Biodiversity is a term used to describe the diversity of life. Variety and differences among organisms in Terrestrial Marine Other aquatic ecosystems Of the ecological complexes of which they are a part.
Species is defined as a group of organisms capable of interbreeding and producing fertile offspring. or Species is a group or class of animals and plants having certain common and permanent characteristics that clearly distinguish it from other groups and have a passage of a common gene. Species Diversity - is the number of different species of living things living in an area.
Genetic differentiation within species occurs Results from sexual reproduction, in which genetic differences between individuals are combined in their offspring to produce new combinations of genes From mutations causing changes in the DNA. Genetic diversity is usually mentioned with reference to agriculture and maintaining food security.
It is the variation of habitats, community types, and abiotic environments present in a given area. Same set of animals and plants may be present in a region but in different tropics (levels) of the ecosystem.
Global biodiversity Biological diversity at national level Regional or local biodiversity Regional diversity can be classified into Alpha – at a particular point Beta - at a particular locality Gamma - at a particular region
Since India is having all types of climatic regions , the biodiversity is very high. 10 th rank among plant richness 11 th in number of endemic species of higher vertebrates 6 th in centers of diversity and origin of food crops India is one of the 12 mega diversity nations India is considered to be the origin of 5000 species of flowering and 320 species of food plants The marine diversity of India is still to be explored.
According to a report (1996), India is estimated to have over 45,000 plant species - 7% of the world’s flora 81,000 animal species - 6.5% of fauna. The 1999 report says 49,219 plant species - 12.5% 81,251 animal species - 6.6%.
Bacteria – 850 Fungi – 23,000 Algae – 2500 Reptiles – 428 Birds – 1228 The numbers willincrease if a thoroughSurvey is done again.
Endemism – when a particular species is restricted to particular region then it is endemic - Red panda If the endemic species contribute more than 0.5% of the species , then the place is considered as a biodiversity hotspot There are 25 hot spots in the world. India has some parts in two hot spots. Western Ghats - Srilanka Eastern Himalayas – Indo Burman
The hot spots occupy 2% of the land area of earth They contain 50% of the biodiversity. 40% of plants 25% of vertebrates are endemic to hot spots Roughly we can say that hot spots are in Western Amazon , Madagascar North and Central Borneo North East Australia and West Africa.
Due to careless human activities the biodiversity is under serious threat. If biodiversity is going on decreasing it will not only affect the animals but ultimately human who is on the top of the food chain. Causes of threats Habitat destruction Fragmentation Poaching
Broad-scale commercial and conservation strategies need to be developed must take into account the economic and environmental constraints of the particular country (i.e., detailed local knowledge!) There must be designated core and buffer conservation zones centered around areas of particular endemism (other areas can be designated for limited sustainable commercial activities. (polycyclic logging, selective extraction of forest products etc.)
Total area: 39 ha; core: 2 Total area: 42 ha; core: 25 Research and training Multiple-use Buffer Tourist facility Core Human settlement
Due to the serious human activities some of the animals have totally vanished, which are called the extinct species DODO, passenger pigeon, cheetah(in India) Some of the species are present in so low in numbers which can become extinct are called endangered species Asian Elephant, Gharial, Peacock.
Food – among known 80,000 food crops 90% are from the wild ancestoral crops. Drugs and medicine – around 75% people are relying on herbal remedies for ailments. The field of alternate medicines depends on the plant products hence on the biodiversity. Ayurvedha , Siddha , Unani systems either use herbal as such or the products derived from plants.
Many of the forest products are precious hence they are exploited to the maximum. The products which are got from the forests and directly merchandised come under the productive value. Elephant tusks – used in show pieces Tiger bones and testis – Chinese medicine Skins of tigers, red panda, cheetah and snakes.