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  1. 1.  Biodiversity is a term used to describe the diversity of life. Variety and differences among organisms in Terrestrial Marine Other aquatic ecosystems Of the ecological complexes of which they are a part.
  3. 3.  Species is defined as a group of organisms capable of interbreeding and producing fertile offspring. or Species is a group or class of animals and plants having certain common and permanent characteristics that clearly distinguish it from other groups and have a passage of a common gene. Species Diversity - is the number of different species of living things living in an area.
  4. 4.  Genetic differentiation within species occurs Results from sexual reproduction, in which genetic differences between individuals are combined in their offspring to produce new combinations of genes From mutations causing changes in the DNA. Genetic diversity is usually mentioned with reference to agriculture and maintaining food security.
  5. 5.  It is the variation of habitats, community types, and abiotic environments present in a given area. Same set of animals and plants may be present in a region but in different tropics (levels) of the ecosystem.
  6. 6.  Global biodiversity Biological diversity at national level Regional or local biodiversity Regional diversity can be classified into Alpha – at a particular point Beta - at a particular locality Gamma - at a particular region
  7. 7.  Since India is having all types of climatic regions , the biodiversity is very high. 10 th rank among plant richness 11 th in number of endemic species of higher vertebrates 6 th in centers of diversity and origin of food crops India is one of the 12 mega diversity nations India is considered to be the origin of 5000 species of flowering and 320 species of food plants The marine diversity of India is still to be explored.
  8. 8.  According to a report (1996), India is estimated to have over 45,000 plant species - 7% of the world’s flora 81,000 animal species - 6.5% of fauna. The 1999 report says 49,219 plant species - 12.5% 81,251 animal species - 6.6%.
  9. 9.  Bacteria – 850 Fungi – 23,000 Algae – 2500 Reptiles – 428 Birds – 1228 The numbers willincrease if a thoroughSurvey is done again.
  10. 10.  Endemism – when a particular species is restricted to particular region then it is endemic - Red panda If the endemic species contribute more than 0.5% of the species , then the place is considered as a biodiversity hotspot There are 25 hot spots in the world. India has some parts in two hot spots. Western Ghats - Srilanka Eastern Himalayas – Indo Burman
  11. 11.  The hot spots occupy 2% of the land area of earth They contain 50% of the biodiversity. 40% of plants 25% of vertebrates are endemic to hot spots Roughly we can say that hot spots are in Western Amazon , Madagascar North and Central Borneo North East Australia and West Africa.
  12. 12.  Due to careless human activities the biodiversity is under serious threat. If biodiversity is going on decreasing it will not only affect the animals but ultimately human who is on the top of the food chain. Causes of threats Habitat destruction Fragmentation Poaching
  13. 13.  Broad-scale commercial and conservation strategies need to be developed must take into account the economic and environmental constraints of the particular country (i.e., detailed local knowledge!) There must be designated core and buffer conservation zones centered around areas of particular endemism (other areas can be designated for limited sustainable commercial activities. (polycyclic logging, selective extraction of forest products etc.)
  14. 14. Total area: 39 ha; core: 2 Total area: 42 ha; core: 25 Research and training Multiple-use Buffer Tourist facility Core Human settlement
  15. 15.  Due to the serious human activities some of the animals have totally vanished, which are called the extinct species DODO, passenger pigeon, cheetah(in India) Some of the species are present in so low in numbers which can become extinct are called endangered species Asian Elephant, Gharial, Peacock.
  17. 17.  Consumptive Productive Service Ethical Social Aesthetic optional
  18. 18.  Food – among known 80,000 food crops 90% are from the wild ancestoral crops. Drugs and medicine – around 75% people are relying on herbal remedies for ailments. The field of alternate medicines depends on the plant products hence on the biodiversity. Ayurvedha , Siddha , Unani systems either use herbal as such or the products derived from plants.
  19. 19.  Many of the forest products are precious hence they are exploited to the maximum. The products which are got from the forests and directly merchandised come under the productive value. Elephant tusks – used in show pieces Tiger bones and testis – Chinese medicine Skins of tigers, red panda, cheetah and snakes.