CHAPTER 7: SOUND By Sean Fogar ty, Chelsea Massa, & Mar y Kate Thomerson
SOUNDTRACK BASICSAll sound that accompanies the film Music, dialogue, sound effectsDigital Crisp and cleanConstructed separately Flexible Easy to manipulateHard to study Cannot freeze a sound
POWER OF SOUND IN FILM Interest Silent Films accompanied by orchestra Narration Voice over narration contributes/introduces the story line http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lOaV06ruMqg Good Fellas Diner Scene Understanding Alter perception of scene depending on sound http://frivolousdisorder.com/?p=535 Guidance Direct the attention of the audience
POWER OF SOUND IN FILM Anticipation Create suspense; Horror Films http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dnRxQ3dcaQk Jurassic Park Raptor Scene Value to Silence Sound is routinely used, lack of sound becomes alien http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6j1wKBbRQhk Panic Room
FUNDAMENTALSLoudness Amplitude Vibrations of the air Constantly manipulated http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vltUWa_tOhE&feature=rel ated Twist and Shout Characterizes dialogue http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WLESwFqDm9k Pulp Fiction Shows perceived distance http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MQQu5BDy2Wo Super 8
FUNDAMENTALSPitch Frequency of sound vibrations Highness or lowness of a sound Most sounds are a complex tone, or multiple pitches Helps to distinguish between music, speech, and noises Set the tone of a scene http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WDpipB4yehk The Shining
FUNDAMENTALSTimbre Harmonic Components Give a Sound “Color” Combination of Harmonics, Frequency, and Overtones Texture or Feel of a Sound http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uhiCFdWeQfA Econ Teacher
CHOOSING SOUND Each sound serves a purpose Select sound to fulfill particular function Sound added freely Soundtrack is not always made after image track In many cartoons it is made first Not all sound is recorded for that specific project Some editors reuse music and effects stored in a sound library Wilhelm Scream; http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cdbYsoEasio Importance of dialogue, music, and sound effects vary by film Dialogue – Breakfast Club Sound Effects – Almost anything Michael Bay Music – Musicals and, more recently, dance movies
SOUND MANIPULATION AND EDITINGChange acoustic qualities Loudness, frequency, tone quality http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DwAOHVBKTwgSound Mixing Join sounds together End to end; One over the other http://www.cracked.com/article_19639_5-ridiculous-origins-movie- sound-effects.htmlClarified and simplified to stand outDialogue Overlap Dialogue continues past a cut
SOUND AND FILM FORMFilm scores Use of pre-existing pieces Composed specifically for movie http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Hh4zxv7gYkY ET Music strongly influence emotional reaction Melody or music can be associated with particular setting, character, situation, idea, parts of narrative, or scenes http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Zn94j5F5YLc Darth Vader
DIMENSIONS OF FILM SOUNDRhythm Beat, pulse, tempo, pace, or pattern Rhythmic qualities in sound effects also Gunshots in gangster films Speech is rhythmic Characters show distinct pacing and syllabic stress http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YRK541tosfI Joker
RHYTHM IN SOUND AND IMAGECoordination Match rhythmic sound with rhythmic video Mickey Mousing Disney characters move in sync with music, even when not dancingDisparities Creation of contrasting video and audio rhythm http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=znEf9OVx32g Four Nights of a Dreamer
FIDELITYExtent to which sound is faithful to the source as we conceive it.Purely a matter of expectation.If sound is unfaithful to its source and we are aware of it, usually done for comic effect. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LE9t98Gox60
FIDELITY Jacques Tati is a good specimen for the study of sound. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LzAoCsvvFB Y May be manipulated by change in volume. Ex: Curtis Bernhardts “Possessed” alters the volume in ways that aren’t faithful to sources.
SPACE Sound has spatial dimension because it comes from a source. 2 types: DIEGETIC v NONDIEGETIC • Sound that has a • Sound that comes from a source source in the story outside the story world. world. • Sound effects can be made from • Often hard to this type. notice. • Entire films can be made • May be completely with nondiegetic manipulated in sound. unrealistic ways. • http://www.dailymotion.com/video/xav22j_north-by-northwest-run-for-your- lif_shortfilms
SPACE Diegetic sound can either be on or off screen Depends on whether source is in or outside ofthe frame. Can be used to represent what a character is thinking. Ex: Speaking thoughts even though lips not moving other’s usually can’t hear them EXTERNAL DIEGETIC SOUND: way we as spectators take to have a physical source in the scene.
SPACE INTERNAL DIEGETIC SOUND: comes from inside the mind of a character– subjective can’t be heard by other characters: SILILOQUIES Nondiegetic and internal diegetic sounds are often called SOUNDOVER because they don’t come from the real space of the scene. Diegetic and Nondiegetic sound blur. Ex: Cavalry rescue scene from Stagecoach.
OMNISCIENT NARRATOR Disembodied voice that gives us information that doesn’t belong to any characters in the film http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ND1X594F1wY
SPACE Many times a film’s narration deliberately blurs boundaries between two spatial categories Used to puzzle/surprise audience Create humor or ambiguity Achieve other purposes Space of the narrative action isn’t limited to what we can see on the screen----same for sound Off screen sound: Crucial to film – can create illusion of bigger space. Can also create restricted and less restricted narration
SOUND PERSPECTIVE Characteristic of diegetic sound Sense of spatial distance and location analogous to the cues for visual depth and volume that we get with visual perspective. Can be suggested by volume ex: loud= near ; soft= more distant changes in volume may suggest characters movement through space Can be created by timbre Most noticeable with echoes
SOUND PERSPECTIVE Particularly marked in telephone conversations Telephone split – seldom matches what phone calls sound like in reality http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid= - 7750754192792496799
SOUND PERSPECTIVE IN THEATER SPACE Using stereophonic and surround tracks a film can more strongly imply a sound’s distance and placement. Without the greater localization of fered by the stereophonic channels, we might scan the frame for sources of the sound. Stereo reproduction can specify a moving sounds direction. Ex: Rumble on right side of screen that moves across with plane fly over.
TIME Synchronous sound- what we see produces what we hear example: dialogue Asynchronous sound- when what we see doesn’t match what we hear example: the first talkies http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HsLqCWP -cT0 Simultaneous sound-sound that takes place at the same time as the image in terms of the story events Non-simultaneous sound-we hear sounds that occur earlier or later in the story than the events we see in the image example: sonic flashback- one character hears the voice of another from earlier
DIEGETIC SOUND Non-simultaneous sound earlier than the image sounds come from earlier in the story Examples: sound flashback, sound bridges(the sound lingers even through the image as moved on), and flash forward http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oIkpD2Nr5yI Sound simultaneous with the image in the story can be external or internal http://vimeo.com/25660023 Non-simultaneous sound later than the image http://movies.netflix.com/WiPlayer?movieid=70151172&trkid =3325854 start as 35:19 used as transitions or to help pull the story together
NONDIEGETIC SOUND Non-simultaneous sound that came earlier sounds that are not part of the story but came before the images shone http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tpH5L8zCtSk Simultaneous usually a narration Non-simultaneous sound came later someone narrating their own past http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qq5NWgSa0iA
FUNCTIONS OF FILM SOUND: THE PRESTIGE Christopher and Jonathan Nolan wanted the movie to be like a magic act in it of itself. The movie isn’t shown in chronological order, the stor y order is switched up and some scenes repeat so that the audience has some knowledge but is never really cer tain of it. (almost like Citizen Kane) Rober t and Alfred are two rival magicians who compete to amaze their audiences. This competition grows when Alfred is responsible for the death of Rober t’s wife in an act. Af ter this Rober t becomes obsessed with Alfred’s trick of the transpor ted man, and he eventually comes up with his own transpor ted man act using a machine built by Tesla. During on of his shows Rober t dies and Alfred is blamed and then hanged. The truth behind Alfred’s act was that he has an identical twin brother who would per form the acts with him, together they had two lives and each lived a par t of both. The movie ends with Alfred’s twin killing Rober t, who actually didn’t die, and then each tells the truth behind their tricks.
FUNCTIONS OF FILM SOUND: THE PRESTIGE Each place and event is given its own sound, such as the warmer sound of theater after a trick was preformed or the slow swell of the music before an act. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gVTl90m1Auk 1:42:22 Also there are many sound bridges to connect scenes Use a dialogue hook where a scene ends with a line and then cuts to another scene, usually having to do with the line. Parallels are made between the love lives and careers of the two men. The sound of metal clinking is repeated throughout the entire movie, like the clang of a trap door or the sound of Alfred’s chains.
FUNCTIONS OF FILM SOUND: THE PRESTIGE The similarity in sound in scenes clarifies the parallelism between the two http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gV Tl90m1Auk 1:55:30 The use of the two magicians’ diaries help the audience understand where in time they are in the story and assist in leading to flashbacks for more information 7:30 and 11:32 Eventually the diaries aren’t shown anymore, but voice overs are used, it makes clean transitions from flashbacks back to present time 46:33 The opening of The Prestige foreshadows the way the rest story will be presented by starting with an important scene being played with a voice over 0:57