The concept ofThe concept of interpersonalinterpersonal
relationshipsrelationships involvesinvolves socialsocial associations,associations,
connections, orconnections, or affiliationsaffiliations between two orbetween two or
more people.more people.
Such persons maySuch persons may interactinteract overtly, covertly,overtly, covertly,
face-to-face; or may remain effectivelyface-to-face; or may remain effectively
unknown to each otherunknown to each other
Over 90% of all failed relationships resultOver 90% of all failed relationships result
from a lack of honest communication andfrom a lack of honest communication and
The ultimate source of interpersonalThe ultimate source of interpersonal
relationship inrelationship in
intrapersonal communicationintrapersonal communication..
What lies within each person and howWhat lies within each person and how
each person communicates internallyeach person communicates internally
provides the source ofprovides the source of meaningmeaning, of, of
self-definitionself-definition and of self-presentationand of self-presentation
in interpersonal relationships.in interpersonal relationships.
Stages in interpersonal relationshipStages in interpersonal relationship
1) Contact:1) Contact:
a) Perceptual: noticing how parties look at eacha) Perceptual: noticing how parties look at each
other and theirother and their body-languagebody-language..
b) Interactional cues: nodding, maintainingb) Interactional cues: nodding, maintaining
eye-contacteye-contact, etc., etc.
c) Invitational: encouraging the potential relationshipc) Invitational: encouraging the potential relationship
(for example, suggesting a later meeting involving(for example, suggesting a later meeting involving
somesome social lubricantsocial lubricant such as coffee)such as coffee)
d) Avoidance strategies: if one person discloses andd) Avoidance strategies: if one person discloses and
the other does not: minimal response, lack of eye-the other does not: minimal response, lack of eye-
contact, etc.contact, etc.
2) Involvement:2) Involvement:
a) Feelers: hints or questions (for example: askinga) Feelers: hints or questions (for example: asking
about family)about family)
b) Intensifyingb) Intensifying strategiesstrategies: furthering the: furthering the
relationship (for example meeting an old friend,relationship (for example meeting an old friend,
bringing the other to meet family, becomingbringing the other to meet family, becoming
moremore affectionateaffectionate, etc.), etc.)
c) Public: parties seen in public together often (ifc) Public: parties seen in public together often (if
in a romantic relationship, may involve holdingin a romantic relationship, may involve holding
3)3) IntimacyIntimacy: parties very close; may have exchanged some: parties very close; may have exchanged some
sort of personal belonging or something that representssort of personal belonging or something that represents
furtherfurther commitmentcommitment. (For example, a. (For example, a promise ringpromise ring in ain a
romantic relationship or aromantic relationship or a friendship-necklacefriendship-necklace identifyingidentifying
two people astwo people as best friendsbest friends))
4) Deterioration: things start to fall apart. In a romantic4) Deterioration: things start to fall apart. In a romantic
relationship, typically after approximately six months,relationship, typically after approximately six months,
people move out of the so-called "honeymoon stage",people move out of the so-called "honeymoon stage",
NRENRE, or, or limerencelimerence and start to notice flaws. The wayand start to notice flaws. The way
they address this determines the fate of the relationship.they address this determines the fate of the relationship.
Phases of IP in NursingPhases of IP in Nursing
Pre interaction phasePre interaction phase
Orientation phaseOrientation phase
Working phaseWorking phase
Terminal phaseTerminal phase
The Nurse and the physicianThe Nurse and the physician
The head nurse/departmental sisterThe head nurse/departmental sister
To her fellow nurseTo her fellow nurse
To other hospital personalTo other hospital personal
The nurse and the clientThe nurse and the client
Barriers of IPBarriers of IP
Physical barriersPhysical barriers
Cultural beliefCultural belief
Purpose of IPPurpose of IP
To learn about self, about the societyTo learn about self, about the society
To establish and maintain relationshipsTo establish and maintain relationships
To alleviate lonelinessTo alleviate loneliness
To influence, control and directTo influence, control and direct
Helps for diversionHelps for diversion
Help to meet the needs of othersHelp to meet the needs of others
Gain confidence and satisfactionGain confidence and satisfaction
Provides intellectual and emotional bond anyProvides intellectual and emotional bond any
other peopleother people
Types of interpersonal relationshipsTypes of interpersonal relationships
KinshipKinship relationships (includingrelationships (including familyfamily
relationships) involve relating to someone else:relationships) involve relating to someone else:
genetically (genetically (consanguinityconsanguinity, as for example in, as for example in
fatherhood, motherhood)fatherhood, motherhood)
throughthrough marriagemarriage ((affinityaffinity, as for example as a, as for example as a
father-in-law, mother-in-law, uncle by marriage, auntfather-in-law, mother-in-law, uncle by marriage, aunt
by marriage)by marriage)
FormalizedFormalized intimate relationshipsintimate relationships oror
long-term relationshipslong-term relationships recognized byrecognized by lawlaw and formalizedand formalized
through publicthrough public ceremonyceremony (for example, the relationships of(for example, the relationships of
marriagemarriage and ofand of civil unioncivil union))
Non-formalizedNon-formalized intimate relationshipsintimate relationships oror
long-term relationshipslong-term relationships such assuch as lovingloving relationships orrelationships or
romantic relationships with or withoutromantic relationships with or without living togetherliving together; with; with
the "other person" often calledthe "other person" often called loverlover,, boyfriendboyfriend oror girlfriendgirlfriend
(as distinct from(as distinct from justjust a male or female friend), or "a male or female friend), or "
significant othersignificant other".".
If the partners live together, the relationship may resembleIf the partners live together, the relationship may resemble
marriage, with the parties possibly called "marriage, with the parties possibly called "husbandhusband" and "" and "
Long-term relationships in other countries canLong-term relationships in other countries can
become known asbecome known as common-law marriagescommon-law marriages,,
although they may have no special status in law.although they may have no special status in law.
The termThe term mistressmistress may refer in a somewhat old-may refer in a somewhat old-
fashioned way to a female lover of an alreadyfashioned way to a female lover of an already
married or unmarried man.married or unmarried man.
A mistress may have the status of an "officialA mistress may have the status of an "official
SoulmatesSoulmates, individuals intimately drawn to one another, individuals intimately drawn to one another
through a favorable "through a favorable "meeting of mindsmeeting of minds" and who find" and who find
mutual acceptance and/or understanding with onemutual acceptance and/or understanding with one
another. Soulmates may feel themselves bonded togetheranother. Soulmates may feel themselves bonded together
for a lifetime; and hence may becomefor a lifetime; and hence may become sexual partnerssexual partners ——
but not necessarily.but not necessarily.
Casual relationshipsCasual relationships, sexual relationships extending, sexual relationships extending
beyond "beyond "one-night standsone-night stands" that exclusively consist of" that exclusively consist of
sexual behaviorsexual behavior; one can label the participants as "; one can label the participants as "
friends with benefitsfriends with benefits" when limited to considering" when limited to considering
sexual intercoursesexual intercourse, or regard them as, or regard them as sexual partnerssexual partners in ain a
wider sense.wider sense.
Platonic lovePlatonic love, an affectionate relationship into, an affectionate relationship into
which the sexual element does not enter,which the sexual element does not enter,
especially in cases where one might easilyespecially in cases where one might easily
assume otherwise.assume otherwise.
FriendshipFriendship, which consists of mutual, which consists of mutual lovelove, trust,, trust,
respect, and (often unconditional) acceptance;respect, and (often unconditional) acceptance;
and usually implies the discovery orand usually implies the discovery or
establishment of common ground between theestablishment of common ground between the
individuals involved; see alsoindividuals involved; see also internet friendshipinternet friendship
BrotherhoodBrotherhood andand sisterhoodsisterhood: individuals united in: individuals united in
a common cause or having a common interest,a common cause or having a common interest,
which may involve formal membership in awhich may involve formal membership in a clubclub,,
organizationorganization,, associationassociation,, societysociety, lodge, fraternity, lodge, fraternity
or sorority.or sorority.
This type of interpersonal relationship relates toThis type of interpersonal relationship relates to
the comradeship/camaraderie of fellow soldiers inthe comradeship/camaraderie of fellow soldiers in
peace or war.peace or war.
Partners or co-workers in aPartners or co-workers in a professionprofession,, businessbusiness,,
or a common workplace. Compareor a common workplace. Compare teamteam..
Participation in aParticipation in a communitycommunity, for example, a, for example, a
community of interestcommunity of interest oror practicepractice..
Association, simply knowing someone byAssociation, simply knowing someone by
introduction or knowing someone byintroduction or knowing someone by