Primary Need-Activating IncentiveTable 7.2Incentive That Activates Each Social Need’s Emotional and Behavior PotentialSocial Need Incentiv e that Activates Each NeedAchievemen Doing something well to show personal competence tAffiliation Opportunity to please others and gain their approval Intimacy Warm, secure relationship Pow er Having impact on others
Atkinson’s ModelTendency to Tendency to Approach Tendency to AvoidAchieve (Ta) Success (Ts) Failure (Taf) Ta = (Ms ××Ps × Is) – (Ms Ps × Is) (Maf × Pf × If ) • Maf : Motive to Avoid Failure • Ms: Motive to Success • Pf : Perceived Probability of • Ps : Perceived Probability Failure (1- Ps) of Success • If : Negative Incentive • Is : Incentive Value of value Success for Failure (1- Is)
Dynamics-of-Action ModelFigure 7.1 Streams of Behavior for People High and Low in Ms and Maf1. Latency to begin an achievement depends on motive strength. (Ms vs. Maf)2. Persistence on an achievement task depends on motive strength. (Ms vs. Maf)3. Switching to a nonachievement task occurs with rising consumption.
Conditions That Involve &Satisfy the Need for Achievement
Benefits of Adopting Mastery Goals Preference for a Challenging Task Work One can Learn From Harder Use Conceptually Based Learning Strategies Persist LongerA dop tion of aMastery Goal Experience Greater (rather than a Intrinsic thanPerformance Goal) Extrinsic Motivation More Likely to Ask Perform for Information & Help Better
Achievement Goals in the Classroom (Ames & Archer, 1988) Manifestations of Mastery and Performance Goals in the Classroom Context Classroom Dimension Mastery Goal Performance Goal High grades, high normativeSuccess defined as Improvement, progress performanceValue placed on Effort, learning Normatively high abilityReasons for Table 7.4
Integrating Classical & ContemporaryApproaches to Achievement Motivation
Implicit Theories Implicit Theories vs .Adoption ofAchievement Mastery Goals Performance GoalsGoalsMeaning of Utility of effort: High effort signalsEffort Challenging tasks LOW ability. require high effort.
AFFILIATION AND INTIMACYTable 7.7Profile of High Intimacy Motivation Category DefinitionThoughts Of friends, of relationshipsStory Themes Relationships produce positive affect, reciprocal dialogue, expressions of relationship commitment and union, and expressions of interpersonal harmonyInteraction Self-disclosure, Intense listening habits, Many conversationsStyleAutobiography Themes of love and dialogue are mentioned as personally significant life experiencesPeer Rating Individual rated as warm, loving, sincere, nondominant.Memory Enhanced recall with stories involving themes of interpersonal interactions
Conditions That Involve & Satisfy the Affiliation and Intimacy NeedsNeed-InvolvingConditionNeed-SatisfyingCondition