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Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006,
Captura y digitalización de imágenes y da...
UNAM
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Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006,
Captura y digitalización de imágenes y da...
UNAM
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Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006,
Captura y digitalización de imágenes y da...
UNAM
MEDIATECA
Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006,
Captura y digitalización de imágenes y da...
UNAM
MEDIATECA
Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006,
Captura y digitalización de imágenes y da...
UNAM
MEDIATECA
Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006,
Captura y digitalización de imágenes y da...
UNAM
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Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006,
Captura y digitalización de imágenes y da...
UNAM
MEDIATECA
Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006,
Captura y digitalización de imágenes y da...
UNAM
MEDIATECA
Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006,
Captura y digitalización de imágenes y da...
UNAM
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Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006,
Captura y digitalización de imágenes y da...
UNAM
MEDIATECA
Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006,
Captura y digitalización de imágenes y da...
UNAM
MEDIATECA
Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006,
Captura y digitalización de imágenes y da...
UNAM
MEDIATECA
Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006,
Captura y digitalización de imágenes y da...
UNAM
MEDIATECA
Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006,
Captura y digitalización de imágenes y da...
UNAM
MEDIATECA
Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006,
Captura y digitalización de imágenes y da...
UNAM
MEDIATECA
Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006,
Captura y digitalización de imágenes y da...
UNAM
MEDIATECA
Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006,
Captura y digitalización de imágenes y da...
UNAM
MEDIATECA
Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006,
Captura y digitalización de imágenes y da...
UNAM
MEDIATECA
Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006,
Captura y digitalización de imágenes y da...
UNAM
MEDIATECA
Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006,
Captura y digitalización de imágenes y da...
UNAM
MEDIATECA
Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006,
Captura y digitalización de imágenes y da...
UNAM
MEDIATECA
Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006,
Captura y digitalización de imágenes y da...
UNAM
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Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006,
Captura y digitalización de imágenes y da...
UNAM
MEDIATECA
Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006,
Captura y digitalización de imágenes y da...
UNAM
MEDIATECA
Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006,
Captura y digitalización de imágenes y da...
UNAM
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Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006,
Captura y digitalización de imágenes y da...
UNAM
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Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006,
Captura y digitalización de imágenes y da...
UNAM
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Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006,
Captura y digitalización de imágenes y da...
UNAM
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Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006,
Captura y digitalización de imágenes y da...
UNAM
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Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006,
Captura y digitalización de imágenes y da...
UNAM
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Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006,
Captura y digitalización de imágenes y da...
UNAM
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Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006,
Captura y digitalización de imágenes y da...
UNAM
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Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006,
Captura y digitalización de imágenes y da...
UNAM
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Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006,
Captura y digitalización de imágenes y da...
UNAM
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Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006,
Captura y digitalización de imágenes y da...
UNAM
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Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006,
Captura y digitalización de imágenes y da...
UNAM
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Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006,
Captura y digitalización de imágenes y da...
UNAM
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Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006,
Captura y digitalización de imágenes y da...
UNAM
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Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006,
Captura y digitalización de imágenes y da...
UNAM
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Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006,
Captura y digitalización de imágenes y da...
UNAM
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Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006,
Captura y digitalización de imágenes y da...
UNAM
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Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006,
Captura y digitalización de imágenes y da...
UNAM
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Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006,
Captura y digitalización de imágenes y da...
UNAM
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Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006,
Captura y digitalización de imágenes y da...
UNAM
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Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006,
Captura y digitalización de imágenes y da...
UNAM
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Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006,
Captura y digitalización de imágenes y da...
UNAM
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Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006,
Captura y digitalización de imágenes y da...
Comprensión de lectura para arquitectos
Comprensión de lectura para arquitectos
Comprensión de lectura para arquitectos
Comprensión de lectura para arquitectos
Comprensión de lectura para arquitectos
Comprensión de lectura para arquitectos
Comprensión de lectura para arquitectos
Comprensión de lectura para arquitectos
Comprensión de lectura para arquitectos
Comprensión de lectura para arquitectos
Comprensión de lectura para arquitectos
Comprensión de lectura para arquitectos
Comprensión de lectura para arquitectos
Comprensión de lectura para arquitectos
Comprensión de lectura para arquitectos
Comprensión de lectura para arquitectos
Comprensión de lectura para arquitectos
Comprensión de lectura para arquitectos
Comprensión de lectura para arquitectos
Comprensión de lectura para arquitectos
Comprensión de lectura para arquitectos
Comprensión de lectura para arquitectos
Comprensión de lectura para arquitectos
Comprensión de lectura para arquitectos
Comprensión de lectura para arquitectos
Comprensión de lectura para arquitectos
Comprensión de lectura para arquitectos
Comprensión de lectura para arquitectos
Comprensión de lectura para arquitectos
Comprensión de lectura para arquitectos
Comprensión de lectura para arquitectos
Comprensión de lectura para arquitectos
Comprensión de lectura para arquitectos
Comprensión de lectura para arquitectos
Comprensión de lectura para arquitectos
Comprensión de lectura para arquitectos
Comprensión de lectura para arquitectos
Comprensión de lectura para arquitectos
Comprensión de lectura para arquitectos
Comprensión de lectura para arquitectos
Comprensión de lectura para arquitectos
Comprensión de lectura para arquitectos
Comprensión de lectura para arquitectos
Comprensión de lectura para arquitectos
Comprensión de lectura para arquitectos
Comprensión de lectura para arquitectos
Comprensión de lectura para arquitectos
Comprensión de lectura para arquitectos
Comprensión de lectura para arquitectos
Comprensión de lectura para arquitectos
Comprensión de lectura para arquitectos
Comprensión de lectura para arquitectos
Comprensión de lectura para arquitectos
Comprensión de lectura para arquitectos
Comprensión de lectura para arquitectos
Comprensión de lectura para arquitectos
Comprensión de lectura para arquitectos
Comprensión de lectura para arquitectos
Comprensión de lectura para arquitectos
Comprensión de lectura para arquitectos
Comprensión de lectura para arquitectos
Comprensión de lectura para arquitectos
Comprensión de lectura para arquitectos
Comprensión de lectura para arquitectos
Comprensión de lectura para arquitectos
Comprensión de lectura para arquitectos
Comprensión de lectura para arquitectos
Comprensión de lectura para arquitectos
Comprensión de lectura para arquitectos
Comprensión de lectura para arquitectos
Comprensión de lectura para arquitectos
Comprensión de lectura para arquitectos
Comprensión de lectura para arquitectos
Comprensión de lectura para arquitectos
Comprensión de lectura para arquitectos
Comprensión de lectura para arquitectos
Comprensión de lectura para arquitectos
Comprensión de lectura para arquitectos
Comprensión de lectura para arquitectos
Comprensión de lectura para arquitectos
Comprensión de lectura para arquitectos
Comprensión de lectura para arquitectos
Comprensión de lectura para arquitectos
Comprensión de lectura para arquitectos
Comprensión de lectura para arquitectos
Comprensión de lectura para arquitectos
Comprensión de lectura para arquitectos
Comprensión de lectura para arquitectos
Comprensión de lectura para arquitectos
Comprensión de lectura para arquitectos
Comprensión de lectura para arquitectos
Comprensión de lectura para arquitectos
Comprensión de lectura para arquitectos
Comprensión de lectura para arquitectos
Comprensión de lectura para arquitectos
Comprensión de lectura para arquitectos
Comprensión de lectura para arquitectos
Comprensión de lectura para arquitectos
Comprensión de lectura para arquitectos
Comprensión de lectura para arquitectos
Comprensión de lectura para arquitectos
Comprensión de lectura para arquitectos
Comprensión de lectura para arquitectos
Comprensión de lectura para arquitectos
Comprensión de lectura para arquitectos
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Transcript of "Comprensión de lectura para arquitectos"

  1. 1. UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Ficha introductoria COMPRENSIÓN DE LECTURA PARA ARQUITECTOS ¡Hola! Bienvenido a la carpeta de “Comprensión de Lectura para Arquitectos.” En esta ficha te voy a describir brevemente los objetivos, contenidos e ideas de uso de la carpeta para que puedas utilizarla con mayor eficacia. Comencemos por decir que los contenidos pueden ser consultados por cualquier estudiante de inglés con conocimientos básicos del idioma, es decir, cualquier estudiante con ganas de mejorar su comprensión de textos en inglés. El objetivo de este compendio es que conforme realices los ejercicios que acompañan a las lecturas conozcas las estrategias y desarrolles habilidades que te ayuden a entender mejor un texto en inglés. Los materiales que vas a leer son textos auténticos1 de áreas relacionadas con la arquitectura, el diseño, el arte y la cultura general; a partir de los cuales podrás resolver diferentes tipos de ejercicios, tanto de comprensión de lectura (CL), como de gramática y vocabulario. El contenido de la carpeta se divide en: introducción, plan de trabajo, 6 capítulos y 4 apéndices. En los 6 capítulos encontrarás: A. Textos auténticos con ejercicios para practicar estrategias de CL B. Textos auténticos con ejercicios para practicar gramática (referencia contextual, conectores y voz pasiva) C. Ejercicios del libro Windows to Culture I para practicar estrategias de CL D. Ejercicios de gramática aplicada a la lectura del libro Grammar and the Meaning of Language: a Reading course for economics and accounting students. E. Claves de respuesta a los ejercicios de las secciones A y B (textos auténticos) F. Claves de respuesta a los ejercicios de las secciones C y D (libros de texto) En los tres apéndices encontrarás: a. Explicaciones en inglés sobre la estructura del lenguaje: qué es un enunciado, los sustantivos, los pronombres y sus referentes, verbos (partes y tiempos), los adjetivos, los adverbios, preposiciones, etc. b. Una lista de los anexos o conectores más comunes en inglés, agrupados por categorías y con su significado en español. c. Una lista de los verbos irregulares más comunes en inglés, con la conjugación de sus tres partes principales: infinitivo, pasado simple, pasado participio y su significado en español. d. Las bibliografías y referencias electrónicas a los materiales utilizados en la carpeta. Conviene aclarar que todos los textos y ejercicios han sido reproducidos con fines educativos y para uso interno de la Facultad de Arquitectura. 1 Por “textos auténticos” me refiero a documentos que han sido publicados en inglés, en publicaciones dirigidas a angloparlantes; y no material que hubiera sido preparado para estudiantes del idioma.
  2. 2. UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Ficha introductoria PLAN DE TRABAJO Hay muchas posibilidades para consultar esta carpeta: una es crear tu propio orden según te interesen los temas de los textos o las actividades: también puedes seguir la secuencia natural de los capítulos, o bien puedes intentar la siguiente alternativa: Sección Texto/ Actividad Sugerencias 1 C Resuelve la unidad 3 “Books, Books, Books.” Identifica palabras clave en los contenidos de los libros En un texto de tu elección, practica identificar frases a partir de los artículos (a, an, the) y los sustantivos 2 A Lee el texto “Sevan Monastery” y resuelve la actividad. 3 C Resuelve la unidad 2 “Eleven Plays of the Greek Dramatists 4 A Lee y resuelve la actividad sobre el texto “Zaha Hadid Pritzker Prize Consulta otras paginas electrònicas relacionadas con tu área profesional en las computadoras de la Mediateca. 5 C Resuelve la unida 4 “Using the Dictionary” Asiste al taller sobre uso del diccionario, que se imparte semestralmente en tu Mediateca. 6 D Lee y resuleve la actividad 7 de las pp. 34 - 35 Practica identificar los verbos y tiempos de conjugación en un texto autèntico que tu elijas. 7 E Resuelve la actividad del texto “Photography and the War” 8 B Resuelve la actividad del texto sobre diseño industrial “The new game in Design” Practica identificar pronombres y referentes en otros textos utilizando marcadores de colores. 9 A Resulve la actividad del texto “Rewards of Unbuildinf” Practica las diferentes estrategias de vocabulario en otros textos de tu elección. 10 B Resuelve las actividades de los textos “design various” Estudia la lista de conectores en el apéndice. Estudia la voz pasiva en los métodos (p.e. New Interchange 3) 11 A Lee y resuelve las actividades de los textos: “Houses for the Future - Now” y “Keeping it Real-And Real Small” Identifica en la lectura los verbos en voz pasiva que encuentres 12 D Resuelve la actividad de la Practica la estrategia en un texto que tu
  3. 3. UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Ficha introductoria unidad 12 “oraciones simples y complejas: su estructura” elijas. 13 A Resuelve la actividad del texto “Who are the Great Woman Artists?” Aplica esta misma estrategia a otro texto de tu interés. 14 D Resuelve la actividad de la unidad 16 “términos generales y especificidades” Practica realizar diagramas a partir de textos descriptivos o teóricos de arquitectura. 15 A Lee y resuelve las actividades del texto “Constructivism” Identifica los conectores y piensa sobre la manera en que relacionan la información del texto. La lectura es un proceso mágico, a partir del cual comprendemos ideas que antes no nos imaginábamos, adquirimos conocimientos nuevos, y logramos comunicarnos con autores que quizá nunca conoceríamos de otra forma. Leer es un hábito que una vez iniciado no se puede evitar y que puede llenar tu vida de inmensas dichas y placeres. Disfruta resolver los ejercicios de esta carpeta y recuerda que como cualquier otra habilidad, la comprensión de lectura necesita de mucha práctica para poder dominarla. ¡Buena suerte!
  4. 4. UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Índice INDICE CAPÍTULO A Textos auténticos con ejercicios para practicar estrategias de Comprension de Lectura-- 7 Sevan Monastery --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 8 Zaha Hadid Pritzker Prize --------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 10 Photography and the war -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 19 Rewards of Unbuilding ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 25 Houses of the Future – Now ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- 30 ¿Who are the great women artists?------------------------------------------------------------------- 37 Constructivism----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 45 CAPÍTULO B Textos autenticos con Ejercicios para practicar gramatica --------------------------------------- 54 The New Game in Design--------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 55 Design Various----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 57 CAPÍTULO C: Ejercicios de Comprension de Lectura ----------------------------------------------------------------- 59 Eleven Plays of the Greek Dramatists ----------------------------------------------------------------- 60 Books, books, books --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 63 Using the dictionary-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------69 CAPÍTULO D: Ejercicios de Gramática aplicada a la Lectura -------------------------------------------------------- 74 CAPÍTULO E: Claves de respuesta a los Ejercicios de las Secciones A y B--------------------------------------- 86 Texto: Sevan Monastery ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 87 Texto: Zaha Hadid Pritzker Prize ----------------------------------------------------------------------- 88 Texto: Photography and the War---------------------------------------------------------------------- 91 Texto: Rewards of Unbuilding -------------------------------------------------------------------------- 97 Texto: Houses for the Future - Now ------------------------------------------------------------------- 99 Texto:¿Who are the Great Women Artists?--------------------------------------------------------102 Texto: Constructivism ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------104 Texto: The New Game in Design ----------------------------------------------------------------------106 Texto: Design Various-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------107 CAPÍTULO F Claves de respuesta a los Ejercicios de la sección D-----------------------------------------------109
  5. 5. UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Índice APÉNDICE A. Explicaciones sobre Estructura del Lenguaje --------------------------------------------------------113 Sentences -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------114 Nouns----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------116 Pronouns ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------117 Verbs-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------119 Adjectives ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------122 Adverbs--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------123 Prepositions --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------124 Conjunctions--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------125 Interjections --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------126 Verbals---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------126 Phrases and clauses -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------126 Capitalization-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------128 Troublesome words -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------129 Easily confused verb pairs----------------------------------------------------------------------------------130 Pronouns ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------131 Adjectives -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------132 Adverbs--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------132 Prepositions --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------133 Agreement----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------134 APÉNDICE B. Conectores o nexos ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------136 APÉNDICE C. Verbos Irregulares Comunes-----------------------------------------------------------------------------139 APÉNDICE D. Referencias y bibliografía---------------------------------------------------------------------------------151
  6. 6. UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Capítulo A 7 CAPÍTULO A Textos auténticos con ejercicios para practicar estrategias de Comprensión de Lectura
  7. 7. UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Capítulo A 8 Sevan Monastery (Sewan, Sevan Lichi) Lake Sevan, Sevan region, Republic of Armenia 9th Century AA Vol. 2, Fiche # 059-062. The Church of S.Astvatsatsin (Mother of God) and the smaller Church of S.Arakelots (Holy Apostles, later S.Karapet) are both located on a peninsula which was once an island in Lake Sevan (approx. coord. 40-35/ 45-00). According to an inscription on the south wall of the Church of S.Arakelots, the monastery was founded in 874 AD and it is attributed to Princess Mariam, the wife of Prince Vasak of Kapur and the daughter of the Bagratuni King Asot. For several centuries thereafter it remained an important spiritual center and was a pilgrimage site for thousands of visitors from all parts of Armenia. Today, the monastery consists of only the two churches and a ruined gavit which are all situated on the southwest side if a hill overlooking Lake Sevan. The Church of S.Arakelots has a trefoil inscribed within a cross type plan surmounted by a conical dome. The entrance portal is framed by and arch located on the southwest side. A short distance to the southeast is the Church of S.Astvatsatsin which was built in a similar fashion immediately after the completion of S.Arakelots. However, S.Astvatsatsin has some additional chapel and chamber spaces and has a somewhat wider plan.The ruined gavit, located to the west of S.Astvatsatsin has been dated to the 9th or 10th century and was comprised of a square space over which an erdik (corbelled lantern or dome) was supported by a pair of wooden piers.
  8. 8. UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Capítulo A 9 Texto: Sevan monastery Fuente: www.lib.rpi.edu/dept/library/html/ArmArch/Sev.html Características: 1p (una columna) con ilustraciones Dificultad: básico Objetivo: practicar pre-lectura y estrategias de vocabulario: repetición. Cambios tipográficos y adivinar en contexto. I. Observa el título del texto, su longitud y las imágenes que lo acompañan. Notarás que en el texto hay algunos espacios vacios. Por lo general, cuando leemos no necesitamos conocer todas las palabras del mismo para tener una idea de lo que se trata. Por lo que si alcanzas a leer, ¿de que crees que va a tratar la lectura? II. Lee el texto y completa los espacios en blanco con algunas de las siguientes palabras III. Haz una lectura rápida y a continuación responde las preguntas. a. ¿Dónde se localiza la Iglesia de S. Astvatsatsin? b. ¿A quién se atribuye la fundación del monasterio? c. ¿Qué información se obtiene sobre el portal de la entrada? d. ¿Cuáles son dos diferencias entre la Iglesia a S. Astvatsatsin y la de S. Arakelots? e. ¿Qué explicación da el texto sobre la palabra “erdik”? Apéndice: Glosario En el texto probablemente haya muchas palabras que desconozcas, para agilizar tu lectura a continuación hay un listado de términos inglés / español. English Español English Español Church Iglesia Hill Colina Both Ambas Surmounted Coronado According to Según, de acuerdo a Framed Enmarcado Was founded Fue fundado Was built Fue construida Centuries Siglos Chapel Capilla Pilgrimage Peregrinación Wider Más amplio
  9. 9. UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Capítulo A 10 Zaha Hadid Pritzker Prize
  10. 10. UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Capítulo A 11
  11. 11. UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Capítulo A 12
  12. 12. UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Capítulo A 13
  13. 13. UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Capítulo A 14
  14. 14. UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Capítulo A 15
  15. 15. UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Capítulo A 16 Texto: Zaha Hadid Pritzker Prize Fuente: www.architectureweek.com/2004/0414/news_2-1.html Características: 4p (una columna) con publicidad e ilustraciones Dificultad: básico Objetivo: practicar pre-lectura, vocabulario y lectura detallada I. Pre lectura: a. Familiarización: antes de empezar a leer un texto, es importante realizar una lectura de familiarización. El artículo que vas a leer se obtuvo de una publicación electrónica. Observa las características físicas del texto y completa la siguiente información. ¿Cuál es el titulo? ¿Como son las imágenes? ¿Que información entiendes de los pies de foto? ¿Hay subtítulos? ¿Hay cuadros de texto? ¿De donde obtuvo el artículo? ¿Estas familiarizado con esta publicación? b. Vocabulario Observa el diseño de la pàgina y di a què se refieren las siguientes frases: News/ design/ building/ design tolos/ enviroment/ cultura/ current contents/ classic home/ competitions/ conferences/ events & exhibits/ architecture/ fórum/ architects directory/ architecture books/ library & archive/ web directory/ marketplace/ about Archweek/ search/ subscribe & Contribute/ newsletter Free/ PopQuiz Lee la primera parte del artículo (hoja 1) rápidamente, no te detengas hasta terminar un párrafo. Conforme lo haces, identifica palabras clave que te ayuden a entender el significado del texto: Estrategia Explicación Ejemplo Cognados Palabras transparentes del inglés al español President = presidente Cambios tipográficos Palabras mayúsculas, cursivas, negritas, subrayadas, entre comillas, siglas, con guiones Iraqi – born= nacida en Irak
  16. 16. UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Capítulo A 17 II. Lectura detallada: a. Responde a las siguientes proposiciones como falso y verdadero, ubica en el texto la información que te dio la pauta. 1. Zaha Hadid ha construido poco, pero sus ideas le han valido gran fama y un futuro prometedor. 2. Para el 2004 ya había desarrollado proyectos en Alemania, Italia y Francia. 3. Según el autor del artículo, tanto en la teoría como en la práctica. Zaha es “modernista.” 4. En 2002 Zaha fue nombrada Miembro Honorario de la Academia Americana de Artes y Letras. 5. El jurado del premio descubrió su obra, entre otras cosas, como escandalosa 6. Según Frank Gehry, a pesar de su juventud Zaha tiene una de las trayectorias arquitectónicas más exitosas e innovadoras. 7. Hace 25 años, Zaha construyó su carrera desafiando las convenciones. 8. Para Jorge Silvetti, las manipulaciones que Zaha hace de los elementos y espacios arquitectónicos son prueba de que la arquitectura puede ser un arte. Números Fechas y cantidades 2004 = fecha en que se otorgó el premio Palabras repetidas Sustantivos, verbos, adjetivos Work = trabajo, obra Morfología de la palabra Afijos (prefijos y sufijos) Palabras compuestas Familia de palabras British = británico Chairman = presidente Architects = (n) arquitectos Architecture = (n) arquitectura Architectural = (adj) Arquitectónico Palabras que buscar en el diccionario Palabras cuyo significado desconozcas y sean importantes para entender el texto Although = aunque
  17. 17. UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Capítulo A 18 b. Responde las siguientes preguntas de manera concisa y en español, con la información de la sección “Built Work” 1. ¿Cuál es su único trabajo construido en los EU? 2. ¿Por qué organizó los espacios y el sistema de circulación del Richard and Lois Rosenthal Center for Contemporary Art como una “carpeta urbana”? 3. ¿Cuáles de las siguientes descripciones son correctas? a. Por una parte, la rampa del mezzanine se eleva hasta penetrar el muro trasero, y por el otro se convierte en la entrada a las galerías. b. Las galerías parecen ser talladas de un sólo bloque de concreto, y flotar sobre el lobby. c. Las galerías fueron realizadas entrelazando sólidos y vanos, a manera de un rompecabezas. 4. ¿Como es el diseño de la estación de bomberos en Alemania? 5. ¿Cómo es la distribución de los espacios en LFone Landesgartenshcau?
  18. 18. UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Capítulo A 19 Photography and the war World War was a rich quarry for documentary photographers, and every aspect of it in evry thater of conflicto, was covered by the camera. The photographers often showed extraordinary Enterprise, as well as bravery, in getting the images they wanted. Some were entirely unexpected personalities, none more so tan the expatriate American, Lee Miller (1907-1977), who had first established herself in Europe as the model and darkroom assistant of Man Ray. At the beggining of the war iller was living in London, with Roland Penrose, a minor Surrealist painter and major patrón of the arts. In the early 1940`s she made remarkable photographs of the London Blitz. In 1944, shortly before the Normandy landings, she succeded in getting herself acredited as an American war correspondent, and proceeded to accompany the American army across France and Germany. Some of her most memorable images were made in the German concentration camps at Dachau, wich she saw the morning after it was liberated, and Buchenwald. Her images helped to bring home the true reality of the Holocaust to the British and American public. Her searing pictures are not of starving prisioners, nor of piles of corpses, but of concentration camp guards who had been beated by their victims and then looked up by the allies (fig. 6.29). as the critic and curator, Jane Livingston remarks, these photographs have “a charácter of monumentality, and ultimately; a kind of unflinchingness, that separates (them) from others of their kind. Weegee in New York On the other side of tha Atlantic, the new photographer, Weegee (Arthur Felling, 1899-1968), was making a rather similar documentation of the dark side of a modern metrópolis. His book, Naked City, was published in 1945. Weegee had a pólice radio in his car, wich enabled him to rush to the scene of an accident or crime almost as son as it had taken place. His glaring and brutal images, most often made at night, and lit with a pitiless photographic flash (fig. 6.30), offer an apparentely raw, uncensored visión of life wich is a vehicle for savage criticism of American sociaty.
  19. 19. UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Capítulo A 20 Visionary photographers While photographers such as Miller and Weegee reacted directly to the terror of their times, there were others who tried to supply positive images as an emotional counterbalance to all-pervasive violence. In the 1940`s ansel Adams (1902-1984) made waht are perhaps the best loved landscape images in the history of American photography-images like the famous Moonrise, Hernandez, New Mexico (fig. 6.31). His influences included the work of Stiegliz, of Edward Weston and also of the great nineteenth century topographical photographers such as Timothy H O Sullivan (1840- 1882)- the men who first showed America to itself. In the Canyon de Chelly in Arizona, for instance, Adams often used almost exactly the same points of view that O`Sullivan had employed. Adam was also influenced bye the literary tradition of Walt Withman and Eward Carpenter who wrote: it seems to me that the only way in wich artist can make his work durable and great is by seeking to arrive at the most direct expression of something actually felt by himself as a part of his own , and so part of all the human experience. He most go to the roof of alla Arts, namely the conveyance of an emotion or impression with the utmost force and directness from himself to another person. Minor White (1908-1976) was also influenced by Stieglez (whom he visited in New York in New York in 1946), by Ansel Adams (whom he succeded in his teaching post at the California School of Fine Arts), by Edward Weston (with whom he become close friends), and by the poetry of Whitman. His range of imagery is wider than that of Adams- it includes anumber of homoerotic images made in the late 1940`s wich remained unpublish and unexhibited during his lifetime. Many of his most typical photographs of the 1940`s are close-up landscape details (fig. 6.32) these have an obvious kinship with teh work being done by the emrgent Abstract Expressionist painters at the same period. The likeness to the paintings of Clyfford Still is especially striking. Another photographer making radically abstract images during this epoch was Harry Callahan (1912), also a discipline of Stieglitz and Adams. A study of Weeds in Snow (fig. 6.33), made in Detrit in 1943, offers a kind of abstraction wich is more radical tan anything the Abstract Expressionists had achieved up to that point.
  20. 20. UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Capítulo A 21 Quiet apart from its intrinsic merits, the photography done in the 1940`s by White and Callahan is historically important because it marks the momento at wich photography and other forms of artistic expression began to approach one another in a way wich was eventually to make theme to all effects and purposes indistinguishable.
  21. 21. UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Capítulo A 22 Texto: Photography and the war Fuente: Visual Arts of the Twentieth Century Características: 4p (una columna) con ilustraciones Dificultad: Bàsico Objetivo: practicar pre lectura, referencia contextual (pronombres y referentes), relacionar texto con imágenes y lectura detallada. I. Pre lectura: a. Haz una lectura de barrido (skimming) y responde las siguientes preguntas: 1. ¿Cuál es el tema del texto? 2. ¿Te gusta la fotografía? ¿Qué temas fotográficos prefieres? ¿Qué tipo de fotografía te llama más la atención, por qué? b. ¿Qué tanto sabes de fotografía? Une las imágenes con su autor. Manuel âlvarez Bravo * Irving Penn Henri Cartier – Bresson * Alexander Rodchenko
  22. 22. UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Capítulo A 23 II. Lectura a. Referencia Contextual: 1. Las palabras circuladas en el texto son pronombres, identifica en el color correspondiente las que hagan referencia a las siguientes personas: Lee Miller – rosa Weegee _ rojo artista _ verde Minor White _ azul 2. Enlista las palabras subrayadas e identifica cuàl es su referente. b. Lectura Detallada: 1. Responde las siguientes preguntas de manera concisa según la información del texto 1. ¿Cuáles de las siguientes características son aplicables a los fotógrafos de la Segunda Guerra Mundial: emprendedores, bravos y valientes? 2. La mejor interpretación de la frase “theater of conflicto” en el renglón 2 es: a. Lugar del conflicto b. Escenario de conflicto c. Zona de conflicto 3. ¿Quiénes influyeron en el trabajo de Ansel Adams? 4. ¿En qué momento tomó Lee Miller las fotografías de Dachau? 5. ¿Quiénes fueron los primeros hombres en mostrar a América a sì misma? 6. ¿A qué pintor se hace referencia en el texto y aqùe estilo pertenece? 7. ¿Qué elementos son distintivos del trabajo de Weegee, tanto en su producción como en su realización? 8. Según Edward Carpenter, ¿cuál es la única forma en que el artista produzca una obra durable y magnifica? 9. ¿Por qué es importante la fotografía hecha por Callahan y White en la década de 1940? 2. Di a cuál de los fotógrafos mencionados en el texto se refieren las siguientes características: Man Ray * Lee Miller* Weegee * Minor White* Edward Weston* Timothy O`Sullivan*Walt Whitman* Edward Carpenter* Ansel Adams* Harry Callahan 1. Fotoperiodista 2. Acompañò al ejercito Americano a Francia y Alemania 3. Documentaciòn del lado oscuro de la metrópolis
  23. 23. UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Capítulo A 24 4. Las imágenes de paisaje màs apreciadas en la fotografía Americana 5. Tomò fotografías del London Blitz 6. Edward Weston fue una de sus influencias 7. Fotografías de guardias alemanes golpeados por sus víctimas 8. Expresionismo abstracto 9. Moonrise 10. Sus imágenes no fueron publicadas ni exhibidas durante el tiempo que estuvo vivo su autor 11. Imágenes positivas como balance a la violencia existente 12. Acercamiento a detalles de paisajes 13. Radicalmente abstracto 14. Hiervas en la Nieve III. Pos lectura De acuerdo a lo que leíste, identifica a cuál de los fotógrafos pertenecen las siguientes imágenes, o si no pertenece a ninguno.
  24. 24. UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Capítulo A 25 Rewards of Unbuilding By Michael Cockram2 There is a rich and increasingly available source of building materials that can't be found in manufacturers' catalogs or in the advertisements of glossy magazines. Embedded in buildings that were crafted in earlier centuries is a wealth of structural and finish materials. And when these buildings are beyond refurbishing, they can be deconstructed and their materials made available to architects for new projects. The quality of the wood in these old buildings is often substantially higher than what is available from today's depleted forests. Heavy timber, which is now rare and expensive, was once used routinely in older, stoutly built structures. In the Pacific Northwest of the United States, seemingly endless stands of virgin forests were once felled for common studs and sheathing. The straight-grained lumber now being salvaged from humble residences built before the 1950s can often be used for clear trim stock. To take advantage of this rich source of wood, the nonprofit Rebuilding Center in Portland, Oregon has grown in just four years from an idea about salvaging building waste to a burgeoning enterprise with 36 employees. It boasts a full lumberyard with 70,000 square feet (6500 square meters) of exterior storage and a 24,000-square-foot (2200- square-meter) warehouse displaying plethora of building components of every vintage. The Rebuilding Center rivals conventional lumberyards in the variety of materials it offers to builders. Crucial to the organization's success is its deconstruction department, which taps into the rich building stock of Portland and supplies more than half of the center's inventory. In the summer of 2001, they recovered 10 to 20 tons (9 to 18 tonnes) a day from a variety of projects. Dismantling a Mill A large part of that flow of materials came from the 40,000-square-foot (3700-square-meter) Meeker Seed and Grain Mill in Amity, Oregon. The mill buildings yielded an incredible array of lumber including hefty 12x12 (29 by 29 centimeter) heavy-timber columns and beams and a whole spectrum of dimensional lumber. 2 Michael Cockram is an adjunct assistant profesor of architecture at the University of Oregon. He is the director of the Italy Field school program. Heavy timbers salvaged from a grain mil in Amity, Oregon. IMG: The ReBuilding Center (TRBC) A lumberyard of salvaged material on the site of the old mil. IMG: TRBC The study old grain mil building in amity, Oregon before deconstruction. IMG: TRBC Crews use a crane to lift out a section of the resource-rich flooring. IMG: TRBC
  25. 25. UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Capítulo A 26 An estimated 500,000 board feet (47,000 board meters) of first-growth lumber was salvaged from the mill, and nearly 95 percent of the entire one-city-block structure was salvaged for reuse. The sturdy old mill did not give up its riches easily, however. Every day the "decon" crew faced challenges such as dismantling expanses of flooring made of solid 2x10 (3.8 by 23.5 centimeter) fir turned on end. The enormous storage bins sheathed in 2x6 (3.8 by 14 centimeter) studs nailed at 2 inches (5 centimeters) on center could not be taken apart in a cost-effective way. The bins finally had to be pushed over and crushed for recycling — the last choice before discarding the material. Local architects began tapping into the Amity project by designing projects around the heavy-timber framing members. Unusual materials such as plank flooring — scrubbed with grain for decades exposing an articulated wood grain pattern — were turned into exquisite trim stock. "Our first priority is to encourage people to reuse what they have. We'd rather not see buildings come down at all," says Brian McVay a deconstruction project manager at the ReBuilding Center. "But if there is no chance for saving a building, then we bid on the deconstruction, competing with demolition contractors." It's not always easy to get those bids. Careful deconstruction takes time and sometimes costs more than demolition. But building owners can realize tax benefits, making salvage projects affordable, because the materials are being donated to a nonprofit organization. The high- quality materials in an old house, for instance, can generate tax breaks in the tens of thousands of dollars. When comprehensive deconstruction isn't an option, convincing the owners or contractors to allow surface salvage is often the next step. This was the case for the four-story dormitory slated to be replaced by Portland State University. The 1910 building, with airy, high-ceilinged rooms, has a marble-faced entry, intricately bordered wood floors inlaid with cherry, five-panel doors, and miles of beautifully milled clear vertical-grain trim. "We should be able to pull out 20 tons (18 tonnes) of material before demolition starts," McVay says. The original grain mil in Amity, Oregon. IMG: TRBC Exposing the wealth of first growth timber framing. IMG: TRBC Grain storage bins that couldn´t be dismantled were crushed for recycling. IMG: TRBC
  26. 26. UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Capítulo A 27 Designing for Future Reuse Design professionals can contribute to the conservation of materials by designing and engineering structures so they can be more easily taken apart in the future. Manufacturers in much of Europe are now required to "design for discard" — they are responsible for recycling anything they produce at the end its of life. So goods are designed for easy disassembly, with an emphasis on fostering recycling instead of disposal. "The principle of designing for discard needs to carry into the construction field," McVay says. "It's been said that deconstruction is only effective for a certain era of structures, namely early 20th century homes, but we need to look toward the future." The houses that are being built today, he points out, will someday need to be remodeled, moved, or disassembled. Will these newer structures be easily moved or disassembled? Current practices of overusing adhesives and nails will increase disassembly time and lower the amount of material that can be recovered. Other Benefits of Reuse Besides the quality of the old materials, there are several reasons for the emergence and success of building product resellers across the country. Rising landfill tipping fees encourage owners and contractors to consider deconstruction over demolition. In Portland there is also the advantage of a city government that promotes sustainable design by requiring any of its own projects with construction costs exceeding $50,000 to be certified by the U.S. Green Building Council's Leadership in Energy & Environmental Design (LEED) program. In the case of rehabilitation or remodeling, LEED points can be earned through salvage and reuse of materials. "The ReBuilding Center diverted four and a half million pounds (2 milion kilograms) of waste from the landfill last year," says Shane Endicott, founder of the ReBuilding Center. "We're creating more jobs every year — jobs out of waste. And we're providing people with building resources that are affordable." The business has operated in the black since opening, with any excess funds going to the umbrella organization Our United Villages, a nonprofit organization dedicated to promoting community- based projects. The ReBuilding Center has been hailed as an economic anchor in its community. The neighborhood is growing in vitality, and new businesses are starting up. A walk through the center's facility reveals much of reason for the success of the ReBuilding Center. From the person on the forklift to the staff working the floor, there's an energy and engagement of people involved in their community and working for something beyond just themselves.
  27. 27. UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Capítulo A 28 Texto: Rewards of unbuilding Fuente: www.architectureweek.com/2002/0529/building_1-1.html Características: 3pp. (Una columna) con ilustraciones Dificultad: Bàsico Objetivo: practicar estrategias para registrar y memorizar vocabulario y lectura detallada I. Pre Lectura a. Lectura de familiarización: pon atención al titulo, subtítulos, imágenes y pies de foto. b. ¿de qué crees que va tratar el texto? c. Haz una lista de materiales – tanto estructurales como para acabados – que conozcas en inglés y español. II. Lectura a. Haz una lectura de barrido e identifica en colores: Las palabras que necesitas buscar en el diccionario Así como todas las palabras que creas puedan referirse a: Materiales o descripciones de elementos Acciones o verbos b. Vuelve a leer el texto asegurándote de haber determinado el significado correcto de las palabras y de entender el mensaje del autor. III. Post Lectura a. Encuentra en el texto palabras con las que puedas completar las categorías que se muestran en la actividad “Recording Vocabulary.” b. Responde las siguientes preguntas con base en la información del texto. Falso o verdadero: 1. La calidad de los materiales encontrados en los edificios viejos es notablemente superior al de los materiales actuales. 2. En 4 años, el Centro de reconstrucción en Portland, Oregón, se ha vuelto muy exitoso. 3. Los diseñadores e ingenieros pueden contribuir a la reutilización de los materiales, si diseñan estructura que puedan ser recicladas en el fácilmente en el futuro. 4. En toda Europa, los fabricantes deben utilizar, materiales reciclados. 5. Según Mc Vay, principalmente las estructuras de principios del siglo XX son las que pueden ser reconstruidas eficientemente. 6. Las prácticas actuales de construcción facilitan la reutilización futura de los materiales.
  28. 28. UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Capítulo A 29 7. En Estados Unidos, el gobernó exige a los proyectistas cuyos costos de construcción excedan $50 000 usd a que estén certificados por el LEED. 8. “Our United Village” es el nombre de ina organización sin fines de lucro dedicada a promover proyectos de reutilización de materiales. 9. Gracias al Centro de Reconstrucción, la comunidad ha mejorado su economía. Opción múltiple: selecciona la(s) opciones correctas para cada enunciado. 1. En el molino “Meeker Seed and Grain Mill”: a) Se reutilizaron 3700 m2 de materiales b) Se rescataron 47000 metros de tablones de madera. c) Más del 95 % de la estructura se pudo salvar para ser reutilizada. d) El proceso de desmantelaciòn no fue nada fácil. 2. ¿Cuál es la última opción, antes de desechar un material? a) Aplastarlo b) Llevarlo aparte c) Reciclarlo d) Comprimirlo 3. “Plank Flooring” o suelo de duela, es un ejemplo de ,materiales: a) Expuestos por décadas a la intemperie b) Con patrones de madera c) Inusuales d) Convertidos en magnificas reservas 4. Un beneficio que pueden tener los propietarios para permitir la reutilización es: a) Que no siempre se pueden salvar estructuras completas sino sólo partes b) Que la “re arquitectura” toma más tiempo que la demolición c) Que el reciclaje de materiales no siempre es más costoso que una demolición d) Que los materiales son donados a organizaciones sin fines de lucro, por lo que pueden deducirlo de sus impuestos 5. La Universidad Estatal de Portland: a) Fue construida en 1910 b) No pudo ser desmantelada en su totalidad, por lo que se procedió a un “salvar la superficie.” c) Pudieron rescatarse 20 toneladas de materiales no antes de la demolición d) Tenía pisos de mármol, puertas de madera de cerezo, y otros materiales preciosos
  29. 29. UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Capítulo A 30 Houses of the Future – Now Prefarb: When you hear “modular home” you think “doublé-wide”. Today’s prefabricated-housing designers want you to think again. If you're cruising through the International Contemporary Furniture Fair in New York this week, stroking the buttery leather Italian chairs, coveting the coolest couches--and wrinkling your nose at the design world's inevitable excesses--you'll come upon a one-room "house," all glass and wood, filled with nifty, well-priced furniture from Blu Dot (page 64). But don't just check out the urbane modernist chairs and chests: pay attention to the sleek little structure itself. Designed by architect Charlie Lazor, one of Blu Dot's trio of founders, it's a sample of Flatpak, an ingenious system of 2-D panels that, like their furniture, can be shipped and assembled on-site into a well- crafted prefab house in far less time--and for less money-- than it would take to build from scratch. It may look handsomely unassuming sitting in a cavernous trade show, but trust us: it represents the first revolution in American housing in decades. You can't measure this mini-phenomenon in numbers. Of the more than 1.18 million new houses built in the United States last year, "modular" units accounted for only about 3 percent--and that includes double-wides. But with Flatpak and its ilk, we're talking about architect-designed dwellings. These houses can have either flat or pitched roofs, but either way they're unabashedly modern--which is not just a statement of style, but of values. Designed in reaction to the overblown developer houses that dominate the market, quality modern prefabs tend to be smaller and more energy-efficient, with open, flexible spaces. While the number of such innovative prefabs sold last year would barely make a ripple in the housing pool, consumer interest is rising fast. "There's more demand than supply right now," says Michael Sylvester, who
  30. 30. UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Capítulo A 31 started the Web site fabprefab.com in 2003 and now gets 45,000 visitors a month. When Allison Arieff, editor of Dwell magazine, wrote the book "Prefab" in 2002, most projects she found were in Europe--or on the drawing board. Today she says she's bombarded with inquiries. "It's been a bit of a surprise." Skyrocketing real-estate prices are obviously pushing people toward new housing ideas, but so are simple demographics. Shelter-magazine editors, who've been avidly covering the prefab trend, understand what developers don't: that young urban professionals who shop at IKEA and Banana Republic may not want a mini-McMansion when the time comes to buy their first house. In fact, Flatpak's Lazor, who lives in Minneapolis, and architect Michelle Kaufmann, who's based in San Francisco, were each driven to design their first prefab because they couldn't find what they wanted to buy in their price range. "This came out of my utter frustration with insanely inefficient and insanely expensive houses," says Lazor. "Prefab is for people who are busy but have a good design sense," says Kaufmann, who once worked for Frank Gehry in Los Angeles. "They want to live in a clean, green space they can afford, both in terms of time and money." Kaufmann now has 36 of her Glidehouses under contract, and she's just introduced her Breezehouse, a model entirely built in the factory, right down to the towel rods. After a Kaufmann modular house is completely tricked out, it's shrink-wrapped and trucked to a site with a prepared foundation. While modular houses typically offer certain options, a panel system like Flatpak's allows greater variations: the eight-foot panels can be built of different materials--glass, wood, cement board--and you can keep adding to make a house as large as you want. On the other hand, architect Jennifer Siegal, founder of Office of Mobile Design in Venice, Calif., started small. She was inspired to design prefab when she lived in North Carolina and noticed "all the manufactured housing" (read: trailers) "and just how terribly underdesigned it was, to put it politely." She's now created both a modular home--the Portable House--completed at the factory, and a kit that's assembled on-site--the Swellhouse--whose walls "snap together almost like LEGOs." Siegal has designed both to be "open and airy," and to use environmentally correct materials wherever possible. Still, despite these architects' good intentions, there are obstacles. Neighbors hear "prefab" and think "trailer park." Local building codes vary, and sometimes zoning boards balk. Lazor has tried to avoid some of these issues by designing Flatpak so the wiring and plumbing are done by local tradesmen. And though prefab is meant to be more affordable than on-site construction, it's not always cheap. Kaufmann's smallest house is only 674 square feet and can be built for as little as $132 per square foot. But a competition-winning prefab design by Resolution: 4 Architecture, intended to be built for $100 per square foot, ended up costing about $175. And outside St. Louis, Lindal Cedar Homes has built its first prefab design by award-winning Seattle architect James Cutler. An elegant, ecologically sensitive lakefront spec house, it's priced at $979,000. So far, no takers. Pessimists point out that designer prefab movements have sprouted before and never taken root. But Kaufmann, for one, is optimistic. "People are expecting more from design now," she says. "And we can e-mail drawings. I couldn't have handled 40 prefab clients like this 20 years ago." For a little perspective on that point, we need only look at architect Ralph Rapson, now 90, who designed one of the famous modern Case Study houses in 1945--and is now at work adapting it as a prefab house for a 32-year-old developer in North Carolina. To us that says good ideas never die.
  31. 31. UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Capítulo A 32 KEEPING IT REAL – AND REAL SMALL The hot Blu Dot clings to its misión in Minneapolis. The woodworking shop in Blu Dot's Minneapolis factory space is cold, sawdusty and filled with intimidating machines, and John Christakos loves it in here. It's where he gets to do what designers live for: making stuff. But lately, Christakos has noticed that he's spending less and less time in his favorite spot. "I try to create reasons to come in here," he says, but the excuses are getting harder to find. Since 1996, when Christakos started Blu Dot with two pals from Williams College, the company has bloomed into an unlikely success, averaging 60 percent annual growth and becoming perhaps the only label to have items on sale at Murray Moss's famed Manhattan boutique and at the Home Depot. Christakos now spends more time managing Blu Dot than thinking up new designs for it, and he worries, half seriously, about the day when he'll have to admit he's running "an actual business." Making its name was Blu Dot's first challenge. Now comes its second: staying small, no matter how big it gets. Spend some time around the Blu Dot boys--Christakos, COO Maurice Blanks and co-owner Charlie Lazor, all of whom trained as architects--and you'll hear things businessmen rarely say aloud. They joke freely about their flops. (One terrific-looking chair turned out to be so uncomfortable that Blanks now refuses to call it a chair. It's "a device to keep you off the ground.") And they plead ignorance about most aspects of running a business. Says Lazor: "We don't really know what the hell we're doing." But they're all clear about why they began Blu Dot: to "democratize design" with cool furniture for normal folks who are sick to death of wicker. Blu Dot's signature style--easy-to- swallow modernism with doses of tasteful color--is a byproduct of the boys' ethos. And it's working. Now that Blu Dot has opportunities galore, the trick, all three men agree, is resisting most of them. "What kills a lot of small companies is they take every side road they possibly can," says Blanks. The men are constantly flirting with ideas for more growth--"A kids' furniture line!" "Full-page ads in every shelter magazine!"--but each notion must withstand heavy scrutiny to prove its essential Blu Dotness. (And those two didn't.) The Home Depot deal made sense because the two companies share a common goal: empowering the masses. But that's about all they share. Sure, Christakos has quadrupled his staff in the past five years--from three to 12. He might even add a few more soon. "But I have no desire for Blu Dot to become a 200-person company," he says. "Then there's no way to avoid it being an actual business." Anything but that.
  32. 32. UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Capítulo A 33 Texto: Houses for the future - now Fuente: Newsweek, May 23 2005 (http://www.thedailybeast.com/newsweek/2005/05/22/houses-of-the-future-now.html y http://www.thedailybeast.com/newsweek/2005/05/22/keeping-it-real-and-real-small.html) Características: 3p con ilustraciones Dificultad: básico Objetivo: practicar vocabulario en contexto y lectura detallada I. Pre Lectura a. Lectura de familiarización: antes de leer el texto, pon atención al titulo, encabezados, imágenes y pies de foto de ambos textos: Houses of the Future – Now & Keeping it Real – And Real Small. Para facilitar tu lectura, puedes consultar el glosario inglès/español en la sección E: Claves de respuestas. b. Vocabulario: localiza en ambos textos las siguientes palabras y elige la opción que represente su mejor traducción al español, según el contexto. 1. Story: a) Descripción, recuento b) historia, cuento c) nivel d)planta, piso 2. Breezeway: a) Pasaje abierto b) de manera sencilla c) camino exitoso d)muro de vidrio 3. Coolest couches: a) Sillones màs frìos b) Sillas màs agradables c) Sillas menos interesantes d) Sillones màs atractivos y sofisticados 4. Wrinkling your nose at: a) Frunciendo el ceño b) Arrugando la nariz c) Mostrando desagrado d) Estornudando 5. Far less time: a) En mucho menos tiempo b) En menor tiempo pero no inmediatamente c) En un tiempo remoto d) En menor tiempo 6. From scratch: a) Desde la basura b) desde cero c) desde arañazos desde marcas 7. Handsomely unassuming: a) muy atractivo b) altamente prejuiciado c) en gran medida desapercibido d) nada convencional 8. Skyrocketing real estate prices, significa que los precios de los bienes raíces: a) Han subido mucho últimamente b) Son altísimos
  33. 33. UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Capítulo A 34 c) No son predecibles en absoluto d) Son estruendosos 9. Under design: a) Diseñados debajo b) mal diseñados c) no diseñados d) super diseñados 10. Easy to swallow modernism: a) Modernismo fácil de tragar b) Fácilmente modernista c) Modernista a buen precio d) Modernismo accesible II. Reading in detail: A. True/ False: incluye la información verdadera para los enunciados falsos Houses of the future – Now 1. Los términos “modular home” y “double wide” se refieren a lo mismo 2. Flatpak es el nombre de una marca de muebles prefabricados 3. Segùn el autor 1.18 millones de casas modulares se construyeron en EU, lo que representa el 3 % del total de viviendas construidas ese año 4. Los prefabricados son modernos, màs pequeños y ecológicos 5. Del año 2003 a la actualidad, las casas prefabricadas han sido visitadas por 45 000 personas 6. Michelle kaufmann trabaja con Frank Gehry en los Angeles 7. Una de las razones por las que la gente prefiere los prefabricados es su precio, ya que las casas prefabricadas generalmente son màs baratas que las construcciones “en sitio” 8. En una casa prefabricada de Kaufmann, el metro cuadrado podría costar tanto como $ 132 usd Keeping it Real – And Real small 1. John Christakos adora los ambientes “rudos”, aptos para la fabricación de las cosas 2. Blue Dot ha tenido mucho éxito desde su fundación, lo cual era predecible desde que sus integrantes se conocieron en la universidad 3. Probablemente èsta sea la única marca con mercancía tanto en boutiques elegantes como en tiendas minoristas 4. Todos los diseñadores de la campaña tiene formación como arquitectos 5. Los integrantes originales ( Christakos, Blanks y lazor) han resultado grandes empresarios, aunque no les agrade pensarse como tal 6. Sus dos ideas màs exitosas han sido: crear una línea de muebles para niños y tener anucios de una página en todas las revistas especializadas 7. En los últimos 5 años, Blue Dot ha cuadruplicado su personal y ha tenido un crecimiento anual del 60 % por lo que sus fundadores esperan se convierta en una compañía grande.
  34. 34. UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Capítulo A 35 B. Opción mùltiple: elige la(s) opción(es) correcta(s). House of the future _ Now 1. Según el autor, ¿qué ha revolucionado la vivienda americana, por primera vez en décadas? a) Las viviendas prefabricadas b) El sistema de pàneles c) El sistema Flatpak 2. Respecto de una casa “normal”, las prefabricadas actuales: a) Son màs pequeñas b) Son mas ecológicas c) Tienen espacios mas abiertos y flexibles 3. ¿a que obstáculos se enfrentan los constructores de casas prefabricadas o modulares? a) A la gente no le gustan las casas prefabricadas b) Los códigos de construcción varian c) Se debe contratar a comercios locales para encargarse de instalciones como la plomerìa y el cabledo 4. ¿a que se refiere la frase “to us good ideas never die”? a) A los prefabricados, que han existido desde hace mucho tiempo y siguen vigentes b) A las casas prefabricadas “Case study” de 1945, cuyo diseño sigue vigente c) A Ralph Rapson, quien a sus 90 años sigue diseñando casas prefabricadas Keeping it Real – And Real Small 1. “Keeping it Real – And Real Small” significa que: a) Blue Dot quiere mantenerse quiere mantenerse como una empresa pequeña b) Blue Dot quiere mantener sus diseños apegados a la realidad, pero también al alcance de los pequeños consumidores c) Blue dot todavía es una empresa pequeña, realmente pequeña, pero que quiere crecer mas 2. ¿Cuàles han sido los dos retos de Blue Dot? a) Hacerse de prestigio b) Crecer lo màs que pueda c) Mantenerse como una empresa pequeña d) Alcanzar un crecimiento anual superior al 60 % 3. Una característica distintiva del grupo es que … a) Aunque todos tienen formación como arquitectos, son hombres de negocios exitosos b) Ellos bromean libremente sobre sus fracasos c) A pesar de su gran éxito, no se consideran ni desean convertirse en “hombres de negocios”
  35. 35. UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Capítulo A 36 4. ¿cuàl es la misión de la empresa? a) Democratizar el diseño b) Hacer muebles sofisticados para gente normal c) Tener un estilo propio, modernista pero elegante y de buen gusto 5. ¿cuàl(es) de las siguientes es (son) verdadera (s)? a) Actualmente Blue Dot tiene màs oportunidades de las que puede tomar b) El estilo distintivo de Blue Dot es un modernismo simplificado, con un uso moderado del color c) Aunque le sobran ideas para hacer crecer su negocio, los integrantes de Blue Dot consideran cada una en base a si apego a la “esencia” de la campañia 6. ¿Qué tienen en común Blue Dot and Home Depot a) Ambas compañías quieren democratizar el diseño b) Ambos comparten el mismo objetivo: dar poder a las masas c) Ambas son compañías en gran crecimiento
  36. 36. UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Capítulo A 37 ¿Who are the great women artists? In January 1971, in the pages of this magazine, art historian Linda Nochlin published an essay titled “Why Have There Been No Great Women Artists?” It was a provocative, lengthy, and wide-ranging examination of women’s status, past and present, which commenced with the author’s “open-minded wonderment that women, despite so many years of near-equality… have still not achieved anything of exceptional significance in the visual arts.” There “are no equivalents for Michelangelo or Rembrandt, Delacroix or Cézanne, Picasso or Matisse, or even in very recent times, for de Kooning or Warhol.” In the course of her critique, Nochlin examined what she called “a vast dark bulk of shaky idées reí§uesabout the nature of art”—including the notion that women’s art making is somehow different from men’s—and ascribed these to the conditions under which women trained until the end of the 19th century, the romantic idea of genius, and “the fairy tale of the Boy Wonder.” Her underlying plea was for a closer evaluation of the social structures surrounding the production of art, “be they art academies, systems of patronage, mythologies of the divine creator, artist as he-man or social outcast.” The essay became something of an instant classic, widely read and argued, and it remains, as the Nation’s art critic Arthur Danto notes, “beautifully well reasoned—Linda wrote like a philosopher.” Perhaps it was not the single well-aimed shot that touched off a revolution in art history, museum exhibitions, and art criticism, as well as in the number of significant women artists working today, but like Tom Paine’s Common Senseduring the American Revolution, it became a seminal document for its times.
  37. 37. UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Capítulo A 38 Now, more than 30 years later, we wondered how many of Nochlin’s observations remained valid and how they influenced the discourse on art in the academy, in the museums, and in the marketplace. Given the kind of full-scale museum showcases granted major women artists in recent years—Louise Bourgeois, Artemisia Gentileschi, Berthe Morisot, Mary Cassatt, Joan Mitchell, and currently at the Frick Collection, Ann Vallayer-Coster—is it time to reconsider Nochlin’s verdict on greatness? What changes have taken place in the way we think about art history since her essay was published? And is it possible to point to some Girl Wonders in our present moment? Among the curators, critics, and art historians interviewed, there was, naturally, a diversity of opinion, but also a consensus that the essay remains an important historic contribution, still capable of stirring up fervent passions. (Nochlin herself declined to comment for this story.) “By choosing to say there were no great women artists, Nochlin provoked us all to look again, to reexamine, and to reevaluate, and with every justification, include those women artists that we had overlooked,” comments Ruth Appelhof, director of the Guild Hall Museum in East Hampton, New York, site of a recent exhibition of art from the heyday of feminism. And yet, “even when you pay more attention to those careers that shouldn’t have been lost in the great shuffle of art history, it doesn’t necessarily mean that our estimation of the work increases,” notes Marla Prather, curator of postwar art at the Whitney Museum of American Art. Have our opinions of the “greatness” of Gentileschi, Morisot, or Mitchell changed since they received the red-carpet treatment at major institutions? Some emphatically say no; others aren’t so sure. “Maybe Morisot is elevated a few notches, but she’s not Manet,” says Prather. “However much one might have admired Artemisia Gentileschi,” says Colin C. Bailey, chief curator at the Frick Collection, “I thought the exhibition at the Metropolitan showed conclusively that she was nowhere near as good as her father, and nowhere near as good as Caravaggio or Rubens, who were painting at the same moment.” At a certain level in the debate the choices can become intensely idiosyncratic. “Just talking over these issues with female colleagues, it’s interesting to see how personal it all is,” says Prather. For Anne Dawson, a professor of art history at Eastern Connecticut State University, artists like Morisot and Gentileschi belong right up there in the pantheon. “Artemisia was, in my opinion, an absolutely great painter and, in fact, her Judith Decapitating Holofernesof 1620 is even greater than Caravaggio’s,” she maintains. “If you put Morisot beside Manet, her painting was much more radical, but it was talked about in different terms.” One way of addressing (or perhaps graciously evading) the issue of such judgments in present times, notes Prather, lies in the simple practical allocation of square footage in the temples of art. At the Whitney, “we advocate Joan Mitchell the way we advocate the work of Sol LeWitt, and give them the same amount of space.” Other art historians say Nochlin’s judgments still apply. “I have very high standards for great artists,” says Robert Rosenblum, professor of modern European art at New York University and a curator at the Guggenheim. “Every historical survey I’ve done has had a lot of women artists in it, but none of them is great the way Picasso is great, the way Cézanne is great. And that is true of the majority of men artists.” Adds Danto: “Linda’s overall point is right. She was talking about the history of art, the history of the representational tradition, when the great figures basically emerged. Yet even in the 20th century, when greatness is not dependent on anatomical proficiency, there was no female Picasso, or even a female Jackson Pollock.”
  38. 38. UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Capítulo A 39 Younger art historians, of what might be considered a more politically correct bent, are in favor of relaxing admission to the the canon. “I never talk about artists being great,” says Frances K. Pohl, a professor of art history at Pomona College in Claremont, California, and the author of a survey of American art, Framing America. “Because in the post-Nochlin years, we’ve been sensitized to this notion of what constitutes greatness—how do you define it, how do you justify it?” Part of the problem seems to lie in the judgments of what critic Robert Hughes once dubbed “the pale penis people,” white males with a bias toward European culture. “If men are defining greatness, it’s less likely that female painters are going to fit the bill,” notes Dawson. And defining “greatness”—and its indispensable sidekick, “genius”—goes to the heart of the issue. Nochlin sidestepped explanation in her essay, noting only that “genius… is thought of as an atemporal and mysterious power somehow embedded in the person of the Great Artist.” For Danto, greatness has almost the force of a “religious disclosure. It’s not totally easy to define, but you know you’re in the presence of something powerful being opened up.” The constant reshuffling of art history makes greatness all the more difficult to pinpoint, and the present moment leaves some in a pessimistic mood. “Of course, I think Cindy Sherman is a great artist,” says critic and writer Dave Hickey. “But I don’t think that’s a matter of much cultural consequence, because, well, we judge greatness by its consequences, and the art of the last 40 years has no consequences. “You can probably assign some very serious consequences to Cubism or to Abstract Expressionism or to Pop art,” Hickey continues, “but in general, it’s not a very serious endeavor at the moment. Why worry about greatness when we purportedly have abolished the meritocracy?” Nochlin claimed that women’s failure to have attained greatness lay “not in our stars, our hormones, our menstrual cycles or our empty internal spaces, but in our institutions and our educations—education understood to include everything that happens to us from the moment we enter this world of meaningful symbols, signs and signals.” Speaking of her own period of expertise, the Renaissance, Rutgers University art historian Rona Goffen notes that it was virtually impossible for a female Michelangelo to emerge: “Women did not have the opportunity to be trained as artists or to apprentice with a master,” she explains. And this situation prevailed—if not through systems of apprenticeship, then through limited access to art classes in general and life drawing in particular—through the end of the 19th century.
  39. 39. UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Capítulo A 40 As for equality today, Hickey points out that while “in academia, in museums, and everywhere, the playing field is relatively flat, it is notflat at the top—the level of department chairs, deans, museum directors. That’s still the old-time boys’ club, with very few exceptions,” and that clearly affects women’s stature. Nevertheless, says Nancy Spector, curator of contemporary art at the Guggenheim, “on the whole, women’s presence in the art world is much healthier than it was 30 years ago.” She adds, “I don’t know whether resuscitating people like Berthe Morisot matters as much as showing artists like Cindy Sherman, Barbara Kruger, Louise Lawler, and Adrian Piper, who have done breakthrough work. There are so many excellent women who have risen to the top.” Prather wonders, “Do women here in New York have the same kind of access that men do? It’s hard to argue that they don’t.” And yet, she notes, in terms of acquisitions and exhibitions and auction prices, male artists can still claim the lead. And what of female “geniuses” emerging in our own midst? Most observers are reluctant to name names. Says Prather, “We can’t ask that question today of contemporaries. It’s not legitimate with careers that aren’t done.” But a few women artists do crop up repeatedly in dancing around the notion: most notably Bourgeois, Sherman, and Maya Lin. Says Rosenblum: “I would put my hand in the fire for Jenny Saville, Mariko Mori, and Cindy Sherman.” Spector believes that if Eva Hesse had lived longer, “we’d be talking about her the way we talk about Bruce Nauman today.” Ultimately Nochlin’s essay and the work of other art historians have sparked broad revisions in scholarship and teaching. “Survey books now include women artists who simply weren’t recognized before,” says Goffen. “So there’s a whole new curriculum.” And the museums have not been slow to take note.
  40. 40. UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Capítulo A 41 On the contemporary front, conditions seem to have evolved to the point where a worthy woman artist has as much access as a man. As Laura Hoptman, curator of contemporary art at the Carnegie Museum of Art in Pittsburgh, observes, the situation is “provable in museum exhibitions, acquisitions, and also in the publishing record of contemporary art—that is, the monographs that are generated by women and about women. Those are conventional temperature-taking devices, empirical statistics that you can check.” But, Hoptman emphasizes, the change in women’s status also “has to do with the very changed ways we look at our field, not as a monolithic story that has to be told and retold, but as a series of stories. You look at the object in the context of the moment in which it is produced—not only who produced it and what she was thinking, but where she lived, who she was hanging out with, what schools she went to, whether she was rich or poor, whether she was making work for her boudoir or was going to sell it, whether it was a commission—all of those wonderful things that are now necessary to think about when you look at art.” Hoptman, who, with Lynn Zelevansky, curated a 1998–99 exhibition at the Los Angeles County Museum of Art on Yayoi Kusama, explains how working with Kusama was so much about “seeing a Japanese woman artist in the most macho culture possible—New York, circa 1960.” She recalls how “Kusama used her craziness to scare the pants off everybody, and that was enormously important. She was excised from the history of art, and of course now she’s been reinserted.” Besides Kusama, whom she calls “a great, great artist,” Hoptman mentions Lee Bontecou, noting that she’s having a major retrospective at Chicago’s Museum of Contemporary Art, opening in February 2004, as well as Hesse. Alanna Heiss, pioneering founder and director of New York’s P.S. 1 Contemporary Art Center, explains how she tried to think of different “structural ways” to consider the status of women today and how to evaluate it. “One was through financial power and one was through social clusters—those were two factors. Not what proportion of women are artists,” she points out. The economic issue involves not just how much people earn for their work but how much they pay to make their art. “I’ve put together a list,” Heiss says, that “is not only about artists who make good work but women who are blue- chip.” She includes here “Marina Abramovic (because of the cost involved in production of her pieces—she’s able to command sums to produce pieces that would not have been thinkable in the 1970s), Cindy Sherman, Ann Hamilton, Kiki Smith, Annette Messager, Pipilloti Rist, Caterina Severding (who’s hugely influential and valuable in Europe), Cecily Brown, Rachel Whiteread, and Elizabeth Murray.” She then adds to this “blue-chip” list Nan Goldin, Susan Rothenberg, Pat Steir, Sam Taylor-Wood, and Bourgeois. “We’re talking about people who have an active command of financial resources in the art community.”
  41. 41. UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Capítulo A 42 Another way to look at success, Heiss notes, is in terms of gangs. “My theory,” Heiss says, “about the ability to gain exhibition possibilities and access to a larger audience has a lot to do with gangs—clusters of people who spend time together, work together, exchange ideas, exhibit together.” She notes two or three such groups that have been controlled by women in the last 20 years: the British gang, which includes Sarah Lucas, Whiteread, Taylor-Wood, Tracey Emin, and Mona Hatoum (“And think how powerful that gang is,” she says); and another, little, gang, “not a prime-time gang,” consisting of artists like Rineke Dijkstra and Anna Gaskell. “There was a New York branch and a British branch—girls taking photographs of girls, generally in adolescence,” Heiss observes. “But then you look at the original Great Girl artists who were completely nongang- related and you have Bourgeois and Kusama.” So on every front—in the academy and the marketplace, the studios and the museums—it seems we are approaching a level playing field. But as Nancy Spector reminds us, “There are generations of younger women artists who don’t necessarily recognize or understand the struggles that previous generations fought.” Clearly, we’ve come a long way. A contender for greatness? Jenny Saville confronts our myths of beauty, as in her painting Fulcrum, 1999. Ann Landi is a contributing editor of ARTnews. Copyright 2012, ARTnews LLC, 48 West 38th St 9th FL NY NY 10018. All rights reserved.
  42. 42. UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Capítulo A 43 Texto: ¿Who are the great women artists? Fuente: ARTnews, marzo 2003 Características: 4p con ilustraciones Dificultad: intermedio – avanzado Objetivo: practicar estrategias de lectura a partir de la fòrmula SQ3R Instrucciones Lee el texto “Who are the great women artists?” poniendo en practica los pasos contenidos en la formula SQ3R. I. Survey (análisis del texto) II. Questions (preguntas de interferencia) III. Read (lectura derallada) IV. Recite V. Review Notas: la explicación detallada a esta estrategia de lectura (SQ3R) se encuentra en la ficha siguiente en el apartado de claves de respuestas” puedes consultar algunas preguntas que se hicieron sobre el texto – siguiendo el paso II: Questions – asi como las respuestas que el texto ofrece a las mismas. a. ESTRATEGIA CLAVE DE LECTURA: FORMULA SQ3R SQ3R es el nombre con que se conoce a una fórmula que encierra estrategias de lectura que te resultarán altamente eficaces. Cada letra representa un concepto y conlleva un procedimiento específico que deberás seguir. Así, los cinco pasos son: Survey (Análisis del texto); Questions o preguntas de interferencia; Read o lectura detallada; Recite o decir en voz alta; y Review o repaso. I. Survey (Análisis del texto) a) Antes de empezar a leer todo el texto, realiza una lectura de familiarización: pon atención al título, encabezado, imágenes y pies de foto; piensa sobre los posibles contenidos del artículo y di de qué va a tratar. ¿Sabes algo sobre ese tema? ¿Qué te gustaría saber. b. b) Ahora si vamos a empezar a leer el texto, pero lo vamos a fragmentar en párrafos. Lee el primer enunciado de cada párrafo, es decir, hasta donde encuentres un punto, e identifícalo con un marcador amarillo. Asegúrate de entender el vocabulario de estos fragmentos, a fin de que tengas una idea clara de lo que se dice en ellos.
  43. 43. UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Capítulo A 44 II. Questions (Preguntas de interferencia) Piensa sobre la información que ya leiste (el primer enunciado de cada párrafo) y formula algunas preguntas sobre ello. Para esto imagina que estás dialogando con el autor, y que él o ella te platicaron lo que ya leiste, ¿Qué te gustaría preguntarle? ¿Qué otra informacion te gustaría saber? En este paso no necesitas leer más secciones del texto, sólo con lo que ya sabes redacta una o mas preguntas por párrafo, en español si se te dificulta hacerlo en inglés, que creas el texto te responderá. III. Read (Lectura detallada) a. Lee el texto por párrafos. Poniendo atención a las ideas más importantes de cada uno. Puedes utilizar tu diccionario para consultar los significados de las palabras claves que desconozcas. b. Encuentra las respuestas a las preguntas que formulaste y anótalas en español. En el caso que algunas preguntas no sean satisfechas en el texto, piensa el por qué de esto: quizás confundiste el sentido de algunas palabras o frases en tu prImer acercamiento a la lectura (survey), o quizá el texto no profundizaba sobre los aspectos que tu creías, o puede que hayas elaborado demasiadas preguntas a partir de un sólo párrafo y éstas se responden a lo largo del texto. Sea cual fuere la razón, explícala. c. Conforme lees, también toma nota de la información importante, que no es parte de tus respuestas. Lee todo el texto de esta manera. IV. Recite (Decir en voz alta) a) Vamos a releer el texto, de principio a fin. Vuelve a leer el titulo y el primer párrafo, en silencio, y tomate unos minutos para recordar la información importante que contenía. Aparte la vista del material, y habla en voz alta sobre lo que entendiste. b) Continúa de igual manera con los párrafos siguientes hasta terminar todo el artículo. Conforme avanzas en los párrafos, trata de darle seguimiento o cohesion a las ideas. V. Review (Repaso) Hecho todo lo anterior, vuelve a leer el texto, ahora sin detenerte en cada párrafo. Conforme lo haces, pon atención a la manera en que se estructuran todas las ideas del texto. Es muy importante en este ultimo paso tu mismo evalúes el proceso que seguiste y el resultado que lograste en cuanto a la comprensión del mensaje del autor.
  44. 44. UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Capítulo A 45 Constructivism Aaron Scharf To many critics in the 1920s modern art was anarchy, anarchy was Communism, and the mutilation of natural appearances - like the mutilation of the existing social structure - was anarchistic and communistic. The New York Times, for example, reprinted an article on the subject in their 3 April 1921 edition. The Reds in art, as in literature, the Cubists and Futurists and ah l their noxious offspring would subvert or destroy ah l the recognized standards of art and literature by their Bolshevist methods Modern French art was saturated with the Bolshevist influence, another writer complained. And yet another that the Red" art politicians of Paris, Berlin and Moscow were insanely bent ton rooting out even the memory of the great of the past, for fear the vulgar proletariat might develop an aristocratic longing for ... the majesty of the civi-lizations of the aristocratic past’. Certainly, from David’s time at least, artists, leftists, were in many cases motivated as smuch by social and political aspiration as by purely formal ones. But until the occurrence of Constructivism, no movement in the evolution of modern art had been so thoroughgoing an expression of Marxist ideology or so intimately connected with a revolutionary communist organism. Constructivism was indeed ‘red’ – despite the disclaimers with which quite understandably the proponents of avant- garde art defended themselves against the fanaticism of critics who did not bother to elaborate on the more subtle distinctions, to separate out the finer strands making up the complex fabric of modern art. Constructivism was neither meant to be an abstract style in art nor even an art, per se. At it’s core, it was first and foremost the expression of a deeply motivated conviction that the artista could contribute to enhance the physical and intelectual needs of the whole of society by entering directly into a rapport with machine production, with architectural engineering and with the graphic and photographic means of communication. To meet the material needs, to express the aspirations, to organize and systematize the feelings of the revolutionary proletariat – that was their aim: not political art, but the socialization of art. Often, Constructivism was overtly propagandist in nature: sometimes by the placement of simple geometric forms in the kind of literary context wich turned such forms into representations, or designo r in photomontage or in book and magazine illustration, fragments of the camera image provided the necessary and very concrete references to reality. In El Lissitzky’s Beat the Whites with the Red Wedge, a street poster made about 1920, the simple shapes convey the collision of the two antagonistic forces in revolutionary Russia, not with the narrative descriptiveness of traditional art but with the stark legibility and incipient symbolism wich is so appropiate to the poster’s function. In his illustrations for a children’s book published in 1922, a charming serial called The Story of Two Squares [illustration 88], the elemental forms are converted by the context into representational configurations. Two squares, one black and the other red, hurtle towards the earth (a red circle) in which an architectural cluster (cubes and rectangles) rests. They see only chaos below (geometric forms in disarray). Crash! The red square scatters the lot and on a black square order is established by the red which maintains its vigilo ver all while the black square, smaller now, moves off into space. How many children (and adults) in
  45. 45. UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Capítulo A 46 the newly born socialist state were intrigued by this naive but lucid symbolism is hard to know. But the use of such forms, reflecting a freat sympathy with the technological world, is absolutely consistent with Lissitzky’s typographical principles of optical economy and the instrinsic expressiveness of the type, forms and layouts and of course with the idea of Constructivism. To the Constructivists, a new world had been born and they blieved that the artista or, better, the creative designer should take his place alongside the scientist and engineer [illustration 89]. This was not a novel idea. Architects like Louis Sullivan and his student Frank Lloyd Wright, Henry van de Velde and the Futurist Antonio Sant’ Elia among others in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries had proposed, similarly, that it was not the artista, but the engineer who now stood at the frontiers of the new style. They eulogized simple shapes. They believed that buildings and objects should be freed from the ornamental excrescences and the accumulated barnacles of past art. They advocated the nude building, the purity inherent in elemetary forms. New industrial materials and the machine, they said, contained within themselves a special beauty of their own. This architectonic primitivism was admirably reflected in the work of Alexander Rodchenko who from 1915 executed designs entirely with the rule and compass [illustration 90], later to throw himself wholeheartedly into the constructivist effort. To these artists, geometric forms, uniforma reas of pure colours, had an aura of rational order about them and it was order that they wanted to impose on society. We want ‘not to make abstract projects, but to take concrete problems as the point of departure’, wrote Alexei Gan, one of the theorists of the movement. Social expediency and utilitarian significance, production base don science and technique, instead of the speculative activities of earlier artists, were the first principles of Constructivism. A new social order necessarily brings to life new forms of expression, they believed; and Communism is base don organized work and the application of the intellect. Was Constructivism, then, entirely without art? Iconoclasts, they rejected the bourgeois preoccupation with the representation and interpretation of reality. They repudiated the idea of art for ar’s sake. The materialist direction of their work would, they believed, uncover new and logical formal structures, the innate qualities and expressiveness of the materials. And in the fabrication of socially useful things the very objectivity of the processes would further reveal new meanings and new forms. What these artists proposed was consistent with Marx’s contention that the mode of production of material life determines the social, political and intelectual processes of life. Constructivists believed that the essential conditions of the machine and the consciousness of man inevitably create an aesthetic which would reflect-their time. Two potent words were sequestered by constructivist theoreticians to demonstrate their dialectical creative process: tectonic and factura; their synthesis resulting in constructive reality. Tectonic: the whole idea, the fundamental conception based on social use and expedient materials – the merging of content and form; factura: the realization of the natural propensities of the materials themselves, their peculiar conditions during fabrication, their transformation. In all likelihood, the modern nostrums about the ‘integrity of the material’ gained ímpetus from the terminology of the constructivist dialecticians.
  46. 46. UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Capítulo A 47 As they aspired towards the unification of art and society, the Constructivists expurgated from their minds and from their vocabularies the arbitrary classifications which traditionally had imposed on art a hierarchic scale giving the supremacy to painting, sculpture and architecture. The idea of ‘fine art’ being superior to the socalled ‘practical arts’ was to them no longer valid. Appropriately, then, Constructivists like Vladimir Tatlin (1885-1953), Alexander Rodchenko (1891- 1956) and El Lissitzky (1890-1941) worked in many fields. Tatlin taught Wood and metal fabrication and in the Institute of Silicates, ceramics. His industrial designs included functional workers’ clothes. He was concerned also with the cinema, for many years designed for the theatre, and he experimented with gliders. Rodchenko worked during a long career in typography, poster and furniture design and magazine illustration. He also distinguished himself in the field of photograpy and film. Lissitzky too was engaged in many sectors, notably architecture and interior design. Furniture, magazine illustration and layout, occupied him during much of his life. Similarly, other artists associated with Constructivism dispensed their talents in a multiplicity of ways. Painting and sclupture were not entirely discarded. They were not ends in themselves according to the tenets of constructivist realism, but were parts of processes through which architecture or industrial products were fully realized. Lissitzky’s conception of the proun points this up. Proun is an abbreviation from the Russian phrase which means something like ‘new art objects’. This paradigm of constructivist realism was in its essence meant to convey the idea of creative evolution, beginning with the flat plane and more or less illusionistic renderings (a kind of architect’s or designer’s plan), followed by the fabrication of three-dimensional models, then finally the total realization in the construction of utilitarian objects. Proun, simply, was a method of working, entirely in harmony with modern technological means. Trough this forming process, all the essential elements of form: mass, the flat plane, space, proportion, rhythm, the natural properties of particular materials used, plus the demands made by the ultímate function of the object, should come to gruition in the final object itself. No doubt, Lissitzky’s earlier training as an engineer and architect was instrumental in the resolution of this idea. In fact, he explicitly associates the procedure with that followed by engineers and architects. Because of the formal characteristics of his designs, and because of his sympathy with some of Malevich’s assertive horizontal sand verticals make him a Constructivist. It is not a question of style. It is one of intention. Lissitzky may have embraced certain suprematist ideas, but his principal purpose, his whole manner of working, was allied to Constructivism. This is also clearly indicated in his writing. His guiding principle for architecture was that space was made for people, not people for space: ‘we no longer want a room to be a painted coffin for our living bodies.’ His concern with the material problems of existence is reflected in his speculations about the future. To mitígate the growing problema of vast accumulations of printed books, for example, he envisaged electronic libraries. With the success of the October Revolution in 1917 these artists, tremendously enthusiastic, plunged into the task of creating an art of the proletariat, an art participating as they said in the expediencies of that revolution. In 1918, to celebrate its first anniversary, a gigantic re-enactment of the storming of the Winter Palace in Petrograd (the capital till that year) was organized by Nathan Altman with a cast of thousands: not trained actors it should be noted but, reflecting the concrete reality favoured by Constructivism, with non-actors, the ordinary citizens of Petrograd who, by involvement square was decorated, not only with heroically-scaled representations of workers and peasants, with figurative eulogies to the victorious Red Army, but also with massive triangles, segments of circles, rectangles and other such elementary forms.
  47. 47. UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Capítulo A 48 Perhaps the most appropiate symbol of the unification of painting, sculpture and architecture with the information and propaganda organ of the State, was Tatlin’s extravagant synthesis, designed between 1917 and 1920, called the Monument to the Third International [illustration 91]. This complex was to be constructed in the form of a massive spiral which efficaciously conveyed the dynamism of the space age- a sanguine thrust into an unknown but promising future. The empire State building, completed by 1931, is 1250 feet high. The height intended for the Russian structure is sometimes said to be at least that. Inside would hang a cylinder, a cube and a sphere containing meeting halls, offices and, at the very top, an information centre – all revolving at different rates of speed: one of the eariest examples of kinetic sculpture; kinetic architecture more accurately. Utilizing almost every technical means of communication then known – including a special projection device for throwing images on to clouds – news bulletins, governmental proclamations and revolutionary slogans would be dispensed daily, hourly, to the people. Tatlin’s tower was a stupendous declaration of faith in a communist society. But for a large wooden model, it was never built. Following the Revolution, plans for new architectural structures base don constructivist principles far outnumbered the buildings actually erected. Carried away by utopian visions, Russian architects and designer wanted literally to give the new society a new shape. Not to construct, they said, but to reconstruct. Often, as symbolic statements, their designs flafrantly disregarded the elementary requirements of the physical function and now remain, on paper, inspired encomiums to the new world – nothing more [illustration 92]. Those relatively few which were realized: workers clubs, comunal housing, schools, factories, and exhibition buildings, were not accomplished without a great deal of anguish and frustration. And it is perhaps a poetic irony that the best known constructivist building surviving today is Lenin’s mausoleum in Moscow. Fort o add to the economic disabilities of the infant Soviet, industrially they were wenturies, not decades, behind time. Incredible stories have been told about the technological poverty which, well into the thirties, paralysed many of the new attempts in manufacture and architectural construction. Often, for these modern buildings, logs instead of planks were delivered to the sites and these were cut, not with circular saws and electric planers, but with adzes. Te technologically primitive legacy from Tsarist Russia impered for a long time the realization of such advanced ideas. Tatlin’s tower could not have been built without the greatest of difficulties, if it could have been built at all. Thus, the high ideals and emblematic geometry of Constructivism did not so much reflect Russian science and technique as it did that of the West. Lissitzky, writing in Moscow in 1929, made this clear: ‘the techincal revolution in western Europe and America has established the foundation of the new architecture.’ He points specifically to the large urban complexes of Paris, Chicago and Berlin. It was largely because of this infirmity that an intensive programme for training the artista- designer was, in 1918, initiated. New schools, Higher Art and Technical Workshops called VKhUTEMAS (from Vishe KhUdozhestvenny Teknicheskoy Masterskoy), appeared and the very utilization of such abbreviations, common enough in the new russia, is to some extent an etymological demonstration of their sympathy with modern technocracy. Many of the Constructivists taught or had studios in the VKhUTEMAS. Naum Gabo not long ago described the curriculum of the Moscow workshops and the intensity tith which the students engaged in ideological discussion; a part of their training which, he maintains, was ultimately of more importance than the actual studio teaching there. The programme for these schools was organized

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