the time of early dynastic period of Egyptian history, those with sufficient means were buried in bench-like structures known as mastabas.
A mastaba is a type of Ancient Egyptian tomb in the form of a flat-roofed, rectangular structure with outward sloping sides that marked the burial site of many eminent Egyptians of Egypt's ancient period.
tomb’s offering chapel
believed to be a threshold between the world of the living and the dead
Burial Shaft type of burial structure formed from a deep and narrow shaft sunk into natural rock burials are placed at its bottom
Sarcophagus funeral receptacle for a corpse forms an external layer of protection for a royal mummy and was often carved out of alabaster
The first pyramid is attributed to Architect Imhotep. He was credited with being the first to conceive the idea of stacking mastabas on top of each other – creating an edifice composed of number of steps that decreased in size towards its apex.
Imhotep responsible for the world's first known monumental stone building, the Step Pyramid at Sakkara and is the first architect we know by name.
Step Pyramid/Pyramid of Djoser
Pyramids at Giza
Great Pyramid of Giza(also called the Pyramid of Khufu and the Pyramid of Cheops)
Pyramid of Khafre(also Pyramid of Chephren)
Pyramid of Menkaure(also Pyramid of Mycerinus)
Karnak(also Great Temple of Amun)
Characteristics of Egyptian architecture
The two predominant building materials used in ancient Egypt were sun-baked mud brick and stone, mainly limestone.
Stones were reserved for tombs and temples while bricks were used for royal palaces, fortresses, walls of temple precincts, and for subsidiary buildings.
Houses were made out of mud from Nile River.
Egyptian architecture is based mainly on religious monuments, massive structures characterized by thick, sloping walls with few openings, possibly echoing a method of construction used to obtain stability in mud walls.
All monumental buildings are post and lintel constructions, with flat roofs constructed of huge stone blocks supported by the external walls and the closely spaced columns.
There were Hypostyle halls where columns flanking the central avenue are of greater height than those of the side aisles, and this allows openings in the wall above the smaller columns, through which light is admitted over the aisle roof.
Exterior and interior walls, as well as the columns and piers, were covered with hieroglyphics and pictorial frescoes and carvings painted in brilliant colours
Ancient Egyptian temples were aligned with astronomically significant events, such as solstices and equinoxes, requiring precise measurements at the moment of the particular event.
History of Mesopotamia
The word 'Mesopotamia' is in origin a Greek name (mesos `middle' and 'potamos' - 'river' so `land between the rivers'). 'Mesopotamia' translated from Old Persian Miyanrudan means "the fertile cresent". The Aramaic name is Beth-Nahrain meaning "House of Two Rivers" and is a region of Southwest Asia.
Civilization developed in Mesopotamia simultaneously with Egypt and the two are often called the 'Fertile Crescent'. The Fertile Crescent is a rich food-growing area in a part of the world where most of the land is too dry for farming. The Fertile Crescent begins on the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea, and curves around like a quarter moon to the Persian Gulf.
Mesopotamian art and architecture were produced by the diverse peoples who occupied the land between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers from about 3500 to 539 BC. The earliest civilization of MESOPOTAMIA was created by Sumerian-speaking people, and although their Sumerian language was preserved, the original inhabitants eventually either died out or were absorbed into the population of SEMITES who moved into this area at various periods in history.
The first and most enduring architectural monument was the temple. This fact reflects a view of life in which human beings were meant to serve the gods, who were personified as powerful and capricious forces of nature. From the time of the earliest preserved cities, it is apparent that strong fortifications were necessary because the city-states of Mesopotamia were so often at war with each other.
Anu Ziggurat at Uruk is a characteristic example of Protoliterate temple architecture. The whitewashed outer walls of this small rectangular mudbrick structure are formed into the niches and buttresses that are a typical feature of all Mesopotamian temples. The temple stands on a ZIGGURAT, a tall artificial mountain formed from the remains of temples built and rebuilt on this site for centuries.
Ancient Greek Architecture Reported by: Lemuel Cagayan Welson de Torres
Greek Architecture Ancient greek architecture is best known from its temples,many of which are found throughout the region,mostly as ruins but many substantially intact. Ancient greek architecture is distiguished by its highly formalisedcharacteristics,bothof structure and decoration. This is particularso in case of temples where each building appears to have been conceived as a sculptural entity within the landscape,most often raised on high ground so that the elegance of its proportions and the effects of light on itssurfaces might be viewed from all angles
Temple of Athena Nike Designed by the architect of Parthenon Kallikrates, it was probably build at 427 BC in pure Ionic style from Pentelic marble. Due to the of lack of money, the Peloponnesian war and internal political strife's the temple was not build at once. The thorakion with the victories was constructed around 410 BC, after the war victories of Alkibiades. It was damaged in the explosion of 1645 AD, and the columns were restored, as close as possible, to the originals.
Ancient Agora with Acropolis on top.
The theater of Dionysus, under the south side of the Acropolis.
The remains from the Theater of Sparta.
The temple of Zeus, 470 - 456 BC
The Palaestra, 3rd century BC
The official entrance to the Stadium, for the judges and the athletes.
The Stadium, as it is today, dates to the 4th century BC.It is the third in succession. The first belonged to the Archaic period and in the 5th century BC, it was moved to the east.The stadium, where the athletes competed naked, has length 192 meters and 30 meters wide. According to the tradition, Herakles himself measured the dimensions.
The Orders of Greek Architecture Doric Ionic Corinthian
Doric DESCRIPTION:Of the three columns found in Greece, Doric columns are the simplest. They have a capital (the top, or crown) made of a circle topped by a square. The shaft (the tall part of the column) is plain and has 20 sides. There is no base in the Doric order. The Doric order is very plain, but powerful-looking in its design. Doric, like most Greek styles, works well horizontally on buildings, that's why it was so good with the long rectangular buildings made by the Greeks. The area above the column, called the frieze [pronounced "freeze"], had simple patterns. Above the columns are the metopes and triglyphs. The metope [pronounced "met-o-pee"] is a plain, smooth stone section between triglyphs. Sometimes the metopes had statues of heroes or gods on them. The triglyphs are a pattern of 3 vertical lines between the metopes.
There are many examples of ancient Doric buildings. Perhaps the most famous one is the Parthenon in Athens, which is probably the most famous and most studied building on Earth. Buildings built even now borrow some parts of the Doric order.
Ionic DESCRIPTION:Ionicshafts were taller than Doric ones. This makes the columns look slender. They also had flutes, which are lines carved into them from top to bottom. The shafts also had a special characteristic: entasis, which is a little bulge in the columns make the columns look straight, even at a distance [because since you would see the building from eye level, the shafts would appear to get narrower as they rise, so this bulge makes up for that - so it looks straight to your eye but it really isn't !] . The frieze is plain. The bases were large and looked like a set of stacked rings. Ionic capitals consist of a scrolls above the shaft. The Ionic style is a little more decorative than the Doric.
The Temple of Athena Nike in Athens, shown here, is one of the most famous Ionic buildings in the world. It is located on the Acropolis, very close to the Parthenon
Corinthian DESCRIPTION:The Corinthian order is the most decorative and is usually the one most modern people like best. Corinthian also uses entasis to make the shafts look straight. The Corinthian capitals have flowers and leaves below a small scroll. The shaft has flutes and the base is like the Ionian. Unlike the Doric and Ionian cornices, which are at a slant, the Corinthian roofs are flat.
The Temple of the Sybil in Rome is a good example of the Corinthian order. The Romans used the Corinthian order much more than did the Greeks.
THANKS FOR WATCHING !!! Alpha Chupappi Whattawaka-waka
ROMAN ARCHITECTURE (1000 B.C.E.- CE., 4000) Presented by: Maria Meryl G. Casanova
ETRUSCANS ROMANS GREEKS
ARTS & DOME
The dome permitted construction of vaulted ceilings and provided large covered public space such as the public baths and basilicas. The Romans based much of their architecture on the dome, such as Hadrian's Pantheon in the city of Rome, the Baths of Diocletian and the Baths of Caracalla. The Roman use of the arch and their improvements in the use of concrete and bricks facilitated the building of the many aqueducts throughout the empire, such as the magnificent Aqueduct of Segovia and the eleven aqueducts in Rome itself, such as Aqua Claudia and Anio Novus. The same idea produced numerous bridges, such as the still used bridge at Mérida. Pantheon, Inner View
Gottfried Richter, in 1920, identified the Roman architectural innovation as being the Triumphal Arch and it is poignant to see how this symbol of power on earth was transformed and utilized within the Christian basilicas when the Roman Empire of the West was on its last legs. The arch was set before the altar to symbolize the triumph of Christ and the after life. It is in their impressive aqueducts that we see the arch triumphant, especially in the many surviving examples, such as the Pont du Gard, the aqueduct at Segovia and the remains of the Aqueducts of Rome itself. Their survival is testimony to the durability of their materials and design.
Interior of Pantheon The Romans first adopted the arch from the Greeks, and implemented it in their own building. An arch is a very strong shape as no single spot holds all the weight and is still used in architecture today.
Although less visible level to the modern observer, ancient Romans developments in housing and public hygiene are impressive, especially given their day and age. Clear examples are public and private baths and latrines, and under-floor heating in the form of the hypocaust, double glazing , and piped water.
There are examples in cities like the Roman port town of Ostia, that date back to the reign of Trajan and show how Roman architects met residential needs in a variety of situations.
“Tile covered concrete quickly supplanted marble as the primary building material and more daring buildings soon followed, with great pillars supporting broad arches and domes rather than dense lines of columns suspending flat architraves. The freedom of concrete also inspired the colonnade screen, a row of purely decorative columns in front of a load-bearing wall. In smaller-scale architecture, concrete's strength freed the floor plan from rectangular cells to a more free-flowing environment. Most of these developments are ably described by Vitruvius writing in the first century AD in his work De Architectura.
ROMAN ARCHITECTURE Roman architects invented Roman concrete and used it in buildings where it could stand on its own and support a great deal of weight. The first use of concrete by the Romans was in the town of Cosa sometime after 273 BC. Ancient Roman concrete was a mixture of lime mortar, sand with stone rubble, pozzolana, water, and stones, and stronger than previously-used concrete. The ancient builders placed these ingredients in wooden frames where it hardened and bonded to a facing of stones or (more frequently) bricks.
Gallery Gallery Gallery
BYZANTINE ARCHITECTURE AD 200 - 1453
Byzantine Churches Exterior of the Byzantine Church of St. Savior in Chora, later a mosque and today a museum with well-preserved mosaics. The apse mosaics from the Church of SantApollinarein Ravena.
It is a curved support shaped like an inverted triangle.
It is used to hold a dome.
Using pendentives, Byzantine architects could build a higher and wider dome.
It is used to provide a transition from square to polygon.
Hagia Sophia or Church of Divine Wisdom Designed by the architects Anthemios of Tralles and Izidorus of Miletus.
St. Mark’s Basilica
St. Basil’s Cathedral
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the word "Romanesque", meaning "descended from Roman", was first used in English to designate what are now called Romance languages (first cited 1715). Architecturally, the term was first applied in French by the archaeologist Charles de Gerville or his associate Arcisse de Caumont, in 1818, to describe Western European architecture from the 5th to the 13th centuries
Romanesque architecture is an architectural style of Medieval Europe characterised by semi-circular arches. It developed in the 12th century into the Gothic style, characterised by pointed arches. Combining features of Western Roman and Byzantine buildings, Romanesque architecture is known by its massive quality, its thick walls, round arches, sturdy piers, groin vaults, large towers and decorative arcading.
The general impression given by Romanesque architecture is one of massive solidity and strength. In contrast with both the preceding Roman and later Gothic architecture in which the load-bearing structural members are, or appear to be, columns, pilasters and arches, Romanesque architecture, in common with Byzantine architecture, relies upon its walls, or sections of walls called piers.
Romanesque architecture is often divided into two periods known as the "First Romanesque" style and the "Romanesque" style. The difference is chiefly a matter of the expertise with which the buildings were constructed. The First Romanesque employed rubble walls, smaller windows and unvaulted roofs. A greater refinement marks the Second Romanesque, along with increased use of the vault and dressed stone.
The façade of the cathedral of Lisbon.
Each building has clearly defined forms and they are frequently of very regular, symmetrical plan so that the overall appearance is one of simplicity when compared with the Gothic buildings that were to follow. The style can be identified right across Europe, despite regional characteristics and different materials.
South transept of TournaiCathedral,Belgium, 12th century.
The facade of Notre Dame du Puy, le Puy en Velay, France, has a more complex arrangement of diversified arches: Doors of varying widths, blind arcading, windows and open arcades.
Many castles were built during this period, but they are greatly outnumbered by churches. The most significant are the great abbey churches, many of which are still standing, more or less complete and frequently in use.
Facade of Angoulême Cathedral, France.
Castle Rising, England, shows flat buttresses and reinforcing at the corners of the building typical in both castles and churches.
BAROQUE ARCHITECTURE (1600-1750)
Baroque period was the time when arts- painting, music, ARCHITECTURE and literature were greatly affected. It covered the period between 1600-1750. In 1500’s and 1600’s, affluent and powerful European monarchs built elaborate palaces to display the opulence of their state. The Palace of Versailles was built with elaborate architectural ornamentation.
Palace of Versailles
Baroque style is characterized by ornate and grotesque forms and ornamentations. Baroque art had become the medium for spreading the message of the Counter Reformation. The Baroque style emphasizes unity in architecture, sculpture and painting. The Basilica of Saint Peter in Rome displays one
unified form of art. The master of the three arts during the period was Giovanni Bernini. He worked for years to finish the Basilica. His masterpiece is “The Baldacchino”, (1656-66) the tower above the high altar in Saint Peter’s Basilica.
Baroque architecture is characterized by heavy sculptural embellishments and rich ornamentation. The classical columns were twisted and a variety of motifs such as scallops and scrolls in sculpture became part of the building design. Nature was incorporated but presented in formal arrangements.
Fountain, cascading water falls, terraces and trees were part of the landscape. Baroque architecture displays opulence and gives the feeling of grandeur.
S. Carlo allequatrofonte Giovanni Bernini
Examples of Baroque architecture
Prerared by: Donamae M. Dimapilis BSIE1-1
19th Century Architecture
The nineteenth century is known as a period of eclecticism. Eclecticism, in architecture, implies freedom on the part of the architect or client to choose among the styles of the past that seems to him most appropriate.
Eclecticism is a conceptual approach that does not hold rigidly to a single paradigm or set of assumptions, but instead draws upon multiple theories, styles, or ideas to gain complementary insights into a subject, or applies different theories in particular cases.
Eclecticism in Architecture
By the middle of the 19th century, both the Greek and Gothic revivals were spent. Italian villas and Swiss chalets jostled Victorian Gothic churches and Victorian classic post offices. These styles were superficial and interchangeable.
MODERN ARCHITECTURE Is an overarching movement and period in architectural history during the 20th century.
MODERNISM - broadly characterized by simplification of form and subtraction of ornament from the structure and theme of the building (architecture definition)
Notable Architects Frank Lloyd Wright –designed the Price Tower, a 19-story tower in Oklahoma and the Solomon Guggenhein Museum, a warm beige spiral building in New York City.
Notable Architects Ludwig Mies van der Rohe – one of the pioneering masters of Modern Architecture. Notable for Villa Tugendhat, his European masterwork in Czech Republic and the 860-880 Lake Shore Drive, twin tower apartment buildings in Chicago.
Notable Architects Le Corbusier – a pioneer in studies of modern design. It was his Villa Savoye in France that most succintly summed up his five points of architecture.
ORIGINS According to some historians, modern architecture is developed as a result of social and political revolutions. It is closely tied to the project of Modernity and thus the Enlightenment. Others view it as primarily driven by technological and engineering developments. Others regard it as matter of taste: a reaction against eclecticism and the lavish stylistic excesses of Victorian & Edwardian architecture.
ADVANCES IN BUILDING TECHNOLOGY INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION the availability of newly-available building materials such as iron, steel & sheet glass drove the invention of new building techniques. 1796 – Shrewsbury mill owner Charles Bage first used his ‘fireproof’ design, which relied on cast iron & brick with flag stone floors. Early 1830s – Eaton Hodgkinson introduced the section beam, which lead to widespread use of iron construction.
ADVANCES IN BUILDING TECHNOLOGY Great Exhibition of 1851 – Joseph Paxton’s Crystal Palace was an early example of iron & glass construction. 1864 – first glass & metal curtain wall construction. 1890 – William Le Baron Jenney & Louis Sullivan’s steel-framed skyscraper in Chicago was developed.
EARLY YEARS The architects around the world began developing new solution to integrate precedents with new technological possibilities.
Art Nouveau ("New Art“) In Russian -"Модерн” In Spanish - “Modernismo” In English - “Modern” It is in the book by Otto Wagner, the fallout of the First World War would result in additional experimentation and ideas.
IN THE UNITED STATES First examples of modern architecture: 1904 Wright’s Larkin Building in Buffalo, NY 1905 Unity Temple in Oak Park, Illinois 1910 Robie House in Chicago
IN ITALY: FUTURISM Futurist Architecture Began in Early 20th century Characterized anti-historicism and long horizontal lines. Themes include technology and urgency.
Manifesto of Futuricism First manifesto produced by FiIippino Tommaso Marinetti in 1909 Attracted poets,musicians,artists such as Umberto Boccioni,Giacomo Balla, Fortunato Depreso and architects like Antonio Sant’ Elia. Antomio Sant’ Elia- built little (being killed in WWI)
IN RUSSIA: CONSTRUCTIVISM Construction A new style resulting from the 1907 revolutions ,the societal upheaval and change coupled with a desire for a new aesthetic in Communist to Neoclassicism. Prospered but full markedly out of favor during the design competition for the Palace of the Soviets 1931-1933,losing to Post constructivism.
Post constructivism More traditional revivalism of Russian architecture with nationalistic overtones. Resulted in the ultimate demise o the Russian branch of early architectural modernism.
IN WESTERN EUROPE Deutscher Werkbund(German Work Federation) German association of architects, designers, industrialists which spanned the gap but then Arts and Crafts movement and the modernism of 1903. Founded in 1907 in Munich at the instigation of Herman Muthesius.
RISE OF MODERNISM Modern architecture 1920s,serves as the most important figures establishment of their reputations. Peter Behrens Trained the big three:Le Corbusier in France; Walter Gropuis and Ludwig Mies van der Rohe in Germany
Bauhaus European school and associated concerned with reconciling craft tradition and industrial technology. The directors are Gropius and Mies van der Rohe,also designed the German Pavilion (Barcelona Pavilion)
Its purpose was to sponsor the attempt to integrate traditional crafts with the techniques of industrial mass production. De Stijl– “The Style” An art and design movement developed unique to the Netherlands resulted from isolation during WWI. Characterized by use of line and primary colors.
INTERNATIONAL STYLE Museum of Modern Art 1932- The International Exhibition of Modern Architecture was held. Philip Johnson and collaborator Henry-Russell Hitchcock identified architecture as stylistically similar and having a common purpose.
Most commonly use materials are glass for the façade(usually curtain),steel for exterior support and concrete for the floor. The style became most evident in the design of skycrapers
TheSeagram Building, New York City, 1958, by Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, is regarded as one of the finest examples of the functionalist aesthetic and a masterpiece of corporate modernism.
In United States Richard Neutra Designed the Lovell House and Case Study Houses in Los Angeles. 1946 and 1966- twenty or so homes were built primarily in and around Los Angeles Nuetra, Americans Charles and Ray Eames (the Eames House) have attracted hundreds of thousands of visitors.
The crystal palace:home to the great exhibition 1851.
The manifesto of futurism in 1909 by filippotommasomarinetti
Barcelona Pavillion at 1929 Barcelona International Exposition
Beautiful Yorkshire's Satanic Mills
Different example of modern architecture here in the philippines:
Mezza Residences, a four-tower condominium development, rises at the corner of Aurora Boulevard and Araneta Avenue in the heart of Sta. Mesa. LAND AREA: 13,000 sqmLOCATION: Sta. Mesa, Quezon CityNUMBER OF BUILDINGS: 4 buildingsNUMBER OF FLOORS PER BUILDING: 38 floors
Princeton Residences-A modern high-rise condominium across at New Manila, Quezon City and right beside the LRT 2 Gilmore Station. LAND AREA: 2,401 sqmLOCATION: LRT 2 Gilmore Station, New Manila, Quezon CityNUMBER OF FLOORS PER BUILDING: 42 floors
Light Residences-A modern high-rise building located at EDSA-Boni MRT Station, Mandaluyong City. LAND AREA: 2 hectaresLOCATION: Boni-MRT EDSA, Mandaluyong CityNUMBER OF BUILDINGS: 3 BuildingsNUMBER OF FLOORS PER BUILDING: 40 floors
Grass Residences-A high-rise, green architecture-inspired condominium behind at SM City North EDSA Complex. Land Area: 3.6 hectaresLocation: Nueva Vizcaya St. corner Misamis St., Quezon City (beside SM North EDSA)Number of Buildings: 3 buildingsNumber of Floors per Building: 40 floors.
Berkeley Residences-A modern, Brisbane architecture-inspired high-rise condominium along thriving Katipunan Avenue, right across Ateneo de Manila University and Mirriam College. LAND AREA: 3 hectaresLOCATION: Katipunan Avenue, Quezon CityNUMBER OF FLOORS: 35 floors
Jazz Residences-located on Jupiter Street corner Nicanor Garcia, Jazz Residences is just a stroll away from Sen. Gil Puyat Avenue in the country’s premier business district of Makati City. Land Area: 2 hectaresLocation: Jupiter St. corner N. Garcia St., Bel-Air, Makati CityNumber of Towers: 4Number of Floors per Tower: 41 floors
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HISTORY OF PHILIPPINE ARCHITECTURE Three Periods:
The most prominent historic constructions in the archipelago are from the Spanish, Japanese, Malay, Hindu, Chinese, and American cultures.
PRE-COLONIAL In this era, the most common built-house is the NIPA HUT (Bahay Kubo). Nipa huts were the native houses of the indigenous people of the Philippines before the Spaniards arrived. They are still used today, especially in rural areas. Aside from nipa huts, other small houses were built on top of trees to prevent animal as well as enemy attacks. So as the years passed by, there are many different style of nipa hut that were made.
NIPA HUT The nipa hut also known as bahaykubo, is an indigenous house used in the Philippines. The native house has traditionally been constructed with bamboo tied together and covered with a thatched roof using nipa/anahaw leaves. A nipa hut is an icon of Philippine culture as it represents the Filipino value of BAYANIHAN, which refers to a spirit of communal unity or effort to achieve a particular objective
COLONIAL SPANISH In this era, the nipa hut or Bahay Kubo gave way to the BAHAY NA BATO (stone house) and became the typical house of noble Filipinos. The BahaynaBato followed the nipa hut's arrangements such as open ventilation and elevated apartments. The most obvious difference between the two houses would be the materials that was used to build them. The BahaynaBato was constructed out of brick and stone rather than the traditional bamboo materials.
BAHAY NA BATO The Bahay Na Bato, the Colonian Filipino House, is a mixture of native Filipino, Spanish and Chinese influences. In Vigan, Ilocos Sur, excellently preserved examples of the houses of the noble Filipinos can be admired. In Taal, Batangas, the main street is still ligned with examples of the traditional Filipino homes.
Buildings that were built during colonial Spanish
FORT SANTIAGO Fort Santiago (Fuerza de Santiago) is a defense fortress built for Spanish conquistador, Miguel López de Legazpi. The fort is part of the structures of the walled city of Intramuros, in Manila, Philippines. The location of Fort Santiago was also once the site of the palace and kingdom of Rajah Suliman, chieftain of Manila of pre-Spanish era. It was destroyed by the conquistadors upon arriving in 1570, encountering several bloody battles with the Muslims and native Tagalogs. The Spaniards destroyed the native settlements and erected Fuerza de Santiago in 1571.
INTRAMUROS Intramuros, located along the southern bank of the Pasig River, was built by the Spaniards in the 16th century and is the oldest district of the city of Manila. Its name, taken from the Latin, intra muros, literally "Within the walls", meaning within the wall enclosure of the city/fortress, also describes its structure as it is surrounded by thick, high walls and moats. During the Spanish colonial period, Intramuros was considered Manila itself.
PACO PARK Paco Park was once a cemetery during the Spanish period and was constructed in the late 18th century and was used to inter victims of the cholera epidemic which ravaged Manila in 1822. The cemetery stopped interment and burial in 1912 (don’t know why) and in 1966 it was converted into a national park.. This beautiful chapel was built inside the walls of the Paco Park and it was dedicated to St. Pancratius. The cemetery is circular in shape with an inner circular fort that was the original cemetery and with the niches (three level of built-in-vaults) that were placed or located within the hollow walls. Originally the niches cost Php 20 for a 3-year renewable lease (no one was allowed to own the niches). The remains of our national hero, Dr. Jose P. Rizal, was interred here after his execution at Bagumbayan (now Rizal Park) on December 30, 1896.
SAN AGUSTIN CHURCH This is a Roman Catholic church under the auspices of The Order of St. Augustine, located inside the historic walled city of Intramuros in Manila. Completed by 1607, it is the oldest church still standing in the Philippines. No other surviving building in the Philippines has been claimed to pre-date San Agustin Church.
CAPE BOJEADOR LIGHTHOUSE Cape Bojeador Lighthouse, also known as Burgos Lighthouse, is a cultural heritage structure in Burgos, Ilocos Norte, that was established during the Spanish Colonial period in the Philippines. It was first lit on March 30, 1892 and is set high on Vigia de Nagparitan Hill overlooking the scenic Cape Bojeador where early galleons used to sail by. After over 100 years, it still functions as a welcoming beacon to the international ships that enter the Philippine Archipelago from the north and guide them safely away from the rocky coast of the town.
THE 20TH CENTURY During this period the Americans constructed many Art Nouveaux buildings in Manila. In 1902 Judge William Howard Taft decided to make Manila a planned town. Mr. Burnham, who was hired by Taft had in mind a long wide, tree-lined boulevard along the bay, beginning at a park area dominated by a magnificent hotel. William E. Parsons was also hired by Taft to design the Manila Hotel.
In 1911 the Army Corps of Engineers constructed the Manila Army and Navy Club at the shore of Manila Bay bordering the Luneta Park.
In 1918, the Luneta Hotel was completed
In 1935, The Manila Metropolitan Theater which is an art deco building designed by the Filipino architect Juan M. Arellano was built
In 1940 the Manila Jai Alai Building was constructed along Taft avenue, designed by architect Welton Becket. It has been built in the Philippine Art Deco style. In addition to the Jai Alai game it included the famous " Sky Lounge". Unfortunately, demolition began on July 15, 2000 on the orders of Mayor LitoAtienza. The building is now gone for ever.
During the advent and continuous growth of Philippine cinema in the early 90's, came with the establishment of Philippine theaters in the Metropolitan Manila along with those in the Philippine provinces during the said period. Regular live performances, film showings, and festivals used to be held on the theaters that lead to significant improvements on Philippine culture including film, and performing arts. A number of Philippine cinemas were built within the City of Manila in the 90's, and were designed by prominent architects and currently recognized as Philippine National Artists, but are closed due to post-World War damages and to give way to these days' city developments.
CCP It was created on 1966 with the purpose of promoting and preserving Filipino arts and culture. It was inaugurated on September 1969, starting a three month long inaugural festival opened by the epic musical Dularawan. Since then, the CCP has sought to truly embody its logo of katotohanan (truth), kagandahan (beauty) and kabutihan (goodness). Performing companies representing dance, music and theater reside within the CCP. It has four resident dance companies: Ballet Philippines, Philippine Ballet Theatre, the Ramon Obusan Folkloric Group, and the Bayanihan Philippine National Folk Dance Company.
Examples of the Filipino Architecture
Parish of the Holy Sacrifice
Philippine Professional Organization and Architects
United Architects of the Philippines UAP or the United Architects of the Philippines is the Official Voice for Architects throughout the country. The UAP was formed through the “unification” of three architectural organizations: the Philippine Institute of Architects, The League of Philippine Architects and the Association of Philippine Government Architects. It became the Bonafide Professional Organization of Architects upon receiving Accreditation Number 001 from the Professional Regulation Commission. Thus, UAP was the first professional organization recognized by the Republic. With the passing of the new architecture law or Republic Act No. 9266, UAP becomes the IAPOA or the Integrated Accredited Professional Organization of Architects.
ARCHITECTS Juan Nakpil Pablo Antonio Juan M. Arellano Leandro V. Locsin Francisco Manosa Carlos A. Santos-Viola Jose de Ocampo Juan Carlos Eugene Soler
Feature of Japanese Architecture
Roof is made of heavy timbers.
Made of wood
Interior - multitude of partially-screened, geometrically-arranged rooms with sliding doors
built with few nails or sometimes none
Feature of Traditional Japanese Home
made of wood
has tatami mat floors
sliding shoji doors
tokonoma (display alcoves)
Throughout the history Architecture in Japan
dirt floors(made of wood if the area is humid)
“Asuka period” - first used to describe a period in the history of Japanese fine-arts and architecture (proposed by fine-arts scholars SekinoTadasu and OkakuraKakuzō)
Introduction of Buddhism from China via Korean Peninsula
Two main structures are: The Main Worship Hall and the Five Story Pagoda.
Main Worship Hall(Kondo) The Five Story Pagoda
-places of worship and the dwellings of the kami, the Shinto "gods" Shinto Shrine
simple wooden walls, floors and partitions
Brick roofing tiles and hinoki were used for roofs.
shinden-zukuri- the style was characterised by symmetrical buildings placed as arms that defined an inner garden.
Shinden-Zukuri The Phoenix Hall
Japanese Political power was run by Samuri
simple and sturdy
Many houses were just plain, symmetrical, and contained trenches
tea ceremonies and tea houses
The Sanju-Sangen-Do Tea House
In response to a militaristic time, the castle, a defensive structure, was built to keep out intruders or attackers.
Himeji Castle aka White Heron Castle
This period brought back a lot of classic Japanese architecture.
The city of Edo was struck by fires repeatedly so architecture was simplified to allow for easy rebuilding.
Katsura-Detached Palace Typical Machiya
Emperor Meiji took charge, new and different forms of culture moved into Japan.
European influences slowly managed to work their way to architecture.
Nara National Museum
Change in technology greatly affected the architecture.
After World War II a lot of Japan had to be rebuilt, but the new Japan looked much different than old Japan.
The styles went from big, rectangular prisms to long and tall skyscrapers.