Ch02(1)
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Ch02(1)

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Ch02(1) Ch02(1) Presentation Transcript

  • Motivation inHistorical PerspectiveChapter 2
  • Outline : History of MotivationPhilosophical Origins of Motivational Concepts The First Grand Theory: Will The Second Grand Theory: Instinct • Freud’s Drive Theory The Third Grand Theory: Drive • Hull’s Drive Theory The Fourth Grand Theory: Incentive, Arousal, Discrepancy • The Active Nature of the Person • The Cognitive RevolutionRise of the Mini-theories • Applied Socially Relevant ResearchContemporary Era
  • GRAND THEORIESAll- encompassing theory that seeks to explain the full range of motivated action—whywe eat, drink, work, play, compete, fear certain things, read, fall in love, and so on. Will Instinct DriveThe ancient philosophers Physiological analysis of Drive theory view thatunderstood motivation motivation by focusing on behavior was motivatedwithin the two themes: the mechanistic. to the extent that it served the needs of the good, rational, The appeal of instinct organism and restored a immaterial, and active doctrine was its ability to biological homeostasis. (i.e., the will) explain unlearned behavior that had energy and purpose primitive, impulsive, biological, and reactive (i.e., goal-directed biological (i.e., bodily desires). impulses). View slide
  • A SUMMARY OF FREUD’S DRIVE THEORY Drive’s Drive’s Drive’s Drive’s Source Impetus Object AimA bodily deficit occurs The intensity of the Seeking to reduce If the environmental bodily deficit grows & anxiety & satisfy the object successfully(e.g., blood sugar emerges into bodily deficit, the satisfies the bodilydrops & a sense of consciousness as a person searches out & deficit, satisfactionhunger emerges). psychological consumes a need occurs & quiets discomfort, which is satisfying anxiety, at least for a anxiety. environmental object period of time. (e.g., food).Figure 2.1 View slide
  • Decline of GRAND THEORIES Will Instinct DriveThe philosophical study The physiological Drive theory proved itself to beof the will turned out to study of the instinct overly limited in scope, andbe a dead end that proved to be an with its rejection came theexplained very little intellectual dead end field’s disillusionment withabout motivation, as it as well, as it became grand theories in general,actually raised more clear that “naming is though several additional grand motivational principlesquestions than it not explaining.” emerged with some success,answered. including incentive and arousal.
  • Post-Drive Theory Years Third, the field focused on applied, socially relevant problems. First, motivation study rejected its commitment to a passive view of human nature and adopted a more active Second, portrayal of human motivation turned beings. decidedly cognitive and somewhat humanistic.
  • ● Rise of the Mini- TheoriesUnlike grand theoriesthat try to explain the fullrange of motivation,mini-theories limittheir attention:
  • Abbreviated list of the mini-theories
  • The Many Voices in Motivation Study Box 2 _________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Motivation’s new Perspective: Motives emerge from… paradigm is one in _________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _ which behavior is Behavioral Environmental incentives energized and directed not by a single grand Neurological Brain activations cause but, instead, by a multitude of multi-level Physiological Hormonal activity and co-acting Cognitive Mental events and thoughts influences. Social-cognitive Ways of thinking guided As expressed in Box 2, by exposure to other people most motivational Cultural Groups, organizations, and states can be (and nations indeed need to be) understood at multiple Evolutionary Genes and genetic levels—from a endowment neurological level, a Humanistic Encouraging the human cognitive level, a social potential level, and so on. Psychoanalytical Unconscious mental life _________________________________________________________________________________________________________
  • The Many Voices in Motivation Study Box 2 _________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Motivation’s new Perspective: Motives emerge from… paradigm is one in _________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _ which behavior is Behavioral Environmental incentives energized and directed not by a single grand Neurological Brain activations cause but, instead, by a multitude of multi-level Physiological Hormonal activity and co-acting Cognitive Mental events and thoughts influences. Social-cognitive Ways of thinking guided As expressed in Box 2, by exposure to other people most motivational Cultural Groups, organizations, and states can be (and nations indeed need to be) understood at multiple Evolutionary Genes and genetic levels—from a endowment neurological level, a Humanistic Encouraging the human cognitive level, a social potential level, and so on. Psychoanalytical Unconscious mental life _________________________________________________________________________________________________________