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Solutions
 

Solutions

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    Solutions Solutions Presentation Transcript

    •  
    • Solution
      • a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances
      • Homogeneous - having similarity in structure
      • mixtures-two or more substances physically mixed together but not chemically combined
    • AQUEOUS solutions
      • a solution in water
      • a solution in alcohol
      TINCTURE TYPES
    • Solute
      • the substance being dissolved
      • present in lesser quantity.
      • the substance where the solute is dissoved in; medium
      • present in greater quantity
      Solvent COMPONENTS
    • Solute
      • the substance being dissolved
      • present in lesser quantity.
      • the substance where the solute is dissoved in; medium
      • present in greater quantity
      Solvent Solute Solvent Example GAS GAS AIR GAS LIQUID CARBONATED WATER GAS SOLID H 2 in Pd LIQUID GAS WET AIR LIQUID LIQUID ALCOHOL IN WATER LIQUID SOLID Hg in Ag SOLID SOLID C in Fe
    • Solvation
      • the process of surrounding a solute particle with solvent particles. Hydration is solvation in water
      REVERSIBLE INTERACTIONS Crystallization
    • Solvation
      • Step 1. Solute particles separate from each other. This step involves overcoming
      • intermolecular attractions, so it is endothermic:
      • Solute (aggregated) + heat  solute (separated)
    • Solvation
      • Step 2. Solvent particles separate from each other. This step also involves overcoming
      • attractions, so it is endothermic, too:
      • Solvent (aggregated) + heat  solvent (separated)
    • Solvation
      • Step 3. Solute and solvent particles mix. The particles attract each other, so this
      • step is exothermic:
      • Solute (separated) + solvent (separated)  solution + heat
    • Solubility
      • The solubility of a substance is the amount of that substance that can be dissolved in a given quantity of solvent.
      • Miscible – can mix in any proportions e.g. (liquid-liquid solns)
    • Saturated solution
      • the maximum amount of solute is dissolved in the solvent at a given temperature
      • the amount of solute dissolved in the solvent at a given temperature is less than maximum
      • the amount of solute dissolved in the solvent at a given temperature is more than maximum
      Unsaturated Supersaturated