Ct church and crusades

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Background presentation on the role of the Church in the Middle Ages in preparation for reading Canterbury Tales

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  • Sidenot: Limbo is no longer recognized by the RCC. According to the pope it was never an official doctrine to begin with, so they have simply clarified that it doesn’t exist
  • IMAGES--shroud of turin, st bernadette
  • IMAGES--shroud of turin, st bernadette
  • IMAGES--shroud of turin, st bernadette
  • IMAGES--shroud of turin, st bernadette
  • IMAGES--shroud of turin, st bernadette
  • In the Orthodox tradition, the line in question reads "We believe in the Holy Spirit ... who proceeds from the Father," while in the Catholic tradition it reads "We believe in the Holy Spirit ... who proceeds from the Father and the Son."
  • 1378--Pope Gregory XI--moved back to Rome, then died Argument arose as to proper seat Some reports claim that the Cardinals who met to elect new pope were held hostage and forced to elect French pope--others claim the Cardinals simply changed their minds because the pope they elected didn’t turn out so well Either way, they reconvened to elect a Roman pope This threw all of Europe into an uproar England sent diplomatic emmisaries to Rome and Avignon to encourage a fix-- included Chaucer A Church Council convened in 1408 further complicated the problem by electing a third pope 1417--finally ends with the abdication of the French pope
  • Temple - Destroyed and rebuilt twice - both were seen as punishments by God for the sins of the Jewish people
  • Requirements for Jihad. (http://www.allianceforsecurity.org/jihad)
  • Ct church and crusades

    1. 1. ROLE OF THE CHURCH <ul><li>Two swords of God </li></ul><ul><li>Pope and King—his representatives on earth </li></ul><ul><li>Church saw itself above Kings </li></ul><ul><li>Kings always trying to assert his authority over church and vice versa </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many upper level religious posts were filled by aristocratic sons/daughters whose wealthy parents “bought” the post </li></ul></ul>
    2. 2. Great Chain of Being <ul><li>Hierarchy of all things. </li></ul><ul><li>Your place in the chain determines your distance from God. </li></ul><ul><li>Within each level, there are further breakdowns </li></ul><ul><ul><li>King  lords  knights  peasants (freemen  serfs) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Men  women  male children  female children </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Horses above Dogs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pure breeds above half breeds </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Not entirely lineal—religious ranks paralleled secular ranks in many ways </li></ul><ul><li>Trying to change your place upsets the chain </li></ul><ul><li>Idea: if everyone stays in his or her place, life will be perfect </li></ul>
    3. 3. Christian Beliefs <ul><li>Believed the second coming of Christ was imminent </li></ul><ul><li>people were focused on the afterlife. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the world that man lived in now was unimportant in comparison to the world to come </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Christian Beliefs <ul><li>Fear of Judgement day </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on sins vs. virtue, but it was often more of a “guideline” than a rule. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The belief was always that Christ’s death on the cross absolved people from sin, as long as they were repentant for those sins. </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Christian Beliefs <ul><li>Repentance required reparation of sins </li></ul><ul><ul><li>making up for the sin through charitable deeds, prayers, vigils, fasting, virtuous teaching </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>increasingly became a monetary-dispensations/indulgences </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Limbo: for righteous non-christians and unbaptized babies </li></ul><ul><li>Purgatory: If people die with sins on their soul, they must be “purged” of their sins here </li></ul><ul><li>Hell: for unrepentant sinners </li></ul>
    6. 6. Christian Beliefs <ul><li>fear of punishment kept people close to the church </li></ul><ul><li>confession </li></ul>
    7. 7. Corruption in the Church <ul><li>Selling of dispensations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An exemption from a law or doctrine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Essentially a forgiveness for sin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Formal document issued by the pope </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Corruption in the Church <ul><li>Relics - a piece of the body or a personal item of a saint </li></ul><ul><li>Corrupt people would show off the “relics” at a price, but there was no way of determining if the relics were real </li></ul><ul><li>In the Canterbury Tales, the pardoner is carrying questionable relics </li></ul>
    9. 9. Modern Relics <ul><li>St. Bernadette of Lourdes </li></ul>
    10. 10. Modern Relics <ul><li>The Shroud of Turin </li></ul>
    11. 11. Great Schism (Eastern)--1054 <ul><li>Separation of Eastern Orthodox Church from Western Catholic Church </li></ul><ul><li>Disagreement over the true seat of church </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rome </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Constantinople </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disagreement over key lines in the Nicene Creed </li></ul><ul><li>The disagreement weakened peoples’ faith in the Church as an authoritative source of God’s Word </li></ul>
    12. 12. Papal Schism (Western)--1378 <ul><li>1309--Seat of RCC moved to Avignon, France </li></ul><ul><li>1378--Cardinals attempt to elect a Roman pope but are “forced” to elect a French pope. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They contested the election, reconvened and elected a Roman pope </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two popes (one in Avignon, one in Rome) until 1417 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A church council tried to fix it by electing a different pope (which made three) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Further weakened peoples’ faith in the church </li></ul>
    13. 13. Pilgrimage <ul><li>Destination: holy places </li></ul><ul><li>taken for religious purposes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>to repent for their sins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to ask to be cured of an ailment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>or to offer thanks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Canterbury Tales--on Road from Southwark to the Canterbury Cathedral </li></ul>
    14. 14. Thomas A’Becket <ul><li>Archbishop of Canterbury </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Head of Church in England </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Childhood friend of King Henry II </li></ul><ul><li>Archbishop of York sided with the king against the pope (a sin in the eyes of the church) </li></ul><ul><li>Becket asked the pope to excommunicate York </li></ul><ul><li>Henry - furious </li></ul><ul><li>“ will no one rid me of this meddlesome priest?” </li></ul>
    15. 15. Crusades
    16. 16. Importance of Jerusalem <ul><li>Judaism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Abraham almost sacrificed his son in obedience to God </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>King David built first temple here </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Destroyed and rebuilt twice </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Christianity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Judaism is the root of Christianity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also the location of Christ’s crucifixion on the cross </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. Importance of Jerusalem <ul><li>Islam </li></ul><ul><li>Where Mohammed ascended to Heaven </li></ul><ul><li>same location as the near-sacrifice </li></ul><ul><li>“ Dome of the Rock” </li></ul>
    18. 18. Crusades begin <ul><li>The Turks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>had begun to conquer Muslim lands, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>converted to Islam </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>began to persecute Jews and Christians </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Christian leaders in Middle East appealed to the pope for help </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pope Urban II saw the situation as a chance to bring the Holy city under Christian control. He called for a holy crusade in 1095 </li></ul></ul>
    19. 19. First Crusade <ul><li>1099—thousands of knights took up the call </li></ul><ul><li>Once the crusaders overtook the city, they slaughtered thousands of Jews and Muslims </li></ul><ul><li>Many knights stayed to guard the land and built castles </li></ul>
    20. 20. Crusades <ul><li>1144—Muslims regained Jerusalem </li></ul><ul><li>1147—second crusade driven out by Muslims </li></ul><ul><li>Over 12 crusades, but none of them successfully recaptured the city. </li></ul><ul><li>Even a Children’s Crusade—50,000 children </li></ul><ul><ul><li>most slaughtered or captured and sold as slaves (pied piper) </li></ul></ul>
    21. 21. The Crusades <ul><li>Over all the Crusades failed to achieve their purpose </li></ul><ul><li>BUT… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strengthened the church </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>People fighting and sacrificing for the faith </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>helped trade and economy grow. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Knights experienced the lifestyle of the middle east and brought desire for those goods back home with them. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They helped to end feudalism. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>People tired of taxation </li></ul></ul></ul>

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