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  • 1.  
  • 2. Solution
    • a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances
    • Homogeneous - having similarity in structure
    • mixtures-two or more substances physically mixed together but not chemically combined
  • 3. AQUEOUS solutions
    • a solution in water
    • a solution in alcohol
    TINCTURE TYPES
  • 4. Solute
    • the substance being dissolved
    • present in lesser quantity.
    • the substance where the solute is dissoved in; medium
    • present in greater quantity
    Solvent COMPONENTS
  • 5. Solute
    • the substance being dissolved
    • present in lesser quantity.
    • the substance where the solute is dissoved in; medium
    • present in greater quantity
    Solvent Solute Solvent Example GAS GAS AIR GAS LIQUID CARBONATED WATER GAS SOLID H 2 in Pd LIQUID GAS WET AIR LIQUID LIQUID ALCOHOL IN WATER LIQUID SOLID Hg in Ag SOLID SOLID C in Fe
  • 6. Solvation
    • the process of surrounding a solute particle with solvent particles. Hydration is solvation in water
    REVERSIBLE INTERACTIONS Crystallization
  • 7. Solvation
    • Step 1. Solute particles separate from each other. This step involves overcoming
    • intermolecular attractions, so it is endothermic:
    • Solute (aggregated) + heat  solute (separated)
  • 8. Solvation
    • Step 2. Solvent particles separate from each other. This step also involves overcoming
    • attractions, so it is endothermic, too:
    • Solvent (aggregated) + heat  solvent (separated)
  • 9. Solvation
    • Step 3. Solute and solvent particles mix. The particles attract each other, so this
    • step is exothermic:
    • Solute (separated) + solvent (separated)  solution + heat
  • 10. Solubility
    • The solubility of a substance is the amount of that substance that can be dissolved in a given quantity of solvent.
    • Miscible – can mix in any proportions e.g. (liquid-liquid solns)
  • 11. Saturated solution
    • the maximum amount of solute is dissolved in the solvent at a given temperature
    • the amount of solute dissolved in the solvent at a given temperature is less than maximum
    • the amount of solute dissolved in the solvent at a given temperature is more than maximum
    Unsaturated Supersaturated