Ludwig Mies van der Rohe – one of the pioneering masters of Modern Architecture. Notable for Villa Tugendhat, his European masterwork in Czech Republic and the 860-880 Lake Shore Drive, twin tower apartment buildings in Chicago.
Le Corbusier – a pioneer in studies of modern design. It was his Villa Savoye in France that most succintly summed up his five points of architecture.
ORIGINS According to some historians, modern architecture is developed as a result of social and political revolutions. It is closely tied to the project of Modernity and thus the Enlightenment. Others view it as primarily driven by technological and engineering developments. Others regard it as matter of taste: a reaction against eclecticism and the lavish stylistic excesses of Victorian & Edwardian architecture.
ADVANCES IN BUILDING TECHNOLOGY
the availability of newly-available building materials such as iron, steel & sheet glass drove the invention of new building techniques.
1796 – Shrewsbury mill owner Charles Bage first used his ‘fireproof’ design, which relied on cast iron & brick with flag stone floors.
Early 1830s – Eaton Hodgkinson introduced the section beam, which lead to widespread use of iron construction.
ADVANCES IN BUILDING TECHNOLOGY
Great Exhibition of 1851 – Joseph Paxton’s Crystal Palace was an early example of iron & glass construction.
1864 – first glass & metal curtain wall construction.
1890 – William Le Baron Jenney & Louis Sullivan’s steel-framed skyscraper in Chicago was developed.
EARLY YEARS The architects around the world began developing new solution to integrate precedents with new technological possibilities.
Art Nouveau ("New Art“)
In Russian - "Модерн”
In Spanish - “Modernismo”
In English - “Modern”
It is in the book by Otto Wagner, the fallout of the First World War would result in additional experimentation and ideas.
IN THE UNITED STATES
First examples of modern architecture:
1904 Wright’s Larkin Building in Buffalo, NY
1905 Unity Temple in Oak Park, Illinois
1910 Robie House in Chicago
IN ITALY: FUTURISM
Began in Early 20 th century
Characterized anti-historicism and long horizontal lines.
Themes include technology and urgency.
Manifesto of Futuricism
First manifesto produced by FiIippino Tommaso Marinetti in 1909
Attracted poets,musicians,artists such as Umberto Boccioni,Giacomo Balla, Fortunato Depreso and architects like Antonio Sant’ Elia .
Antomio Sant’ Elia- built little (being killed in WWI)
IN RUSSIA: CONSTRUCTIVISM
A new style resulting from the 1907 revolutions ,the societal upheaval and change coupled with a desire for a new aesthetic in Communist to Neoclassicism.
Prospered but full markedly out of favor during the design competition for the Palace of the Soviets 1931-1933,losing to Post constructivism.
More traditional revivalism of Russian architecture with nationalistic overtones.
Resulted in the ultimate demise o the Russian branch of early architectural modernism.
IN WESTERN EUROPE
Deutscher Werkbund(German Work Federation)
German association of architects, designers, industrialists which spanned the gap but then Arts and Crafts movement and the modernism of 1903.
Founded in 1907 in Munich at the instigation of Herman Muthesius .
RISE OF MODERNISM
1920s,serves as the most important figures establishment of their reputations.
Trained the big three:Le Corbusier in France;
Walter Gropuis and Ludwig Mies van der Rohe in Germany
European school and associated concerned with reconciling craft tradition and industrial technology.
The directors are Gropius and Mies van der Rohe,also designed the German Pavilion (Barcelona Pavilion)
Its purpose was to sponsor the attempt to integrate traditional crafts with the techniques of industrial mass production.
De Stijl – “The Style”
An art and design movement developed unique to the Netherlands resulted from isolation during WWI.
Characterized by use of line and primary colors .
Museum of Modern Art
1932- The International Exhibition of Modern Architecture was held .
Philip Johnson and collaborator Henry-Russell Hitchcock
identified architecture as stylistically similar and having a common purpose.
Most commonly use materials are glass for the façade(usually curtain),steel for exterior support and concrete for the floor.
The style became most evident in the design of skycrapers
New York City, 1958, by
Ludwig Mies van der Rohe,
is regarded as one of the
finest examples of the
functionalist aesthetic and
a masterpiece of corporate
In United States
Designed the Lovell House and Case Study Houses in Los Angeles.
1946 and 1966- twenty or so homes were built primarily in and around Los Angeles
Nuetra, Americans Charles and Ray Eames (the Eames House) have attracted hundreds of thousands of visitors.