SECOND SEMESTER GRAMMARBOOKJazmin Roldan
TABLE OF CONTENTS Imperfect El Preterito -car/-gar/-zar Spock Cucaracha Snake Modal Verbs Los Adverbios Irregular...
 Future Conditional Superlatives Formal Commands Prepositions Demonstratives
IMPERFECT   Regulars:                   Hablar       Comer      Escribir    Yo             Hablaba      Comía      Escrib...
   Irregulars:                   Ir            Ser          Ver    Yo             Iba           Era          Veía    Tú  ...
EL PRETERITO IRREGULAR   Spelling change in the first person only.       Tocar:         Toqué         Tacaste        ...
   Comenzar:     Comencé     Comenzaste     Comenzó     Comenzamos     Comenzaron
-CAR, -GAR, -ZAR   Regular verbs with these endings have a spelling    change in the “yo” form to keep the sound of the  ...
SPOCK VERBS (IRREGULAR PRETERITE                    VERBS)Hacer            Dar/Ver     Ir/serhice             i           ...
CUCARACHAAndarEstarPoderPonerQuerer          -é (yo)Saber           -iste (tú)Tener           -o (él, ella, ud., una cosa)...
SNAKE SNAKEY   Preterite verbs with a „y‟ spelling change*Stem Changers       Dormir       Dormí       Dormimos       Dor...
 To write “Snake Snakey” in the third person  preterite form of –er and –ir verbs with stems that  end in a vowel, change...
MODAL VERBS   Conjugate and pair the modal verb with an infinitive    to get a new meaning.       ir+a+infinitive (going...
LOS ADVERBIOS Most are formed by adding –mente to the feminine  singular form of the adjective. Corresponds to –ly  endin...
IRREGULAR ADVERBSIrregular Adverbs   TranslationMucho               A lotMuy                 VeryMal                 BadBa...
PROGRESSIVE TENSE   Present Progressive     Formed by combining the verb “to be” with the present      participle.     ...
FUTURO (WILL)                        Los Irregulares:                        Decir      Dir-                        Hacer ...
CONDITIONAL   The conditional is used to express    probability, possibility, wonder or conjecture. Conditional    will u...
   Here are all three regular conditional verb forms    together:           Hablar         Comer           Vivir         ...
SUPERLATIVES   These phrases say that one item has more or less    of a certain quality than another item has.     Más.....
   To use a noun with the superlative form, put it after    the article.     Luis es el chico más alto. Mercedes es la c...
FORMAL COMMANDS   Formal commands are used when ordering, or    telling someone to do something. This is often    referre...
   The formal commands are formed the same way as    present subjunctive.     Start with the yo form of the present indi...
PRONOUNS AS OBJECTS OF PREPOSITIONS   A pronoun is a word that is used instead of the name of a    person or thing.     ...
   Use the second set of pronouns to replace the noun    that comes immediately after a preposition.     Juan habla de m...
DEMONSTRATIVES When you‟re pointing out specific things, you use  demonstrative adjectives and pronouns. Eso, esto, aque...
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Joscelyn roldan

  1. 1. SECOND SEMESTER GRAMMARBOOKJazmin Roldan
  2. 2. TABLE OF CONTENTS Imperfect El Preterito -car/-gar/-zar Spock Cucaracha Snake Modal Verbs Los Adverbios Irregular Adverbs Progressive Tense  Past tense  Present tense
  3. 3.  Future Conditional Superlatives Formal Commands Prepositions Demonstratives
  4. 4. IMPERFECT Regulars: Hablar Comer Escribir Yo Hablaba Comía Escribía Tú Hablabas Comías Escribías Él/Ella/Ud. Hablaba Comía Escribía Nosotros Hablábamos Comíamos Escribíamos Vosotros Hablabais Comíais Escribíais Ellos/Ellas/ Hablaban Comían Escribían Uds.
  5. 5.  Irregulars: Ir Ser Ver Yo Iba Era Veía Tú Ibas Eras Veías Él/Ella/Ud. Iba Era Veía Nosotros Íbamos Éramos Veíamos Vosotros Ibais Erais Veíais Ellos/Ellas/ Iban Eran Veían Uds.Uses: Trigger Words:1. Ongoing action (was/were) -todos los dias -los lunes2. Repeated action (used to) -de vez en cuando -a veces3. No definite beginning or end -generalmente -mientras4. Time/date/age/feelings/descriptions -siempre -a menudo5. Interrupted activity (cuando) -cada dia -muchas veces
  6. 6. EL PRETERITO IRREGULAR Spelling change in the first person only.  Tocar:  Toqué  Tacaste  Tocó  Tocamos  Tocaron  Jugar:  Jugué  Jugaste  Jugo  Jugamos  Jugaron
  7. 7.  Comenzar:  Comencé  Comenzaste  Comenzó  Comenzamos  Comenzaron
  8. 8. -CAR, -GAR, -ZAR Regular verbs with these endings have a spelling change in the “yo” form to keep the sound of the verb. -car yo -qúe -gar yo -gúe -zar yo -céExamples:Sacar: the c changes to qu: (yo) saqúe: Yo saqúe la basura.Pagar: the g changes to gu: (yo) pagúe: Yo pagúe dos dólares.Empezar: the z changes to c: (yo) empecé: Yo empecé un trabajo nuevo.
  9. 9. SPOCK VERBS (IRREGULAR PRETERITE VERBS)Hacer Dar/Ver Ir/serhice i fuihisiste iste fuistehizo io fuehicimos imos fuimoshicieron ieron fueron
  10. 10. CUCARACHAAndarEstarPoderPonerQuerer -é (yo)Saber -iste (tú)Tener -o (él, ella, ud., una cosa)Venir -imos (nosotros)Decir -isteis (vosotros)Traer -ieron (ellos, ellas, uds., una cosas)ConducirProducir -iTraducir
  11. 11. SNAKE SNAKEY Preterite verbs with a „y‟ spelling change*Stem Changers Dormir Dormí Dormimos Dormiste *Y Changers Durmió Leer Dumieron Leí Leimos Leiste Leyó Leyeron
  12. 12.  To write “Snake Snakey” in the third person preterite form of –er and –ir verbs with stems that end in a vowel, change the l to y. All of these preterite forms require an accent, EXCEPT the ustedes/ellos/ellas forms.
  13. 13. MODAL VERBS Conjugate and pair the modal verb with an infinitive to get a new meaning.  ir+a+infinitive (going to do something)  poder+infinitive (are able to do something)  querer+infinitive (want to do something)  deber+infinitive (should do something)  tener que+infinitive (to have to do something)  soler+infinitive (to be accustomed to)
  14. 14. LOS ADVERBIOS Most are formed by adding –mente to the feminine singular form of the adjective. Corresponds to –ly ending in English. When two adverbs modify the same verb only the second one uses the –mente ending. Note, the adverb is the same as the feminine singular form of the adjective. Adjective Feminine Form Adverb Claro Clara Claramente Constante Constante Constantemente Difícil Difícil Difícilmente Perfecto Perfecta Perfectamente
  15. 15. IRREGULAR ADVERBSIrregular Adverbs TranslationMucho A lotMuy VeryMal BadBastante Quite/enoughBien Good/wellYa AlreadyTan So
  16. 16. PROGRESSIVE TENSE Present Progressive  Formed by combining the verb “to be” with the present participle.  Estar + -ando/-iendo/-yendo Past Progressive  Also formed by combining the verb “to be” with the present participle.
  17. 17. FUTURO (WILL) Los Irregulares: Decir Dir- Hacer Har- -é -é Poner Pondr- -ás -ás Salir Saldr- -á -á Tener Tendr-Infinitive + -emos -emos Valer Vendr- -éis -éis Poder Podr- -an -an Querer Querr- Saber Sabr-
  18. 18. CONDITIONAL The conditional is used to express probability, possibility, wonder or conjecture. Conditional will usually translate as would, could, must have, or probably. When would is used in the sense of a repeated action in the past, the imperfect is used. To conjugate regular –ar, -er, and –ir verbs in the conditional, simply add one of the following to the infinitive:  Ía  Ías  Ía  Íamos  Íais  Ían
  19. 19.  Here are all three regular conditional verb forms together: Hablar Comer Vivir Hablaría Comería Viviría Hablarías Comerías Vivirías Hablaría Comería Viviría Hablaríamos Comeríamos Viviríamos Hablaríais Comeríais Viviríais Hablarían Comerían Vivirían Some specific uses of the conditional tense are:  To express speculation about the past.  To express the future from the perspective of the past.  To express hypothetical actions or events which may or may not occur.  To indicate what would happen if not for a specific circumstance.  For polite use to soften a demand.  To ask for advice.
  20. 20. SUPERLATIVES These phrases say that one item has more or less of a certain quality than another item has.  Más... que  Menos… que When you want to say that something has the most or the least of a certain quality, use a superlative.  El/Los/La/Las más…  El/Los/La/Las menos…Examples:Luis es el más alto.Carmen es la más pequeña.Mercedes es la menos cansada.
  21. 21.  To use a noun with the superlative form, put it after the article.  Luis es el chico más alto. Mercedes es la chica menos cansada.  Juan prepara las comidas más sabrosas. Be sure the adjective matches the noun in both gender and number!
  22. 22. FORMAL COMMANDS Formal commands are used when ordering, or telling someone to do something. This is often referred to as the “imperative” form of the verb.  Compre usted el anillo. : (You) Buy the ring.  Haga usted la tarea. : (You) Do the homework.  Compren ustedes los libros. : (You all) Buy the books. Informal commands are used among friends or people around your age. Formal commands are typically used to be polite or when talking to someone much older than you. If the first person singular (yo) form is irregular, that irregularity is carried over into the formation of the formal command. This also applies to stem- changing verbs.
  23. 23.  The formal commands are formed the same way as present subjunctive.  Start with the yo form of the present indicative.  Then drop the –o ending.  Then add the following endings:  -ar verbs:  -e (for usted), -en (for ustedes)  -er and –ir verbs:  -a (for usted), -an (for ustedes) As the present subjunctive, the following verbs are irregular:  Dar  Estar  Ir  Ser  Saber
  24. 24. PRONOUNS AS OBJECTS OF PREPOSITIONS A pronoun is a word that is used instead of the name of a person or thing.  Ex.: he, him, she, her, they, them As the name implies, subject pronouns are the pronouns to use for the subject of the sentence. When the pronoun acts as the object of a preposition, a different set of pronouns is used. Subject Pronouns Obj. Prep. Nouns Yo Mí Tú Ti Él Él Ella Ella Usted Usted Nosotros/as Nosotros/as Vosotros/as Vosotros/as Ellos/as Ellos/as Ustedes Ustedes
  25. 25.  Use the second set of pronouns to replace the noun that comes immediately after a preposition.  Juan habla de mí. : Juan speaks of me.  Hablo con ellos. : I speak with them.  Pablo compró un anillo para ella. : Pablo bought a ring for her. Whenever mí follows the preposition con, the words combine to form conmigo. Whenever ti follows the preposition con, the words combine to form contigo.
  26. 26. DEMONSTRATIVES When you‟re pointing out specific things, you use demonstrative adjectives and pronouns. Eso, esto, aquello refer to a situation or ideas, not to specific nouns. Accent marks denote pronouns which take the place of a noun. All demonstratives always agree in gender and number in the noun it modifies. Singular Singular Plural Plural Masculine Feminine Masculine Feminine Ese Esa Esos Esas Este Esta Estos Estas Aquel Aquella Aquellos Aquellas
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