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Disorders3

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  • 1. PSYCHOSIS <br />Psychological disorders: Schizophrenia, psychosis, and lifespan development<br />Schalonia Smith<br />University of Phoenix<br />Psychological disorders matrix<br />DSM IV-TR CategoriesDSM IV-TR Sub- CategoriesDescriptionSchizophrenia/ Psychotic DisordersParanoid Schizophrenia (PA)Catatonic Schizophrenia (CA)Disorganized Schizophrenia (DO)Undifferentiated type Schizophrenia (UT)Residual Schizophrenia (RS)Schizophreniform (SF)Schizoaffective (SA)Delusional (DL)Brief Psychotic (BP)Shared Psychotic (SP)PA – common subtype of schizophrenia marked by delusions of magnificence and persecution. CA – “…marked by striking motor disturbances, ranging from muscular rigidity to random motor activity” CITATION Way01 p 593 l 1033 (Weiten, 2001, p. 593)DO – marked by extreme decline in adaptive behaviors CITATION Way01 l 1033 (Weiten, 2001) UT – definite symptoms of schizophrenia that cannot be classified in any other subtype of schizophrenia CITATION Way01 l 1033 (Weiten, 2001). RS – schizophrenic symptoms decline and remain in a ‘resting state’ SF – short term schizophrenia that last longer than a month but ends before six months.SA – psychotic symptoms of schizophrenia accompanied by long term disturbances in mood CITATION Jam07 l 1033 (Butcher, Mineka, & Hooley, 2007). DL – marked by normal behavior accompanied by delusions that are not bizarre; disorganization and loss of adaptive behaviors are not present CITATION Jam07 l 1033 (Butcher, Mineka, & Hooley, 2007)BP – sudden, short lasting psychotic symptoms, disorganized behavior, or catatonic behavior; behaviors last shorter than a month CITATION Jam07 l 1033 (Butcher, Mineka, & Hooley, 2007)SP – delusions that develop after forming a close relationship with a delusional individual; developed delusions correspond with delusions of delusional individual; developed behavior cannot be classified as any other disorder CITATION Jam07 l 1033 (Butcher, Mineka, & Hooley, 2007)Lifespan DevelopmentDisordersMental Retardation (MR)Learning Disabilities (LD)Autistic (AT)Asperger’s (AS)Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity (ADHD)Conduct (CN)Oppositional Defiant (OD)Tourette’s (TR)Separation Anxiety (SA) Alzheimer’s (AZ)Dementia (DM)Delirium (DU) MR – marked by IQ below 70, onset before 18, and considerable inability in adaptive performance CITATION Rob05 l 1033 (Meyer, 2005). LD – “…refers to retardation, disorder, or delayed development, may be manifested in language, speech, mathematical, or motor skills, and it is not due to any reliably demonstrable physical or neurological defect” CITATION Jam07 p 580 l 1033 (Butcher, Mineka, & Hooley, 2007, p. 580).AT – beginning before age 3; marked by inability to relate to environment, “…restricted, repetitive, and stereotyped behaviors; emotional withdrawal; cognitive impairments; and unusual behavioral mannerisms” CITATION Rob05 p 258 l 1033 (Meyer, 2005, p. 258).AS – highly intelligent, educationally developed children who exhibit “…repetition in play, need for routine, and a lack of interest in other children” CITATION Rob05 p 259 l 1033 (Meyer, 2005, p. 259).ADHD – “…Characterized by difficulties that interfere with effective task-oriented behavior in children—particularly impulsivity, excessive or exaggerated motor activity such as aimless or haphazard running or fidgeting, and difficulties in sustaining attention” CITATION Jam07 p 560 l 1033 (Butcher, Mineka, & Hooley, 2007, p. 560). CN – “…persistent, repetitive violation of rules and a disregard for the rights of others” CITATION Jam07 p 563 l 1033 (Butcher, Mineka, & Hooley, 2007, p. 563)OD – “…Marked by negativistic, hostile, and defiant behaviors, often elicited by the attempts by parents or other authority figures to control the behavior of the child or adolescent” CITATION Rob05 p 267 l 1033 (Meyer, 2005, p. 267).TR – “…extreme tic disorder involving multiple motor and vocal patterns” CITATION Jam07 p 574 l 1033 (Butcher, Mineka, & Hooley, 2007, p. 574).SA – “Developmentally inappropriate and excessive anxiety concerning separation from home or from those to whom the individual is attached” CITATION Jam07 p 567 l 1033 (Butcher, Mineka, & Hooley, 2007, p. 567). AZ – “…associated with a characteristic dementia syndrome that has an imperceptible onset and a usually slow but progressively deteriorating course, terminating in delirium and death” CITATION Jam07 p 541 l 1033 (Butcher, Mineka, & Hooley, 2007, p. 541).DM – gradual decline in obtained functioning CITATION Jam07 l 1033 (Butcher, Mineka, & Hooley, 2007). DU – marked by change in cognition that is not related to dementia and disturbance of consciousness that develops over an extremely short period of time CITATION Jam07 l 1033 (Butcher, Mineka, & Hooley, 2007).<br />Psychological disorders: Schizophrenia, psychosis, and lifespan development<br />Of all psychological disorders, schizophrenia, psychosis, and lifespan development disorders seem to attract the most attention. Media and the justice system have a strong role in the attention brought to these disorders. Schizophrenia and psychosis attract attention from the justice system as these disorders often affect individuals to the point they are unable to function in society unless successfully treated. Like schizophrenia and psychosis, lifespan development disorders are not fully understood. As lifespan development disorders are not prejudice, the media and famous individuals have given these disorders and their treatment scores of attention. From a scientific perspective, the need for understanding is great as well. This paper will address what science has discovered about these ‘famous’ psychological disorders so far. <br />Schizophrenia<br />Schizophrenic disorders are characterized by hallucinations, delusional and maladaptive behavior, and disorganized speech CITATION Way01 l 1033 (Weiten, 2001). Other symptoms may include delusions of grandeur or persecution, muscular rigidity, and extreme deterioration of adaptive behavior CITATION Way01 l 1033 (Weiten, 2001). The general population is at about a 1% risk of developing schizophrenia CITATION Jam07 l 1033 (Butcher, Mineka, & Hooley, 2007). However, an individual’s heredity, father’s age at conception, experience of birthing trauma, and environment are suspected to be factors in risk of schizophrenia CITATION Jam07 l 1033 m Way01 (Butcher, Mineka, & Hooley, 2007; Weiten, 2001). According to Butcher, et. al. (2007) “…people whose fathers were older (aged 45–50 years or more) at the time of their birth have two to three times the normal risk of developing schizophrenia when they grow up” CITATION Jam07 p 491 n y l 1033 (p. 491). <br />Genetics and environment appear to have the principal role in developing schizophrenia. Twin studies have shown high concordance rates (48%) for identical twins to develop schizophrenia. “Studies also indicate that a child born to two schizophrenic parents has about a 46% chance of developing a schizophrenic disorder” CITATION Way01 p 595 l 1033 (Weiten, 2001, p. 595). These studies indicate a genetic predisposition for schizophrenia. However, as identical twins do not show 100% concordance rates, twin studies also indicate environment as a key factor in developing schizophrenia. <br />Adoptive studies have also shown the combination of environment and genetic predisposition to be a factor in schizophrenia. <br />It is now considered probable that schizophrenia is genetically complex, with a polygenic (multiple genes) transmission of a vulnerability to the disorder that depends heavily on environmental triggers for expression. This view is supported by the cultural differences in the course of schizophrenia; similar patterns are found in complex, polygenic, environmentally influenced diseases such as diabetes, hypertension, and cancer. CITATION Jam05 p 421 l 1033 (Hansell & Damour, 2005, p. 421)<br />Psychosis<br />Psychosis itself is not a disorder. Instead, psychosis is an extremely debilitating symptom that is present in several different disorders, particularly schizophrenia. Hansell and Damour (2005) describe psychosis as “…a state of being profoundly out of touch with reality” CITATION Jam05 p 393 n y t l 1033 (p. 393). Psychotic individuals may experiences delusions or hallucinations, which are the two commonly known symptoms of schizophrenia. Therefore, schizophrenia and psychosis are closely related. However, psychosis may be present in other disorders including severe mood disorders and personality disorders CITATION Jam05 l 1033 (Hansell & Damour, 2005). <br />There are varying causes of psychosis. Certain dependencies may cause psychosis or psychotic symptoms. Alcohol dependence may cause psychosis when an individual stops drinking. Substance abuse of hallucinogenic or stimulant drugs may cause psychotic symptoms as well. From the medical perspective, if syphilis goes untreated over a period of years the disease may cause psychosis CITATION Mue09 l 1033 (Mueser, 2009). Tumors in the brain can also cause psychosis or psychotic symptoms CITATION Mue09 l 1033 (Mueser, 2009). <br />Conclusion<br />Schizophrenia, psychosis, and lifespan development disorders seem to attract the most attention of the media and the justice system. Schizophrenia and psychosis, lifespan development disorders are not fully understood. There is a strong scientific need for a greater understanding of these disorders, their causes, and possible treatments. <br />References<br /> BIBLIOGRAPHY l 1033 Butcher, J. N., Mineka, S., & Hooley, J. M. (2007). Abnormal Psychology (13th Edition ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.<br />Hansell, J., & Damour, L. (2005). Abnormal Psychology. USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.<br />Meyer, R. G. (2005). Case studies in abnormal behaivor (7th ed.). Boston: Pearson Education, Inc.<br />Mueser, K. T. (2009). Psychosis. Retrieved August 14, 2009, from Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia: http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761562671/Psychosis.html<br />Weiten, W. (2001). Psychology themes and variations (5th ed). Australia: Wadsworth.<br />