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D08 abbrev arrhenius and catalysts_alg

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  • 1. General Chemistry II CHEM 152 Week 3
  • 2. Week 3 Reading Assignment Chapter 13 – Sections 13.5 (temperature), 13.7 (catalysts)
  • 3. SOLUTION A key reaction in the upper atmosphere is The E a(fwd) is 19 kJ, and the  H rxn ( ∆E) for the reaction is -392 kJ. Draw a reaction energy diagram for this reaction, postulate a transition state, and calculate E a (rev) . Your Turn O 3 ( g ) + O( g ) 2O 2 ( g ) transition state E a = 19kJ  H rxn = -392kJ E a (rev) = (392 + 19)kJ = 411kJ
  • 4. The Arrhenius Equation ln k = ln A - E a /RT where k is the rate constant at T E a is the activation energy R is the energy gas constant = 8.3145 J/(mol K) T is the Kelvin temperature A is the collision frequency factor Temperature Effects ln k 2 k 1 = E a R - 1 T 2 1 T 1 -
  • 5. ln k = -E a /R (1/T) + ln A Graphical Analysis . Y = m X + b
  • 6. Typical Problems Suppose a chemical reaction has an activation energy of 76 kJ/mol. By what factor is the rate of reaction at 50 o C increased over its rate at 25 o C? k 2 =rate constant @ 50ºC k 1 =rate const @ 25ºC k 2 /k 1 = 10.7 over 10 times faster! = -76000 J 8.3145 J/mol K ln k 2 k 1 = 2.37 ln k 2 k 1 1 323.15K 1 298.15K -
  • 7. The decomposition of hydrogen iodide, E a = ___________ kJ/mol 2HI( g )  H 2 ( g ) + I 2 ( g ) has rate constants of 9.51x10 -9 L/mol*s at 500. K and 1.10x10 -5 L/mol*s at 600. K. Find E a .
  • 8. Series of plots of concentra-tion vs. time Initial rates Reaction orders Rate constant ( k ) and actual rate law Integrated rate law (half-life, t 1/2 ) Rate constant and reaction order Activation energy, E a Plots of concentration vs. time Overview Find k at varied T Determine slope of tangent at t 0 for each plot Compare initial rates when [A] changes and [B] is held constant and vice versa Substitute initial rates, orders, and concentrations into general rate law: rate = k [A] m [B] n Use direct, ln or inverse plot to find order Rearrange to linear form and graph Find k at varied T
  • 9.
    • Catalysts speed up reactions by altering the mechanism to lower the activation energy barrier, but they are not consumed.
    MnO 2 catalyzes decomposition of H 2 O 2 2 H 2 O 2  2 H 2 O + O 2 Catalysis Uncatalyzed reaction Catalyzed reaction
  • 10.
    • Imagine trying to get a bunch of cattle to where you want them to go without any help…
    “ Cattle-ists” Will they get there very quickly on their own? Will they take the shortest path do get there? Is there a way to help?
  • 11.
    • What if there was someone there to herd the cattle and guide them along a more efficient path?
    “ Cattle-ists” The end result is the same – but the reaction takes a more efficient path.
  • 12. The metal-catalyzed hydrogenation of ethylene
  • 13. Catalytic Converters 13.6 CO + Unburned Hydrocarbons + O 2 CO 2 + H 2 O catalytic converter 2NO + 2NO 2 2N 2 + 3O 2 catalytic converter
  • 14. Catalysis
    • 3) Enzymes — biological catalysts
    Enzymes are specialized organic substances, composed of polymers of amino acids ( proteins ), that act as catalysts to regulate the speed of the many chemical reactions involved in the metabolism of living organisms.
  • 15. Enzyme Catalysis
  • 16. Enzymes uncatalyzed enzyme catalyzed
  • 17. Enzymes Saturation Effects Denaturization
  • 18. Summary Activity: Fireflies flash at a rate that is temperature dependent. At 29 ˚C the average firefly flashes at a rate of 3.3 flashes every 10. seconds. At 23 ˚C the average rate is 2.7 flashes every 10. seconds. Use the Arrhenius equation to determine the activation energy (kJ/mol) for the flashing process.
  • 19. The activation energy of the firefly flashing process is: E a = ___________ kJ/mol