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Comprensión de lectura para arquitectos Comprensión de lectura para arquitectos Document Transcript

  • UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Ficha introductoria COMPRENSIÓN DE LECTURA PARA ARQUITECTOS ¡Hola! Bienvenido a la carpeta de “Comprensión de Lectura para Arquitectos.” En esta ficha te voy a describir brevemente los objetivos, contenidos e ideas de uso de la carpeta para que puedas utilizarla con mayor eficacia. Comencemos por decir que los contenidos pueden ser consultados por cualquier estudiante de inglés con conocimientos básicos del idioma, es decir, cualquier estudiante con ganas de mejorar su comprensión de textos en inglés. El objetivo de este compendio es que conforme realices los ejercicios que acompañan a las lecturas conozcas las estrategias y desarrolles habilidades que te ayuden a entender mejor un texto en inglés. Los materiales que vas a leer son textos auténticos1 de áreas relacionadas con la arquitectura, el diseño, el arte y la cultura general; a partir de los cuales podrás resolver diferentes tipos de ejercicios, tanto de comprensión de lectura (CL), como de gramática y vocabulario. El contenido de la carpeta se divide en: introducción, plan de trabajo, 6 capítulos y 4 apéndices. En los 6 capítulos encontrarás: A. Textos auténticos con ejercicios para practicar estrategias de CL B. Textos auténticos con ejercicios para practicar gramática (referencia contextual, conectores y voz pasiva) C. Ejercicios del libro Windows to Culture I para practicar estrategias de CL D. Ejercicios de gramática aplicada a la lectura del libro Grammar and the Meaning of Language: a Reading course for economics and accounting students. E. Claves de respuesta a los ejercicios de las secciones A y B (textos auténticos) F. Claves de respuesta a los ejercicios de las secciones C y D (libros de texto) En los tres apéndices encontrarás: a. Explicaciones en inglés sobre la estructura del lenguaje: qué es un enunciado, los sustantivos, los pronombres y sus referentes, verbos (partes y tiempos), los adjetivos, los adverbios, preposiciones, etc. b. Una lista de los anexos o conectores más comunes en inglés, agrupados por categorías y con su significado en español. c. Una lista de los verbos irregulares más comunes en inglés, con la conjugación de sus tres partes principales: infinitivo, pasado simple, pasado participio y su significado en español. d. Las bibliografías y referencias electrónicas a los materiales utilizados en la carpeta. Conviene aclarar que todos los textos y ejercicios han sido reproducidos con fines educativos y para uso interno de la Facultad de Arquitectura. 1 Por “textos auténticos” me refiero a documentos que han sido publicados en inglés, en publicaciones dirigidas a angloparlantes; y no material que hubiera sido preparado para estudiantes del idioma.
  • UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Ficha introductoria PLAN DE TRABAJO Hay muchas posibilidades para consultar esta carpeta: una es crear tu propio orden según te interesen los temas de los textos o las actividades: también puedes seguir la secuencia natural de los capítulos, o bien puedes intentar la siguiente alternativa: Sección Texto/ Actividad Sugerencias 1 C Resuelve la unidad 3 “Books, Books, Books.” Identifica palabras clave en los contenidos de los libros En un texto de tu elección, practica identificar frases a partir de los artículos (a, an, the) y los sustantivos 2 A Lee el texto “Sevan Monastery” y resuelve la actividad. 3 C Resuelve la unidad 2 “Eleven Plays of the Greek Dramatists 4 A Lee y resuelve la actividad sobre el texto “Zaha Hadid Pritzker Prize Consulta otras paginas electrònicas relacionadas con tu área profesional en las computadoras de la Mediateca. 5 C Resuelve la unida 4 “Using the Dictionary” Asiste al taller sobre uso del diccionario, que se imparte semestralmente en tu Mediateca. 6 D Lee y resuleve la actividad 7 de las pp. 34 - 35 Practica identificar los verbos y tiempos de conjugación en un texto autèntico que tu elijas. 7 E Resuelve la actividad del texto “Photography and the War” 8 B Resuelve la actividad del texto sobre diseño industrial “The new game in Design” Practica identificar pronombres y referentes en otros textos utilizando marcadores de colores. 9 A Resulve la actividad del texto “Rewards of Unbuildinf” Practica las diferentes estrategias de vocabulario en otros textos de tu elección. 10 B Resuelve las actividades de los textos “design various” Estudia la lista de conectores en el apéndice. Estudia la voz pasiva en los métodos (p.e. New Interchange 3) 11 A Lee y resuelve las actividades de los textos: “Houses for the Future - Now” y “Keeping it Real-And Real Small” Identifica en la lectura los verbos en voz pasiva que encuentres 12 D Resuelve la actividad de la Practica la estrategia en un texto que tu
  • UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Ficha introductoria unidad 12 “oraciones simples y complejas: su estructura” elijas. 13 A Resuelve la actividad del texto “Who are the Great Woman Artists?” Aplica esta misma estrategia a otro texto de tu interés. 14 D Resuelve la actividad de la unidad 16 “términos generales y especificidades” Practica realizar diagramas a partir de textos descriptivos o teóricos de arquitectura. 15 A Lee y resuelve las actividades del texto “Constructivism” Identifica los conectores y piensa sobre la manera en que relacionan la información del texto. La lectura es un proceso mágico, a partir del cual comprendemos ideas que antes no nos imaginábamos, adquirimos conocimientos nuevos, y logramos comunicarnos con autores que quizá nunca conoceríamos de otra forma. Leer es un hábito que una vez iniciado no se puede evitar y que puede llenar tu vida de inmensas dichas y placeres. Disfruta resolver los ejercicios de esta carpeta y recuerda que como cualquier otra habilidad, la comprensión de lectura necesita de mucha práctica para poder dominarla. ¡Buena suerte!
  • UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Índice INDICE CAPÍTULO A Textos auténticos con ejercicios para practicar estrategias de Comprension de Lectura-- 7 Sevan Monastery --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 8 Zaha Hadid Pritzker Prize --------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 10 Photography and the war -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 19 Rewards of Unbuilding ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 25 Houses of the Future – Now ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- 30 ¿Who are the great women artists?------------------------------------------------------------------- 37 Constructivism----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 45 CAPÍTULO B Textos autenticos con Ejercicios para practicar gramatica --------------------------------------- 54 The New Game in Design--------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 55 Design Various----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 57 CAPÍTULO C: Ejercicios de Comprension de Lectura ----------------------------------------------------------------- 59 Eleven Plays of the Greek Dramatists ----------------------------------------------------------------- 60 Books, books, books --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 63 Using the dictionary-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------69 CAPÍTULO D: Ejercicios de Gramática aplicada a la Lectura -------------------------------------------------------- 74 CAPÍTULO E: Claves de respuesta a los Ejercicios de las Secciones A y B--------------------------------------- 86 Texto: Sevan Monastery ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 87 Texto: Zaha Hadid Pritzker Prize ----------------------------------------------------------------------- 88 Texto: Photography and the War---------------------------------------------------------------------- 91 Texto: Rewards of Unbuilding -------------------------------------------------------------------------- 97 Texto: Houses for the Future - Now ------------------------------------------------------------------- 99 Texto:¿Who are the Great Women Artists?--------------------------------------------------------102 Texto: Constructivism ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------104 Texto: The New Game in Design ----------------------------------------------------------------------106 Texto: Design Various-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------107 CAPÍTULO F Claves de respuesta a los Ejercicios de la sección D-----------------------------------------------109
  • UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Índice APÉNDICE A. Explicaciones sobre Estructura del Lenguaje --------------------------------------------------------113 Sentences -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------114 Nouns----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------116 Pronouns ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------117 Verbs-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------119 Adjectives ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------122 Adverbs--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------123 Prepositions --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------124 Conjunctions--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------125 Interjections --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------126 Verbals---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------126 Phrases and clauses -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------126 Capitalization-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------128 Troublesome words -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------129 Easily confused verb pairs----------------------------------------------------------------------------------130 Pronouns ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------131 Adjectives -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------132 Adverbs--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------132 Prepositions --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------133 Agreement----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------134 APÉNDICE B. Conectores o nexos ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------136 APÉNDICE C. Verbos Irregulares Comunes-----------------------------------------------------------------------------139 APÉNDICE D. Referencias y bibliografía---------------------------------------------------------------------------------151
  • UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Capítulo A 7 CAPÍTULO A Textos auténticos con ejercicios para practicar estrategias de Comprensión de Lectura
  • UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Capítulo A 8 Sevan Monastery (Sewan, Sevan Lichi) Lake Sevan, Sevan region, Republic of Armenia 9th Century AA Vol. 2, Fiche # 059-062. The Church of S.Astvatsatsin (Mother of God) and the smaller Church of S.Arakelots (Holy Apostles, later S.Karapet) are both located on a peninsula which was once an island in Lake Sevan (approx. coord. 40-35/ 45-00). According to an inscription on the south wall of the Church of S.Arakelots, the monastery was founded in 874 AD and it is attributed to Princess Mariam, the wife of Prince Vasak of Kapur and the daughter of the Bagratuni King Asot. For several centuries thereafter it remained an important spiritual center and was a pilgrimage site for thousands of visitors from all parts of Armenia. Today, the monastery consists of only the two churches and a ruined gavit which are all situated on the southwest side if a hill overlooking Lake Sevan. The Church of S.Arakelots has a trefoil inscribed within a cross type plan surmounted by a conical dome. The entrance portal is framed by and arch located on the southwest side. A short distance to the southeast is the Church of S.Astvatsatsin which was built in a similar fashion immediately after the completion of S.Arakelots. However, S.Astvatsatsin has some additional chapel and chamber spaces and has a somewhat wider plan.The ruined gavit, located to the west of S.Astvatsatsin has been dated to the 9th or 10th century and was comprised of a square space over which an erdik (corbelled lantern or dome) was supported by a pair of wooden piers.
  • UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Capítulo A 9 Texto: Sevan monastery Fuente: www.lib.rpi.edu/dept/library/html/ArmArch/Sev.html Características: 1p (una columna) con ilustraciones Dificultad: básico Objetivo: practicar pre-lectura y estrategias de vocabulario: repetición. Cambios tipográficos y adivinar en contexto. I. Observa el título del texto, su longitud y las imágenes que lo acompañan. Notarás que en el texto hay algunos espacios vacios. Por lo general, cuando leemos no necesitamos conocer todas las palabras del mismo para tener una idea de lo que se trata. Por lo que si alcanzas a leer, ¿de que crees que va a tratar la lectura? II. Lee el texto y completa los espacios en blanco con algunas de las siguientes palabras III. Haz una lectura rápida y a continuación responde las preguntas. a. ¿Dónde se localiza la Iglesia de S. Astvatsatsin? b. ¿A quién se atribuye la fundación del monasterio? c. ¿Qué información se obtiene sobre el portal de la entrada? d. ¿Cuáles son dos diferencias entre la Iglesia a S. Astvatsatsin y la de S. Arakelots? e. ¿Qué explicación da el texto sobre la palabra “erdik”? Apéndice: Glosario En el texto probablemente haya muchas palabras que desconozcas, para agilizar tu lectura a continuación hay un listado de términos inglés / español. English Español English Español Church Iglesia Hill Colina Both Ambas Surmounted Coronado According to Según, de acuerdo a Framed Enmarcado Was founded Fue fundado Was built Fue construida Centuries Siglos Chapel Capilla Pilgrimage Peregrinación Wider Más amplio
  • UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Capítulo A 10 Zaha Hadid Pritzker Prize
  • UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Capítulo A 11
  • UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Capítulo A 12
  • UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Capítulo A 13
  • UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Capítulo A 14
  • UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Capítulo A 15
  • UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Capítulo A 16 Texto: Zaha Hadid Pritzker Prize Fuente: www.architectureweek.com/2004/0414/news_2-1.html Características: 4p (una columna) con publicidad e ilustraciones Dificultad: básico Objetivo: practicar pre-lectura, vocabulario y lectura detallada I. Pre lectura: a. Familiarización: antes de empezar a leer un texto, es importante realizar una lectura de familiarización. El artículo que vas a leer se obtuvo de una publicación electrónica. Observa las características físicas del texto y completa la siguiente información. ¿Cuál es el titulo? ¿Como son las imágenes? ¿Que información entiendes de los pies de foto? ¿Hay subtítulos? ¿Hay cuadros de texto? ¿De donde obtuvo el artículo? ¿Estas familiarizado con esta publicación? b. Vocabulario Observa el diseño de la pàgina y di a què se refieren las siguientes frases: News/ design/ building/ design tolos/ enviroment/ cultura/ current contents/ classic home/ competitions/ conferences/ events & exhibits/ architecture/ fórum/ architects directory/ architecture books/ library & archive/ web directory/ marketplace/ about Archweek/ search/ subscribe & Contribute/ newsletter Free/ PopQuiz Lee la primera parte del artículo (hoja 1) rápidamente, no te detengas hasta terminar un párrafo. Conforme lo haces, identifica palabras clave que te ayuden a entender el significado del texto: Estrategia Explicación Ejemplo Cognados Palabras transparentes del inglés al español President = presidente Cambios tipográficos Palabras mayúsculas, cursivas, negritas, subrayadas, entre comillas, siglas, con guiones Iraqi – born= nacida en Irak
  • UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Capítulo A 17 II. Lectura detallada: a. Responde a las siguientes proposiciones como falso y verdadero, ubica en el texto la información que te dio la pauta. 1. Zaha Hadid ha construido poco, pero sus ideas le han valido gran fama y un futuro prometedor. 2. Para el 2004 ya había desarrollado proyectos en Alemania, Italia y Francia. 3. Según el autor del artículo, tanto en la teoría como en la práctica. Zaha es “modernista.” 4. En 2002 Zaha fue nombrada Miembro Honorario de la Academia Americana de Artes y Letras. 5. El jurado del premio descubrió su obra, entre otras cosas, como escandalosa 6. Según Frank Gehry, a pesar de su juventud Zaha tiene una de las trayectorias arquitectónicas más exitosas e innovadoras. 7. Hace 25 años, Zaha construyó su carrera desafiando las convenciones. 8. Para Jorge Silvetti, las manipulaciones que Zaha hace de los elementos y espacios arquitectónicos son prueba de que la arquitectura puede ser un arte. Números Fechas y cantidades 2004 = fecha en que se otorgó el premio Palabras repetidas Sustantivos, verbos, adjetivos Work = trabajo, obra Morfología de la palabra Afijos (prefijos y sufijos) Palabras compuestas Familia de palabras British = británico Chairman = presidente Architects = (n) arquitectos Architecture = (n) arquitectura Architectural = (adj) Arquitectónico Palabras que buscar en el diccionario Palabras cuyo significado desconozcas y sean importantes para entender el texto Although = aunque
  • UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Capítulo A 18 b. Responde las siguientes preguntas de manera concisa y en español, con la información de la sección “Built Work” 1. ¿Cuál es su único trabajo construido en los EU? 2. ¿Por qué organizó los espacios y el sistema de circulación del Richard and Lois Rosenthal Center for Contemporary Art como una “carpeta urbana”? 3. ¿Cuáles de las siguientes descripciones son correctas? a. Por una parte, la rampa del mezzanine se eleva hasta penetrar el muro trasero, y por el otro se convierte en la entrada a las galerías. b. Las galerías parecen ser talladas de un sólo bloque de concreto, y flotar sobre el lobby. c. Las galerías fueron realizadas entrelazando sólidos y vanos, a manera de un rompecabezas. 4. ¿Como es el diseño de la estación de bomberos en Alemania? 5. ¿Cómo es la distribución de los espacios en LFone Landesgartenshcau?
  • UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Capítulo A 19 Photography and the war World War was a rich quarry for documentary photographers, and every aspect of it in evry thater of conflicto, was covered by the camera. The photographers often showed extraordinary Enterprise, as well as bravery, in getting the images they wanted. Some were entirely unexpected personalities, none more so tan the expatriate American, Lee Miller (1907-1977), who had first established herself in Europe as the model and darkroom assistant of Man Ray. At the beggining of the war iller was living in London, with Roland Penrose, a minor Surrealist painter and major patrón of the arts. In the early 1940`s she made remarkable photographs of the London Blitz. In 1944, shortly before the Normandy landings, she succeded in getting herself acredited as an American war correspondent, and proceeded to accompany the American army across France and Germany. Some of her most memorable images were made in the German concentration camps at Dachau, wich she saw the morning after it was liberated, and Buchenwald. Her images helped to bring home the true reality of the Holocaust to the British and American public. Her searing pictures are not of starving prisioners, nor of piles of corpses, but of concentration camp guards who had been beated by their victims and then looked up by the allies (fig. 6.29). as the critic and curator, Jane Livingston remarks, these photographs have “a charácter of monumentality, and ultimately; a kind of unflinchingness, that separates (them) from others of their kind. Weegee in New York On the other side of tha Atlantic, the new photographer, Weegee (Arthur Felling, 1899-1968), was making a rather similar documentation of the dark side of a modern metrópolis. His book, Naked City, was published in 1945. Weegee had a pólice radio in his car, wich enabled him to rush to the scene of an accident or crime almost as son as it had taken place. His glaring and brutal images, most often made at night, and lit with a pitiless photographic flash (fig. 6.30), offer an apparentely raw, uncensored visión of life wich is a vehicle for savage criticism of American sociaty.
  • UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Capítulo A 20 Visionary photographers While photographers such as Miller and Weegee reacted directly to the terror of their times, there were others who tried to supply positive images as an emotional counterbalance to all-pervasive violence. In the 1940`s ansel Adams (1902-1984) made waht are perhaps the best loved landscape images in the history of American photography-images like the famous Moonrise, Hernandez, New Mexico (fig. 6.31). His influences included the work of Stiegliz, of Edward Weston and also of the great nineteenth century topographical photographers such as Timothy H O Sullivan (1840- 1882)- the men who first showed America to itself. In the Canyon de Chelly in Arizona, for instance, Adams often used almost exactly the same points of view that O`Sullivan had employed. Adam was also influenced bye the literary tradition of Walt Withman and Eward Carpenter who wrote: it seems to me that the only way in wich artist can make his work durable and great is by seeking to arrive at the most direct expression of something actually felt by himself as a part of his own , and so part of all the human experience. He most go to the roof of alla Arts, namely the conveyance of an emotion or impression with the utmost force and directness from himself to another person. Minor White (1908-1976) was also influenced by Stieglez (whom he visited in New York in New York in 1946), by Ansel Adams (whom he succeded in his teaching post at the California School of Fine Arts), by Edward Weston (with whom he become close friends), and by the poetry of Whitman. His range of imagery is wider than that of Adams- it includes anumber of homoerotic images made in the late 1940`s wich remained unpublish and unexhibited during his lifetime. Many of his most typical photographs of the 1940`s are close-up landscape details (fig. 6.32) these have an obvious kinship with teh work being done by the emrgent Abstract Expressionist painters at the same period. The likeness to the paintings of Clyfford Still is especially striking. Another photographer making radically abstract images during this epoch was Harry Callahan (1912), also a discipline of Stieglitz and Adams. A study of Weeds in Snow (fig. 6.33), made in Detrit in 1943, offers a kind of abstraction wich is more radical tan anything the Abstract Expressionists had achieved up to that point.
  • UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Capítulo A 21 Quiet apart from its intrinsic merits, the photography done in the 1940`s by White and Callahan is historically important because it marks the momento at wich photography and other forms of artistic expression began to approach one another in a way wich was eventually to make theme to all effects and purposes indistinguishable.
  • UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Capítulo A 22 Texto: Photography and the war Fuente: Visual Arts of the Twentieth Century Características: 4p (una columna) con ilustraciones Dificultad: Bàsico Objetivo: practicar pre lectura, referencia contextual (pronombres y referentes), relacionar texto con imágenes y lectura detallada. I. Pre lectura: a. Haz una lectura de barrido (skimming) y responde las siguientes preguntas: 1. ¿Cuál es el tema del texto? 2. ¿Te gusta la fotografía? ¿Qué temas fotográficos prefieres? ¿Qué tipo de fotografía te llama más la atención, por qué? b. ¿Qué tanto sabes de fotografía? Une las imágenes con su autor. Manuel âlvarez Bravo * Irving Penn Henri Cartier – Bresson * Alexander Rodchenko
  • UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Capítulo A 23 II. Lectura a. Referencia Contextual: 1. Las palabras circuladas en el texto son pronombres, identifica en el color correspondiente las que hagan referencia a las siguientes personas: Lee Miller – rosa Weegee _ rojo artista _ verde Minor White _ azul 2. Enlista las palabras subrayadas e identifica cuàl es su referente. b. Lectura Detallada: 1. Responde las siguientes preguntas de manera concisa según la información del texto 1. ¿Cuáles de las siguientes características son aplicables a los fotógrafos de la Segunda Guerra Mundial: emprendedores, bravos y valientes? 2. La mejor interpretación de la frase “theater of conflicto” en el renglón 2 es: a. Lugar del conflicto b. Escenario de conflicto c. Zona de conflicto 3. ¿Quiénes influyeron en el trabajo de Ansel Adams? 4. ¿En qué momento tomó Lee Miller las fotografías de Dachau? 5. ¿Quiénes fueron los primeros hombres en mostrar a América a sì misma? 6. ¿A qué pintor se hace referencia en el texto y aqùe estilo pertenece? 7. ¿Qué elementos son distintivos del trabajo de Weegee, tanto en su producción como en su realización? 8. Según Edward Carpenter, ¿cuál es la única forma en que el artista produzca una obra durable y magnifica? 9. ¿Por qué es importante la fotografía hecha por Callahan y White en la década de 1940? 2. Di a cuál de los fotógrafos mencionados en el texto se refieren las siguientes características: Man Ray * Lee Miller* Weegee * Minor White* Edward Weston* Timothy O`Sullivan*Walt Whitman* Edward Carpenter* Ansel Adams* Harry Callahan 1. Fotoperiodista 2. Acompañò al ejercito Americano a Francia y Alemania 3. Documentaciòn del lado oscuro de la metrópolis
  • UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Capítulo A 24 4. Las imágenes de paisaje màs apreciadas en la fotografía Americana 5. Tomò fotografías del London Blitz 6. Edward Weston fue una de sus influencias 7. Fotografías de guardias alemanes golpeados por sus víctimas 8. Expresionismo abstracto 9. Moonrise 10. Sus imágenes no fueron publicadas ni exhibidas durante el tiempo que estuvo vivo su autor 11. Imágenes positivas como balance a la violencia existente 12. Acercamiento a detalles de paisajes 13. Radicalmente abstracto 14. Hiervas en la Nieve III. Pos lectura De acuerdo a lo que leíste, identifica a cuál de los fotógrafos pertenecen las siguientes imágenes, o si no pertenece a ninguno.
  • UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Capítulo A 25 Rewards of Unbuilding By Michael Cockram2 There is a rich and increasingly available source of building materials that can't be found in manufacturers' catalogs or in the advertisements of glossy magazines. Embedded in buildings that were crafted in earlier centuries is a wealth of structural and finish materials. And when these buildings are beyond refurbishing, they can be deconstructed and their materials made available to architects for new projects. The quality of the wood in these old buildings is often substantially higher than what is available from today's depleted forests. Heavy timber, which is now rare and expensive, was once used routinely in older, stoutly built structures. In the Pacific Northwest of the United States, seemingly endless stands of virgin forests were once felled for common studs and sheathing. The straight-grained lumber now being salvaged from humble residences built before the 1950s can often be used for clear trim stock. To take advantage of this rich source of wood, the nonprofit Rebuilding Center in Portland, Oregon has grown in just four years from an idea about salvaging building waste to a burgeoning enterprise with 36 employees. It boasts a full lumberyard with 70,000 square feet (6500 square meters) of exterior storage and a 24,000-square-foot (2200- square-meter) warehouse displaying plethora of building components of every vintage. The Rebuilding Center rivals conventional lumberyards in the variety of materials it offers to builders. Crucial to the organization's success is its deconstruction department, which taps into the rich building stock of Portland and supplies more than half of the center's inventory. In the summer of 2001, they recovered 10 to 20 tons (9 to 18 tonnes) a day from a variety of projects. Dismantling a Mill A large part of that flow of materials came from the 40,000-square-foot (3700-square-meter) Meeker Seed and Grain Mill in Amity, Oregon. The mill buildings yielded an incredible array of lumber including hefty 12x12 (29 by 29 centimeter) heavy-timber columns and beams and a whole spectrum of dimensional lumber. 2 Michael Cockram is an adjunct assistant profesor of architecture at the University of Oregon. He is the director of the Italy Field school program. Heavy timbers salvaged from a grain mil in Amity, Oregon. IMG: The ReBuilding Center (TRBC) A lumberyard of salvaged material on the site of the old mil. IMG: TRBC The study old grain mil building in amity, Oregon before deconstruction. IMG: TRBC Crews use a crane to lift out a section of the resource-rich flooring. IMG: TRBC
  • UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Capítulo A 26 An estimated 500,000 board feet (47,000 board meters) of first-growth lumber was salvaged from the mill, and nearly 95 percent of the entire one-city-block structure was salvaged for reuse. The sturdy old mill did not give up its riches easily, however. Every day the "decon" crew faced challenges such as dismantling expanses of flooring made of solid 2x10 (3.8 by 23.5 centimeter) fir turned on end. The enormous storage bins sheathed in 2x6 (3.8 by 14 centimeter) studs nailed at 2 inches (5 centimeters) on center could not be taken apart in a cost-effective way. The bins finally had to be pushed over and crushed for recycling — the last choice before discarding the material. Local architects began tapping into the Amity project by designing projects around the heavy-timber framing members. Unusual materials such as plank flooring — scrubbed with grain for decades exposing an articulated wood grain pattern — were turned into exquisite trim stock. "Our first priority is to encourage people to reuse what they have. We'd rather not see buildings come down at all," says Brian McVay a deconstruction project manager at the ReBuilding Center. "But if there is no chance for saving a building, then we bid on the deconstruction, competing with demolition contractors." It's not always easy to get those bids. Careful deconstruction takes time and sometimes costs more than demolition. But building owners can realize tax benefits, making salvage projects affordable, because the materials are being donated to a nonprofit organization. The high- quality materials in an old house, for instance, can generate tax breaks in the tens of thousands of dollars. When comprehensive deconstruction isn't an option, convincing the owners or contractors to allow surface salvage is often the next step. This was the case for the four-story dormitory slated to be replaced by Portland State University. The 1910 building, with airy, high-ceilinged rooms, has a marble-faced entry, intricately bordered wood floors inlaid with cherry, five-panel doors, and miles of beautifully milled clear vertical-grain trim. "We should be able to pull out 20 tons (18 tonnes) of material before demolition starts," McVay says. The original grain mil in Amity, Oregon. IMG: TRBC Exposing the wealth of first growth timber framing. IMG: TRBC Grain storage bins that couldn´t be dismantled were crushed for recycling. IMG: TRBC
  • UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Capítulo A 27 Designing for Future Reuse Design professionals can contribute to the conservation of materials by designing and engineering structures so they can be more easily taken apart in the future. Manufacturers in much of Europe are now required to "design for discard" — they are responsible for recycling anything they produce at the end its of life. So goods are designed for easy disassembly, with an emphasis on fostering recycling instead of disposal. "The principle of designing for discard needs to carry into the construction field," McVay says. "It's been said that deconstruction is only effective for a certain era of structures, namely early 20th century homes, but we need to look toward the future." The houses that are being built today, he points out, will someday need to be remodeled, moved, or disassembled. Will these newer structures be easily moved or disassembled? Current practices of overusing adhesives and nails will increase disassembly time and lower the amount of material that can be recovered. Other Benefits of Reuse Besides the quality of the old materials, there are several reasons for the emergence and success of building product resellers across the country. Rising landfill tipping fees encourage owners and contractors to consider deconstruction over demolition. In Portland there is also the advantage of a city government that promotes sustainable design by requiring any of its own projects with construction costs exceeding $50,000 to be certified by the U.S. Green Building Council's Leadership in Energy & Environmental Design (LEED) program. In the case of rehabilitation or remodeling, LEED points can be earned through salvage and reuse of materials. "The ReBuilding Center diverted four and a half million pounds (2 milion kilograms) of waste from the landfill last year," says Shane Endicott, founder of the ReBuilding Center. "We're creating more jobs every year — jobs out of waste. And we're providing people with building resources that are affordable." The business has operated in the black since opening, with any excess funds going to the umbrella organization Our United Villages, a nonprofit organization dedicated to promoting community- based projects. The ReBuilding Center has been hailed as an economic anchor in its community. The neighborhood is growing in vitality, and new businesses are starting up. A walk through the center's facility reveals much of reason for the success of the ReBuilding Center. From the person on the forklift to the staff working the floor, there's an energy and engagement of people involved in their community and working for something beyond just themselves.
  • UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Capítulo A 28 Texto: Rewards of unbuilding Fuente: www.architectureweek.com/2002/0529/building_1-1.html Características: 3pp. (Una columna) con ilustraciones Dificultad: Bàsico Objetivo: practicar estrategias para registrar y memorizar vocabulario y lectura detallada I. Pre Lectura a. Lectura de familiarización: pon atención al titulo, subtítulos, imágenes y pies de foto. b. ¿de qué crees que va tratar el texto? c. Haz una lista de materiales – tanto estructurales como para acabados – que conozcas en inglés y español. II. Lectura a. Haz una lectura de barrido e identifica en colores: Las palabras que necesitas buscar en el diccionario Así como todas las palabras que creas puedan referirse a: Materiales o descripciones de elementos Acciones o verbos b. Vuelve a leer el texto asegurándote de haber determinado el significado correcto de las palabras y de entender el mensaje del autor. III. Post Lectura a. Encuentra en el texto palabras con las que puedas completar las categorías que se muestran en la actividad “Recording Vocabulary.” b. Responde las siguientes preguntas con base en la información del texto. Falso o verdadero: 1. La calidad de los materiales encontrados en los edificios viejos es notablemente superior al de los materiales actuales. 2. En 4 años, el Centro de reconstrucción en Portland, Oregón, se ha vuelto muy exitoso. 3. Los diseñadores e ingenieros pueden contribuir a la reutilización de los materiales, si diseñan estructura que puedan ser recicladas en el fácilmente en el futuro. 4. En toda Europa, los fabricantes deben utilizar, materiales reciclados. 5. Según Mc Vay, principalmente las estructuras de principios del siglo XX son las que pueden ser reconstruidas eficientemente. 6. Las prácticas actuales de construcción facilitan la reutilización futura de los materiales.
  • UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Capítulo A 29 7. En Estados Unidos, el gobernó exige a los proyectistas cuyos costos de construcción excedan $50 000 usd a que estén certificados por el LEED. 8. “Our United Village” es el nombre de ina organización sin fines de lucro dedicada a promover proyectos de reutilización de materiales. 9. Gracias al Centro de Reconstrucción, la comunidad ha mejorado su economía. Opción múltiple: selecciona la(s) opciones correctas para cada enunciado. 1. En el molino “Meeker Seed and Grain Mill”: a) Se reutilizaron 3700 m2 de materiales b) Se rescataron 47000 metros de tablones de madera. c) Más del 95 % de la estructura se pudo salvar para ser reutilizada. d) El proceso de desmantelaciòn no fue nada fácil. 2. ¿Cuál es la última opción, antes de desechar un material? a) Aplastarlo b) Llevarlo aparte c) Reciclarlo d) Comprimirlo 3. “Plank Flooring” o suelo de duela, es un ejemplo de ,materiales: a) Expuestos por décadas a la intemperie b) Con patrones de madera c) Inusuales d) Convertidos en magnificas reservas 4. Un beneficio que pueden tener los propietarios para permitir la reutilización es: a) Que no siempre se pueden salvar estructuras completas sino sólo partes b) Que la “re arquitectura” toma más tiempo que la demolición c) Que el reciclaje de materiales no siempre es más costoso que una demolición d) Que los materiales son donados a organizaciones sin fines de lucro, por lo que pueden deducirlo de sus impuestos 5. La Universidad Estatal de Portland: a) Fue construida en 1910 b) No pudo ser desmantelada en su totalidad, por lo que se procedió a un “salvar la superficie.” c) Pudieron rescatarse 20 toneladas de materiales no antes de la demolición d) Tenía pisos de mármol, puertas de madera de cerezo, y otros materiales preciosos
  • UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Capítulo A 30 Houses of the Future – Now Prefarb: When you hear “modular home” you think “doublé-wide”. Today’s prefabricated-housing designers want you to think again. If you're cruising through the International Contemporary Furniture Fair in New York this week, stroking the buttery leather Italian chairs, coveting the coolest couches--and wrinkling your nose at the design world's inevitable excesses--you'll come upon a one-room "house," all glass and wood, filled with nifty, well-priced furniture from Blu Dot (page 64). But don't just check out the urbane modernist chairs and chests: pay attention to the sleek little structure itself. Designed by architect Charlie Lazor, one of Blu Dot's trio of founders, it's a sample of Flatpak, an ingenious system of 2-D panels that, like their furniture, can be shipped and assembled on-site into a well- crafted prefab house in far less time--and for less money-- than it would take to build from scratch. It may look handsomely unassuming sitting in a cavernous trade show, but trust us: it represents the first revolution in American housing in decades. You can't measure this mini-phenomenon in numbers. Of the more than 1.18 million new houses built in the United States last year, "modular" units accounted for only about 3 percent--and that includes double-wides. But with Flatpak and its ilk, we're talking about architect-designed dwellings. These houses can have either flat or pitched roofs, but either way they're unabashedly modern--which is not just a statement of style, but of values. Designed in reaction to the overblown developer houses that dominate the market, quality modern prefabs tend to be smaller and more energy-efficient, with open, flexible spaces. While the number of such innovative prefabs sold last year would barely make a ripple in the housing pool, consumer interest is rising fast. "There's more demand than supply right now," says Michael Sylvester, who
  • UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Capítulo A 31 started the Web site fabprefab.com in 2003 and now gets 45,000 visitors a month. When Allison Arieff, editor of Dwell magazine, wrote the book "Prefab" in 2002, most projects she found were in Europe--or on the drawing board. Today she says she's bombarded with inquiries. "It's been a bit of a surprise." Skyrocketing real-estate prices are obviously pushing people toward new housing ideas, but so are simple demographics. Shelter-magazine editors, who've been avidly covering the prefab trend, understand what developers don't: that young urban professionals who shop at IKEA and Banana Republic may not want a mini-McMansion when the time comes to buy their first house. In fact, Flatpak's Lazor, who lives in Minneapolis, and architect Michelle Kaufmann, who's based in San Francisco, were each driven to design their first prefab because they couldn't find what they wanted to buy in their price range. "This came out of my utter frustration with insanely inefficient and insanely expensive houses," says Lazor. "Prefab is for people who are busy but have a good design sense," says Kaufmann, who once worked for Frank Gehry in Los Angeles. "They want to live in a clean, green space they can afford, both in terms of time and money." Kaufmann now has 36 of her Glidehouses under contract, and she's just introduced her Breezehouse, a model entirely built in the factory, right down to the towel rods. After a Kaufmann modular house is completely tricked out, it's shrink-wrapped and trucked to a site with a prepared foundation. While modular houses typically offer certain options, a panel system like Flatpak's allows greater variations: the eight-foot panels can be built of different materials--glass, wood, cement board--and you can keep adding to make a house as large as you want. On the other hand, architect Jennifer Siegal, founder of Office of Mobile Design in Venice, Calif., started small. She was inspired to design prefab when she lived in North Carolina and noticed "all the manufactured housing" (read: trailers) "and just how terribly underdesigned it was, to put it politely." She's now created both a modular home--the Portable House--completed at the factory, and a kit that's assembled on-site--the Swellhouse--whose walls "snap together almost like LEGOs." Siegal has designed both to be "open and airy," and to use environmentally correct materials wherever possible. Still, despite these architects' good intentions, there are obstacles. Neighbors hear "prefab" and think "trailer park." Local building codes vary, and sometimes zoning boards balk. Lazor has tried to avoid some of these issues by designing Flatpak so the wiring and plumbing are done by local tradesmen. And though prefab is meant to be more affordable than on-site construction, it's not always cheap. Kaufmann's smallest house is only 674 square feet and can be built for as little as $132 per square foot. But a competition-winning prefab design by Resolution: 4 Architecture, intended to be built for $100 per square foot, ended up costing about $175. And outside St. Louis, Lindal Cedar Homes has built its first prefab design by award-winning Seattle architect James Cutler. An elegant, ecologically sensitive lakefront spec house, it's priced at $979,000. So far, no takers. Pessimists point out that designer prefab movements have sprouted before and never taken root. But Kaufmann, for one, is optimistic. "People are expecting more from design now," she says. "And we can e-mail drawings. I couldn't have handled 40 prefab clients like this 20 years ago." For a little perspective on that point, we need only look at architect Ralph Rapson, now 90, who designed one of the famous modern Case Study houses in 1945--and is now at work adapting it as a prefab house for a 32-year-old developer in North Carolina. To us that says good ideas never die.
  • UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Capítulo A 32 KEEPING IT REAL – AND REAL SMALL The hot Blu Dot clings to its misión in Minneapolis. The woodworking shop in Blu Dot's Minneapolis factory space is cold, sawdusty and filled with intimidating machines, and John Christakos loves it in here. It's where he gets to do what designers live for: making stuff. But lately, Christakos has noticed that he's spending less and less time in his favorite spot. "I try to create reasons to come in here," he says, but the excuses are getting harder to find. Since 1996, when Christakos started Blu Dot with two pals from Williams College, the company has bloomed into an unlikely success, averaging 60 percent annual growth and becoming perhaps the only label to have items on sale at Murray Moss's famed Manhattan boutique and at the Home Depot. Christakos now spends more time managing Blu Dot than thinking up new designs for it, and he worries, half seriously, about the day when he'll have to admit he's running "an actual business." Making its name was Blu Dot's first challenge. Now comes its second: staying small, no matter how big it gets. Spend some time around the Blu Dot boys--Christakos, COO Maurice Blanks and co-owner Charlie Lazor, all of whom trained as architects--and you'll hear things businessmen rarely say aloud. They joke freely about their flops. (One terrific-looking chair turned out to be so uncomfortable that Blanks now refuses to call it a chair. It's "a device to keep you off the ground.") And they plead ignorance about most aspects of running a business. Says Lazor: "We don't really know what the hell we're doing." But they're all clear about why they began Blu Dot: to "democratize design" with cool furniture for normal folks who are sick to death of wicker. Blu Dot's signature style--easy-to- swallow modernism with doses of tasteful color--is a byproduct of the boys' ethos. And it's working. Now that Blu Dot has opportunities galore, the trick, all three men agree, is resisting most of them. "What kills a lot of small companies is they take every side road they possibly can," says Blanks. The men are constantly flirting with ideas for more growth--"A kids' furniture line!" "Full-page ads in every shelter magazine!"--but each notion must withstand heavy scrutiny to prove its essential Blu Dotness. (And those two didn't.) The Home Depot deal made sense because the two companies share a common goal: empowering the masses. But that's about all they share. Sure, Christakos has quadrupled his staff in the past five years--from three to 12. He might even add a few more soon. "But I have no desire for Blu Dot to become a 200-person company," he says. "Then there's no way to avoid it being an actual business." Anything but that.
  • UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Capítulo A 33 Texto: Houses for the future - now Fuente: Newsweek, May 23 2005 (http://www.thedailybeast.com/newsweek/2005/05/22/houses-of-the-future-now.html y http://www.thedailybeast.com/newsweek/2005/05/22/keeping-it-real-and-real-small.html) Características: 3p con ilustraciones Dificultad: básico Objetivo: practicar vocabulario en contexto y lectura detallada I. Pre Lectura a. Lectura de familiarización: antes de leer el texto, pon atención al titulo, encabezados, imágenes y pies de foto de ambos textos: Houses of the Future – Now & Keeping it Real – And Real Small. Para facilitar tu lectura, puedes consultar el glosario inglès/español en la sección E: Claves de respuestas. b. Vocabulario: localiza en ambos textos las siguientes palabras y elige la opción que represente su mejor traducción al español, según el contexto. 1. Story: a) Descripción, recuento b) historia, cuento c) nivel d)planta, piso 2. Breezeway: a) Pasaje abierto b) de manera sencilla c) camino exitoso d)muro de vidrio 3. Coolest couches: a) Sillones màs frìos b) Sillas màs agradables c) Sillas menos interesantes d) Sillones màs atractivos y sofisticados 4. Wrinkling your nose at: a) Frunciendo el ceño b) Arrugando la nariz c) Mostrando desagrado d) Estornudando 5. Far less time: a) En mucho menos tiempo b) En menor tiempo pero no inmediatamente c) En un tiempo remoto d) En menor tiempo 6. From scratch: a) Desde la basura b) desde cero c) desde arañazos desde marcas 7. Handsomely unassuming: a) muy atractivo b) altamente prejuiciado c) en gran medida desapercibido d) nada convencional 8. Skyrocketing real estate prices, significa que los precios de los bienes raíces: a) Han subido mucho últimamente b) Son altísimos
  • UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Capítulo A 34 c) No son predecibles en absoluto d) Son estruendosos 9. Under design: a) Diseñados debajo b) mal diseñados c) no diseñados d) super diseñados 10. Easy to swallow modernism: a) Modernismo fácil de tragar b) Fácilmente modernista c) Modernista a buen precio d) Modernismo accesible II. Reading in detail: A. True/ False: incluye la información verdadera para los enunciados falsos Houses of the future – Now 1. Los términos “modular home” y “double wide” se refieren a lo mismo 2. Flatpak es el nombre de una marca de muebles prefabricados 3. Segùn el autor 1.18 millones de casas modulares se construyeron en EU, lo que representa el 3 % del total de viviendas construidas ese año 4. Los prefabricados son modernos, màs pequeños y ecológicos 5. Del año 2003 a la actualidad, las casas prefabricadas han sido visitadas por 45 000 personas 6. Michelle kaufmann trabaja con Frank Gehry en los Angeles 7. Una de las razones por las que la gente prefiere los prefabricados es su precio, ya que las casas prefabricadas generalmente son màs baratas que las construcciones “en sitio” 8. En una casa prefabricada de Kaufmann, el metro cuadrado podría costar tanto como $ 132 usd Keeping it Real – And Real small 1. John Christakos adora los ambientes “rudos”, aptos para la fabricación de las cosas 2. Blue Dot ha tenido mucho éxito desde su fundación, lo cual era predecible desde que sus integrantes se conocieron en la universidad 3. Probablemente èsta sea la única marca con mercancía tanto en boutiques elegantes como en tiendas minoristas 4. Todos los diseñadores de la campaña tiene formación como arquitectos 5. Los integrantes originales ( Christakos, Blanks y lazor) han resultado grandes empresarios, aunque no les agrade pensarse como tal 6. Sus dos ideas màs exitosas han sido: crear una línea de muebles para niños y tener anucios de una página en todas las revistas especializadas 7. En los últimos 5 años, Blue Dot ha cuadruplicado su personal y ha tenido un crecimiento anual del 60 % por lo que sus fundadores esperan se convierta en una compañía grande.
  • UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Capítulo A 35 B. Opción mùltiple: elige la(s) opción(es) correcta(s). House of the future _ Now 1. Según el autor, ¿qué ha revolucionado la vivienda americana, por primera vez en décadas? a) Las viviendas prefabricadas b) El sistema de pàneles c) El sistema Flatpak 2. Respecto de una casa “normal”, las prefabricadas actuales: a) Son màs pequeñas b) Son mas ecológicas c) Tienen espacios mas abiertos y flexibles 3. ¿a que obstáculos se enfrentan los constructores de casas prefabricadas o modulares? a) A la gente no le gustan las casas prefabricadas b) Los códigos de construcción varian c) Se debe contratar a comercios locales para encargarse de instalciones como la plomerìa y el cabledo 4. ¿a que se refiere la frase “to us good ideas never die”? a) A los prefabricados, que han existido desde hace mucho tiempo y siguen vigentes b) A las casas prefabricadas “Case study” de 1945, cuyo diseño sigue vigente c) A Ralph Rapson, quien a sus 90 años sigue diseñando casas prefabricadas Keeping it Real – And Real Small 1. “Keeping it Real – And Real Small” significa que: a) Blue Dot quiere mantenerse quiere mantenerse como una empresa pequeña b) Blue Dot quiere mantener sus diseños apegados a la realidad, pero también al alcance de los pequeños consumidores c) Blue dot todavía es una empresa pequeña, realmente pequeña, pero que quiere crecer mas 2. ¿Cuàles han sido los dos retos de Blue Dot? a) Hacerse de prestigio b) Crecer lo màs que pueda c) Mantenerse como una empresa pequeña d) Alcanzar un crecimiento anual superior al 60 % 3. Una característica distintiva del grupo es que … a) Aunque todos tienen formación como arquitectos, son hombres de negocios exitosos b) Ellos bromean libremente sobre sus fracasos c) A pesar de su gran éxito, no se consideran ni desean convertirse en “hombres de negocios”
  • UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Capítulo A 36 4. ¿cuàl es la misión de la empresa? a) Democratizar el diseño b) Hacer muebles sofisticados para gente normal c) Tener un estilo propio, modernista pero elegante y de buen gusto 5. ¿cuàl(es) de las siguientes es (son) verdadera (s)? a) Actualmente Blue Dot tiene màs oportunidades de las que puede tomar b) El estilo distintivo de Blue Dot es un modernismo simplificado, con un uso moderado del color c) Aunque le sobran ideas para hacer crecer su negocio, los integrantes de Blue Dot consideran cada una en base a si apego a la “esencia” de la campañia 6. ¿Qué tienen en común Blue Dot and Home Depot a) Ambas compañías quieren democratizar el diseño b) Ambos comparten el mismo objetivo: dar poder a las masas c) Ambas son compañías en gran crecimiento
  • UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Capítulo A 37 ¿Who are the great women artists? In January 1971, in the pages of this magazine, art historian Linda Nochlin published an essay titled “Why Have There Been No Great Women Artists?” It was a provocative, lengthy, and wide-ranging examination of women’s status, past and present, which commenced with the author’s “open-minded wonderment that women, despite so many years of near-equality… have still not achieved anything of exceptional significance in the visual arts.” There “are no equivalents for Michelangelo or Rembrandt, Delacroix or Cézanne, Picasso or Matisse, or even in very recent times, for de Kooning or Warhol.” In the course of her critique, Nochlin examined what she called “a vast dark bulk of shaky idées reí§uesabout the nature of art”—including the notion that women’s art making is somehow different from men’s—and ascribed these to the conditions under which women trained until the end of the 19th century, the romantic idea of genius, and “the fairy tale of the Boy Wonder.” Her underlying plea was for a closer evaluation of the social structures surrounding the production of art, “be they art academies, systems of patronage, mythologies of the divine creator, artist as he-man or social outcast.” The essay became something of an instant classic, widely read and argued, and it remains, as the Nation’s art critic Arthur Danto notes, “beautifully well reasoned—Linda wrote like a philosopher.” Perhaps it was not the single well-aimed shot that touched off a revolution in art history, museum exhibitions, and art criticism, as well as in the number of significant women artists working today, but like Tom Paine’s Common Senseduring the American Revolution, it became a seminal document for its times.
  • UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Capítulo A 38 Now, more than 30 years later, we wondered how many of Nochlin’s observations remained valid and how they influenced the discourse on art in the academy, in the museums, and in the marketplace. Given the kind of full-scale museum showcases granted major women artists in recent years—Louise Bourgeois, Artemisia Gentileschi, Berthe Morisot, Mary Cassatt, Joan Mitchell, and currently at the Frick Collection, Ann Vallayer-Coster—is it time to reconsider Nochlin’s verdict on greatness? What changes have taken place in the way we think about art history since her essay was published? And is it possible to point to some Girl Wonders in our present moment? Among the curators, critics, and art historians interviewed, there was, naturally, a diversity of opinion, but also a consensus that the essay remains an important historic contribution, still capable of stirring up fervent passions. (Nochlin herself declined to comment for this story.) “By choosing to say there were no great women artists, Nochlin provoked us all to look again, to reexamine, and to reevaluate, and with every justification, include those women artists that we had overlooked,” comments Ruth Appelhof, director of the Guild Hall Museum in East Hampton, New York, site of a recent exhibition of art from the heyday of feminism. And yet, “even when you pay more attention to those careers that shouldn’t have been lost in the great shuffle of art history, it doesn’t necessarily mean that our estimation of the work increases,” notes Marla Prather, curator of postwar art at the Whitney Museum of American Art. Have our opinions of the “greatness” of Gentileschi, Morisot, or Mitchell changed since they received the red-carpet treatment at major institutions? Some emphatically say no; others aren’t so sure. “Maybe Morisot is elevated a few notches, but she’s not Manet,” says Prather. “However much one might have admired Artemisia Gentileschi,” says Colin C. Bailey, chief curator at the Frick Collection, “I thought the exhibition at the Metropolitan showed conclusively that she was nowhere near as good as her father, and nowhere near as good as Caravaggio or Rubens, who were painting at the same moment.” At a certain level in the debate the choices can become intensely idiosyncratic. “Just talking over these issues with female colleagues, it’s interesting to see how personal it all is,” says Prather. For Anne Dawson, a professor of art history at Eastern Connecticut State University, artists like Morisot and Gentileschi belong right up there in the pantheon. “Artemisia was, in my opinion, an absolutely great painter and, in fact, her Judith Decapitating Holofernesof 1620 is even greater than Caravaggio’s,” she maintains. “If you put Morisot beside Manet, her painting was much more radical, but it was talked about in different terms.” One way of addressing (or perhaps graciously evading) the issue of such judgments in present times, notes Prather, lies in the simple practical allocation of square footage in the temples of art. At the Whitney, “we advocate Joan Mitchell the way we advocate the work of Sol LeWitt, and give them the same amount of space.” Other art historians say Nochlin’s judgments still apply. “I have very high standards for great artists,” says Robert Rosenblum, professor of modern European art at New York University and a curator at the Guggenheim. “Every historical survey I’ve done has had a lot of women artists in it, but none of them is great the way Picasso is great, the way Cézanne is great. And that is true of the majority of men artists.” Adds Danto: “Linda’s overall point is right. She was talking about the history of art, the history of the representational tradition, when the great figures basically emerged. Yet even in the 20th century, when greatness is not dependent on anatomical proficiency, there was no female Picasso, or even a female Jackson Pollock.”
  • UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Capítulo A 39 Younger art historians, of what might be considered a more politically correct bent, are in favor of relaxing admission to the the canon. “I never talk about artists being great,” says Frances K. Pohl, a professor of art history at Pomona College in Claremont, California, and the author of a survey of American art, Framing America. “Because in the post-Nochlin years, we’ve been sensitized to this notion of what constitutes greatness—how do you define it, how do you justify it?” Part of the problem seems to lie in the judgments of what critic Robert Hughes once dubbed “the pale penis people,” white males with a bias toward European culture. “If men are defining greatness, it’s less likely that female painters are going to fit the bill,” notes Dawson. And defining “greatness”—and its indispensable sidekick, “genius”—goes to the heart of the issue. Nochlin sidestepped explanation in her essay, noting only that “genius… is thought of as an atemporal and mysterious power somehow embedded in the person of the Great Artist.” For Danto, greatness has almost the force of a “religious disclosure. It’s not totally easy to define, but you know you’re in the presence of something powerful being opened up.” The constant reshuffling of art history makes greatness all the more difficult to pinpoint, and the present moment leaves some in a pessimistic mood. “Of course, I think Cindy Sherman is a great artist,” says critic and writer Dave Hickey. “But I don’t think that’s a matter of much cultural consequence, because, well, we judge greatness by its consequences, and the art of the last 40 years has no consequences. “You can probably assign some very serious consequences to Cubism or to Abstract Expressionism or to Pop art,” Hickey continues, “but in general, it’s not a very serious endeavor at the moment. Why worry about greatness when we purportedly have abolished the meritocracy?” Nochlin claimed that women’s failure to have attained greatness lay “not in our stars, our hormones, our menstrual cycles or our empty internal spaces, but in our institutions and our educations—education understood to include everything that happens to us from the moment we enter this world of meaningful symbols, signs and signals.” Speaking of her own period of expertise, the Renaissance, Rutgers University art historian Rona Goffen notes that it was virtually impossible for a female Michelangelo to emerge: “Women did not have the opportunity to be trained as artists or to apprentice with a master,” she explains. And this situation prevailed—if not through systems of apprenticeship, then through limited access to art classes in general and life drawing in particular—through the end of the 19th century.
  • UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Capítulo A 40 As for equality today, Hickey points out that while “in academia, in museums, and everywhere, the playing field is relatively flat, it is notflat at the top—the level of department chairs, deans, museum directors. That’s still the old-time boys’ club, with very few exceptions,” and that clearly affects women’s stature. Nevertheless, says Nancy Spector, curator of contemporary art at the Guggenheim, “on the whole, women’s presence in the art world is much healthier than it was 30 years ago.” She adds, “I don’t know whether resuscitating people like Berthe Morisot matters as much as showing artists like Cindy Sherman, Barbara Kruger, Louise Lawler, and Adrian Piper, who have done breakthrough work. There are so many excellent women who have risen to the top.” Prather wonders, “Do women here in New York have the same kind of access that men do? It’s hard to argue that they don’t.” And yet, she notes, in terms of acquisitions and exhibitions and auction prices, male artists can still claim the lead. And what of female “geniuses” emerging in our own midst? Most observers are reluctant to name names. Says Prather, “We can’t ask that question today of contemporaries. It’s not legitimate with careers that aren’t done.” But a few women artists do crop up repeatedly in dancing around the notion: most notably Bourgeois, Sherman, and Maya Lin. Says Rosenblum: “I would put my hand in the fire for Jenny Saville, Mariko Mori, and Cindy Sherman.” Spector believes that if Eva Hesse had lived longer, “we’d be talking about her the way we talk about Bruce Nauman today.” Ultimately Nochlin’s essay and the work of other art historians have sparked broad revisions in scholarship and teaching. “Survey books now include women artists who simply weren’t recognized before,” says Goffen. “So there’s a whole new curriculum.” And the museums have not been slow to take note.
  • UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Capítulo A 41 On the contemporary front, conditions seem to have evolved to the point where a worthy woman artist has as much access as a man. As Laura Hoptman, curator of contemporary art at the Carnegie Museum of Art in Pittsburgh, observes, the situation is “provable in museum exhibitions, acquisitions, and also in the publishing record of contemporary art—that is, the monographs that are generated by women and about women. Those are conventional temperature-taking devices, empirical statistics that you can check.” But, Hoptman emphasizes, the change in women’s status also “has to do with the very changed ways we look at our field, not as a monolithic story that has to be told and retold, but as a series of stories. You look at the object in the context of the moment in which it is produced—not only who produced it and what she was thinking, but where she lived, who she was hanging out with, what schools she went to, whether she was rich or poor, whether she was making work for her boudoir or was going to sell it, whether it was a commission—all of those wonderful things that are now necessary to think about when you look at art.” Hoptman, who, with Lynn Zelevansky, curated a 1998–99 exhibition at the Los Angeles County Museum of Art on Yayoi Kusama, explains how working with Kusama was so much about “seeing a Japanese woman artist in the most macho culture possible—New York, circa 1960.” She recalls how “Kusama used her craziness to scare the pants off everybody, and that was enormously important. She was excised from the history of art, and of course now she’s been reinserted.” Besides Kusama, whom she calls “a great, great artist,” Hoptman mentions Lee Bontecou, noting that she’s having a major retrospective at Chicago’s Museum of Contemporary Art, opening in February 2004, as well as Hesse. Alanna Heiss, pioneering founder and director of New York’s P.S. 1 Contemporary Art Center, explains how she tried to think of different “structural ways” to consider the status of women today and how to evaluate it. “One was through financial power and one was through social clusters—those were two factors. Not what proportion of women are artists,” she points out. The economic issue involves not just how much people earn for their work but how much they pay to make their art. “I’ve put together a list,” Heiss says, that “is not only about artists who make good work but women who are blue- chip.” She includes here “Marina Abramovic (because of the cost involved in production of her pieces—she’s able to command sums to produce pieces that would not have been thinkable in the 1970s), Cindy Sherman, Ann Hamilton, Kiki Smith, Annette Messager, Pipilloti Rist, Caterina Severding (who’s hugely influential and valuable in Europe), Cecily Brown, Rachel Whiteread, and Elizabeth Murray.” She then adds to this “blue-chip” list Nan Goldin, Susan Rothenberg, Pat Steir, Sam Taylor-Wood, and Bourgeois. “We’re talking about people who have an active command of financial resources in the art community.”
  • UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Capítulo A 42 Another way to look at success, Heiss notes, is in terms of gangs. “My theory,” Heiss says, “about the ability to gain exhibition possibilities and access to a larger audience has a lot to do with gangs—clusters of people who spend time together, work together, exchange ideas, exhibit together.” She notes two or three such groups that have been controlled by women in the last 20 years: the British gang, which includes Sarah Lucas, Whiteread, Taylor-Wood, Tracey Emin, and Mona Hatoum (“And think how powerful that gang is,” she says); and another, little, gang, “not a prime-time gang,” consisting of artists like Rineke Dijkstra and Anna Gaskell. “There was a New York branch and a British branch—girls taking photographs of girls, generally in adolescence,” Heiss observes. “But then you look at the original Great Girl artists who were completely nongang- related and you have Bourgeois and Kusama.” So on every front—in the academy and the marketplace, the studios and the museums—it seems we are approaching a level playing field. But as Nancy Spector reminds us, “There are generations of younger women artists who don’t necessarily recognize or understand the struggles that previous generations fought.” Clearly, we’ve come a long way. A contender for greatness? Jenny Saville confronts our myths of beauty, as in her painting Fulcrum, 1999. Ann Landi is a contributing editor of ARTnews. Copyright 2012, ARTnews LLC, 48 West 38th St 9th FL NY NY 10018. All rights reserved.
  • UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Capítulo A 43 Texto: ¿Who are the great women artists? Fuente: ARTnews, marzo 2003 Características: 4p con ilustraciones Dificultad: intermedio – avanzado Objetivo: practicar estrategias de lectura a partir de la fòrmula SQ3R Instrucciones Lee el texto “Who are the great women artists?” poniendo en practica los pasos contenidos en la formula SQ3R. I. Survey (análisis del texto) II. Questions (preguntas de interferencia) III. Read (lectura derallada) IV. Recite V. Review Notas: la explicación detallada a esta estrategia de lectura (SQ3R) se encuentra en la ficha siguiente en el apartado de claves de respuestas” puedes consultar algunas preguntas que se hicieron sobre el texto – siguiendo el paso II: Questions – asi como las respuestas que el texto ofrece a las mismas. a. ESTRATEGIA CLAVE DE LECTURA: FORMULA SQ3R SQ3R es el nombre con que se conoce a una fórmula que encierra estrategias de lectura que te resultarán altamente eficaces. Cada letra representa un concepto y conlleva un procedimiento específico que deberás seguir. Así, los cinco pasos son: Survey (Análisis del texto); Questions o preguntas de interferencia; Read o lectura detallada; Recite o decir en voz alta; y Review o repaso. I. Survey (Análisis del texto) a) Antes de empezar a leer todo el texto, realiza una lectura de familiarización: pon atención al título, encabezado, imágenes y pies de foto; piensa sobre los posibles contenidos del artículo y di de qué va a tratar. ¿Sabes algo sobre ese tema? ¿Qué te gustaría saber. b. b) Ahora si vamos a empezar a leer el texto, pero lo vamos a fragmentar en párrafos. Lee el primer enunciado de cada párrafo, es decir, hasta donde encuentres un punto, e identifícalo con un marcador amarillo. Asegúrate de entender el vocabulario de estos fragmentos, a fin de que tengas una idea clara de lo que se dice en ellos.
  • UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Capítulo A 44 II. Questions (Preguntas de interferencia) Piensa sobre la información que ya leiste (el primer enunciado de cada párrafo) y formula algunas preguntas sobre ello. Para esto imagina que estás dialogando con el autor, y que él o ella te platicaron lo que ya leiste, ¿Qué te gustaría preguntarle? ¿Qué otra informacion te gustaría saber? En este paso no necesitas leer más secciones del texto, sólo con lo que ya sabes redacta una o mas preguntas por párrafo, en español si se te dificulta hacerlo en inglés, que creas el texto te responderá. III. Read (Lectura detallada) a. Lee el texto por párrafos. Poniendo atención a las ideas más importantes de cada uno. Puedes utilizar tu diccionario para consultar los significados de las palabras claves que desconozcas. b. Encuentra las respuestas a las preguntas que formulaste y anótalas en español. En el caso que algunas preguntas no sean satisfechas en el texto, piensa el por qué de esto: quizás confundiste el sentido de algunas palabras o frases en tu prImer acercamiento a la lectura (survey), o quizá el texto no profundizaba sobre los aspectos que tu creías, o puede que hayas elaborado demasiadas preguntas a partir de un sólo párrafo y éstas se responden a lo largo del texto. Sea cual fuere la razón, explícala. c. Conforme lees, también toma nota de la información importante, que no es parte de tus respuestas. Lee todo el texto de esta manera. IV. Recite (Decir en voz alta) a) Vamos a releer el texto, de principio a fin. Vuelve a leer el titulo y el primer párrafo, en silencio, y tomate unos minutos para recordar la información importante que contenía. Aparte la vista del material, y habla en voz alta sobre lo que entendiste. b) Continúa de igual manera con los párrafos siguientes hasta terminar todo el artículo. Conforme avanzas en los párrafos, trata de darle seguimiento o cohesion a las ideas. V. Review (Repaso) Hecho todo lo anterior, vuelve a leer el texto, ahora sin detenerte en cada párrafo. Conforme lo haces, pon atención a la manera en que se estructuran todas las ideas del texto. Es muy importante en este ultimo paso tu mismo evalúes el proceso que seguiste y el resultado que lograste en cuanto a la comprensión del mensaje del autor.
  • UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Capítulo A 45 Constructivism Aaron Scharf To many critics in the 1920s modern art was anarchy, anarchy was Communism, and the mutilation of natural appearances - like the mutilation of the existing social structure - was anarchistic and communistic. The New York Times, for example, reprinted an article on the subject in their 3 April 1921 edition. The Reds in art, as in literature, the Cubists and Futurists and ah l their noxious offspring would subvert or destroy ah l the recognized standards of art and literature by their Bolshevist methods Modern French art was saturated with the Bolshevist influence, another writer complained. And yet another that the Red" art politicians of Paris, Berlin and Moscow were insanely bent ton rooting out even the memory of the great of the past, for fear the vulgar proletariat might develop an aristocratic longing for ... the majesty of the civi-lizations of the aristocratic past’. Certainly, from David’s time at least, artists, leftists, were in many cases motivated as smuch by social and political aspiration as by purely formal ones. But until the occurrence of Constructivism, no movement in the evolution of modern art had been so thoroughgoing an expression of Marxist ideology or so intimately connected with a revolutionary communist organism. Constructivism was indeed ‘red’ – despite the disclaimers with which quite understandably the proponents of avant- garde art defended themselves against the fanaticism of critics who did not bother to elaborate on the more subtle distinctions, to separate out the finer strands making up the complex fabric of modern art. Constructivism was neither meant to be an abstract style in art nor even an art, per se. At it’s core, it was first and foremost the expression of a deeply motivated conviction that the artista could contribute to enhance the physical and intelectual needs of the whole of society by entering directly into a rapport with machine production, with architectural engineering and with the graphic and photographic means of communication. To meet the material needs, to express the aspirations, to organize and systematize the feelings of the revolutionary proletariat – that was their aim: not political art, but the socialization of art. Often, Constructivism was overtly propagandist in nature: sometimes by the placement of simple geometric forms in the kind of literary context wich turned such forms into representations, or designo r in photomontage or in book and magazine illustration, fragments of the camera image provided the necessary and very concrete references to reality. In El Lissitzky’s Beat the Whites with the Red Wedge, a street poster made about 1920, the simple shapes convey the collision of the two antagonistic forces in revolutionary Russia, not with the narrative descriptiveness of traditional art but with the stark legibility and incipient symbolism wich is so appropiate to the poster’s function. In his illustrations for a children’s book published in 1922, a charming serial called The Story of Two Squares [illustration 88], the elemental forms are converted by the context into representational configurations. Two squares, one black and the other red, hurtle towards the earth (a red circle) in which an architectural cluster (cubes and rectangles) rests. They see only chaos below (geometric forms in disarray). Crash! The red square scatters the lot and on a black square order is established by the red which maintains its vigilo ver all while the black square, smaller now, moves off into space. How many children (and adults) in
  • UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Capítulo A 46 the newly born socialist state were intrigued by this naive but lucid symbolism is hard to know. But the use of such forms, reflecting a freat sympathy with the technological world, is absolutely consistent with Lissitzky’s typographical principles of optical economy and the instrinsic expressiveness of the type, forms and layouts and of course with the idea of Constructivism. To the Constructivists, a new world had been born and they blieved that the artista or, better, the creative designer should take his place alongside the scientist and engineer [illustration 89]. This was not a novel idea. Architects like Louis Sullivan and his student Frank Lloyd Wright, Henry van de Velde and the Futurist Antonio Sant’ Elia among others in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries had proposed, similarly, that it was not the artista, but the engineer who now stood at the frontiers of the new style. They eulogized simple shapes. They believed that buildings and objects should be freed from the ornamental excrescences and the accumulated barnacles of past art. They advocated the nude building, the purity inherent in elemetary forms. New industrial materials and the machine, they said, contained within themselves a special beauty of their own. This architectonic primitivism was admirably reflected in the work of Alexander Rodchenko who from 1915 executed designs entirely with the rule and compass [illustration 90], later to throw himself wholeheartedly into the constructivist effort. To these artists, geometric forms, uniforma reas of pure colours, had an aura of rational order about them and it was order that they wanted to impose on society. We want ‘not to make abstract projects, but to take concrete problems as the point of departure’, wrote Alexei Gan, one of the theorists of the movement. Social expediency and utilitarian significance, production base don science and technique, instead of the speculative activities of earlier artists, were the first principles of Constructivism. A new social order necessarily brings to life new forms of expression, they believed; and Communism is base don organized work and the application of the intellect. Was Constructivism, then, entirely without art? Iconoclasts, they rejected the bourgeois preoccupation with the representation and interpretation of reality. They repudiated the idea of art for ar’s sake. The materialist direction of their work would, they believed, uncover new and logical formal structures, the innate qualities and expressiveness of the materials. And in the fabrication of socially useful things the very objectivity of the processes would further reveal new meanings and new forms. What these artists proposed was consistent with Marx’s contention that the mode of production of material life determines the social, political and intelectual processes of life. Constructivists believed that the essential conditions of the machine and the consciousness of man inevitably create an aesthetic which would reflect-their time. Two potent words were sequestered by constructivist theoreticians to demonstrate their dialectical creative process: tectonic and factura; their synthesis resulting in constructive reality. Tectonic: the whole idea, the fundamental conception based on social use and expedient materials – the merging of content and form; factura: the realization of the natural propensities of the materials themselves, their peculiar conditions during fabrication, their transformation. In all likelihood, the modern nostrums about the ‘integrity of the material’ gained ímpetus from the terminology of the constructivist dialecticians.
  • UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Capítulo A 47 As they aspired towards the unification of art and society, the Constructivists expurgated from their minds and from their vocabularies the arbitrary classifications which traditionally had imposed on art a hierarchic scale giving the supremacy to painting, sculpture and architecture. The idea of ‘fine art’ being superior to the socalled ‘practical arts’ was to them no longer valid. Appropriately, then, Constructivists like Vladimir Tatlin (1885-1953), Alexander Rodchenko (1891- 1956) and El Lissitzky (1890-1941) worked in many fields. Tatlin taught Wood and metal fabrication and in the Institute of Silicates, ceramics. His industrial designs included functional workers’ clothes. He was concerned also with the cinema, for many years designed for the theatre, and he experimented with gliders. Rodchenko worked during a long career in typography, poster and furniture design and magazine illustration. He also distinguished himself in the field of photograpy and film. Lissitzky too was engaged in many sectors, notably architecture and interior design. Furniture, magazine illustration and layout, occupied him during much of his life. Similarly, other artists associated with Constructivism dispensed their talents in a multiplicity of ways. Painting and sclupture were not entirely discarded. They were not ends in themselves according to the tenets of constructivist realism, but were parts of processes through which architecture or industrial products were fully realized. Lissitzky’s conception of the proun points this up. Proun is an abbreviation from the Russian phrase which means something like ‘new art objects’. This paradigm of constructivist realism was in its essence meant to convey the idea of creative evolution, beginning with the flat plane and more or less illusionistic renderings (a kind of architect’s or designer’s plan), followed by the fabrication of three-dimensional models, then finally the total realization in the construction of utilitarian objects. Proun, simply, was a method of working, entirely in harmony with modern technological means. Trough this forming process, all the essential elements of form: mass, the flat plane, space, proportion, rhythm, the natural properties of particular materials used, plus the demands made by the ultímate function of the object, should come to gruition in the final object itself. No doubt, Lissitzky’s earlier training as an engineer and architect was instrumental in the resolution of this idea. In fact, he explicitly associates the procedure with that followed by engineers and architects. Because of the formal characteristics of his designs, and because of his sympathy with some of Malevich’s assertive horizontal sand verticals make him a Constructivist. It is not a question of style. It is one of intention. Lissitzky may have embraced certain suprematist ideas, but his principal purpose, his whole manner of working, was allied to Constructivism. This is also clearly indicated in his writing. His guiding principle for architecture was that space was made for people, not people for space: ‘we no longer want a room to be a painted coffin for our living bodies.’ His concern with the material problems of existence is reflected in his speculations about the future. To mitígate the growing problema of vast accumulations of printed books, for example, he envisaged electronic libraries. With the success of the October Revolution in 1917 these artists, tremendously enthusiastic, plunged into the task of creating an art of the proletariat, an art participating as they said in the expediencies of that revolution. In 1918, to celebrate its first anniversary, a gigantic re-enactment of the storming of the Winter Palace in Petrograd (the capital till that year) was organized by Nathan Altman with a cast of thousands: not trained actors it should be noted but, reflecting the concrete reality favoured by Constructivism, with non-actors, the ordinary citizens of Petrograd who, by involvement square was decorated, not only with heroically-scaled representations of workers and peasants, with figurative eulogies to the victorious Red Army, but also with massive triangles, segments of circles, rectangles and other such elementary forms.
  • UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Capítulo A 48 Perhaps the most appropiate symbol of the unification of painting, sculpture and architecture with the information and propaganda organ of the State, was Tatlin’s extravagant synthesis, designed between 1917 and 1920, called the Monument to the Third International [illustration 91]. This complex was to be constructed in the form of a massive spiral which efficaciously conveyed the dynamism of the space age- a sanguine thrust into an unknown but promising future. The empire State building, completed by 1931, is 1250 feet high. The height intended for the Russian structure is sometimes said to be at least that. Inside would hang a cylinder, a cube and a sphere containing meeting halls, offices and, at the very top, an information centre – all revolving at different rates of speed: one of the eariest examples of kinetic sculpture; kinetic architecture more accurately. Utilizing almost every technical means of communication then known – including a special projection device for throwing images on to clouds – news bulletins, governmental proclamations and revolutionary slogans would be dispensed daily, hourly, to the people. Tatlin’s tower was a stupendous declaration of faith in a communist society. But for a large wooden model, it was never built. Following the Revolution, plans for new architectural structures base don constructivist principles far outnumbered the buildings actually erected. Carried away by utopian visions, Russian architects and designer wanted literally to give the new society a new shape. Not to construct, they said, but to reconstruct. Often, as symbolic statements, their designs flafrantly disregarded the elementary requirements of the physical function and now remain, on paper, inspired encomiums to the new world – nothing more [illustration 92]. Those relatively few which were realized: workers clubs, comunal housing, schools, factories, and exhibition buildings, were not accomplished without a great deal of anguish and frustration. And it is perhaps a poetic irony that the best known constructivist building surviving today is Lenin’s mausoleum in Moscow. Fort o add to the economic disabilities of the infant Soviet, industrially they were wenturies, not decades, behind time. Incredible stories have been told about the technological poverty which, well into the thirties, paralysed many of the new attempts in manufacture and architectural construction. Often, for these modern buildings, logs instead of planks were delivered to the sites and these were cut, not with circular saws and electric planers, but with adzes. Te technologically primitive legacy from Tsarist Russia impered for a long time the realization of such advanced ideas. Tatlin’s tower could not have been built without the greatest of difficulties, if it could have been built at all. Thus, the high ideals and emblematic geometry of Constructivism did not so much reflect Russian science and technique as it did that of the West. Lissitzky, writing in Moscow in 1929, made this clear: ‘the techincal revolution in western Europe and America has established the foundation of the new architecture.’ He points specifically to the large urban complexes of Paris, Chicago and Berlin. It was largely because of this infirmity that an intensive programme for training the artista- designer was, in 1918, initiated. New schools, Higher Art and Technical Workshops called VKhUTEMAS (from Vishe KhUdozhestvenny Teknicheskoy Masterskoy), appeared and the very utilization of such abbreviations, common enough in the new russia, is to some extent an etymological demonstration of their sympathy with modern technocracy. Many of the Constructivists taught or had studios in the VKhUTEMAS. Naum Gabo not long ago described the curriculum of the Moscow workshops and the intensity tith which the students engaged in ideological discussion; a part of their training which, he maintains, was ultimately of more importance than the actual studio teaching there. The programme for these schools was organized
  • UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Capítulo A 49 at first by Wassily Kandinsky. Based mainly on an amalgam of the ideas put forth in his book Concerning the Sipiritual in Art, on Suprematism and on the incipient concepts of Constructivism known as the ‘culture of materials’, it later bécame the prototype for parts of the German Bauhaus course. In Russia it was however son discredited. Free painting and sculpture were proscribed, as was the teaching of Kandinsky’s somewhat metaphysical analyses of color and form, and the course was reorganized with the emphasis placed on production techniques rather than artistic design. Disillusioned, Kandinsky and Gabo son left Russia to work in other countries where their ideas emphasizing the spiritual content of art were more readily accepted. The ideological battles between those with suprematist inclinations and those who stood resolutely on constructivist principles were fought not with words alone but with the weapon of art itself. In 1916, Malevich fired a salvo of trapezoids with his Suprematism Destroyer of Constructivist Form. His White on White (c. 1918) was an affront to rodchenko who counter- attacked that same year (the year the VKhUTEMAS were initiated) with his Black on Black. This painting symbolized the death of all isms in art, especially Suprematism. Trotsky and Lunacharsky had supported Constructivism but with the NEP in 1921, Lenin’s New Economic Policy, Constructivism’s usefulness was seriously questioned. Yet those artists – and Malevich – continued to work in Russia, though ultimately their influence there waned. The vacuum left in easel painting by the suppression of the Petrograd Academy (wich had been patronized by the Tsarist régime), by the rejection of Suprematism and by the refusal of the constructivists to have anything to do with picture-painting, was filled during the mid-twenties by illustrators and naturalistic painters organized as AKhR (The Association of Artists of the Revolution), later, as OST (The Society of Easel Painters) and still later, by others: artists, socialist realists who convinced the authorities that they too had an important part top lay in the building of an egalitarian society. Among the few survivors of that revolutionary group of Constructivists is Naum Gabo who still advocates the principles of ‘constructive realism’ as he calls it. But Gabo was never wholeheartedly in sympathy with the central ideas of Constructivism and though he has been critical of Malevich’s dogmatism, he nevertheless is closer in essence to his ideas and to those of Kandinsky than to the utilitarian concepts of the Constructivists. Gabo defends the constructive artist’s use of elementary forms and the tolos and techniques of the engineer. But lines, shapes and colours, he believes, possess their own expressive meamimgs independent of nature. Their content is based, not directly on the external world, but springs from the psychological phenomena of human emotions – something the Constructivists could never accept. It is through enhancing one’s spiritual life that the creative act, he says, contributes to material existence. The ‘constructive idea’ is not intended, he insists, to unite art and science, not to explore the conditions of the physical world, but to sense its truth. This, the Constructivists and their followers would say, was sheer romanticism and the sophism of abstract art. Constructivism, to give the term its original meaning, repudiates the concept of ‘genius’: intuition, inspiration, self-expression. Constructivism is didactic, it is physiologically rather than psychologically orientated, it is intímate with science and technology, it is concrete. June 1966
  • UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Capítulo A 50 Texto: Constructivism Fuente: Scharf Aaron, Constructivism. Concepts of Modern Art, World of Art. Thames & Hudson, UK, 2002. Características: 9 medias paginas Dificultad: intermedio Objetivo: practicar estrategias de pre-lectura, lectura y pos-lectura I. PRE LECTURA Lectura rápida: a) Toma 5-7 minutos para hacer una primera lectura de velocidad del texto: No te detengas y no releas nada Lee por grupos de palabras y no palabras individuales Pon atención a palabras importantes como: sustantivos, verbos, números y cambios tipográficos. Ignora cualquier palabra o frase que desconozcas Lee màs rápido cuando llegues a partes que consideres no son importantes. b) Haz una lista de toda la información que puedas recordar sin volver a leer el texto; identifica el tema y trata de recordar los conocimientos que ya tengas sobre este. II. LECTURA A. Falso/ Verdadero: di si la información de los siguientes enunciados es verdadera o falsa con respecto al texto y justifica tus respuestas. Para la información falsa, incluye lo que seria verdadero. 1. David es el nombre de un artista anterior al Constructivismo. 2. No fue sino hasta el Constructivismo, como expresión de la ideología Marxista, que los artistas vieron en la Politica una motivación artística. 3. En sus fundamentos, el Constructivismo estuvo en contra del arte anterior y del “arte por el arte”. 4. Para los constructivistas, la realidad constructiva es producto de la síntesis de la idea total y el uso social y necesario de los materiales; es decir la fusión de la forma y el contenido. 5. Los constructivistas quisieron revertir las jerarquías en el arte; asì, las llamadas artes aplicadas como el diseño, fueron mas importantes que las bellas artes como la pintura, la arquitectura y la escultura. 6. De todos los edificios que se construyeron bajo la influencia del constructivismo, el único ejemplo que nos quedaes el Mausoleo de Lenin de Moscù. 7. Los cimientos de la nueva arquitectura, según los constructivistas, se encontraban en Rusia y eran resultado de su revolución tecnológica.
  • UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Capítulo A 51 8. Artistas como Kandisnky y Gabo diseñaro programas para los VKhUTEMAS que enfatizaban el contenido espiritual del arte, por lo que mas tarde tuvieron que abandonarlos. 9. Constructivismo y Suprematismo fueron estilos contemporáneos, pero antagonicos. B. Opción múltiple: elige la(s) opción(es) correcta(s). 1. La idea mas importante del primer parraf del texto es: a) En 1920 el arte era anarquico b) A principios del siglo XX, el arte europeo era anárquico y comunista c) La influencia Bolchevita en el arte buscaba destruir todo lo hecho anteriormente d) Para muchos críticos de la década de 1920, el arte moderno era anarquía y mutilación de las apariencias naturales 2. El Constructivismo: a) Fue un estilo de arte abstracto b) Fue la primera expresión estética de la simbiosis entre arte y tecnología c) Fue creado para satisfacer las necesidades y aspiraciones del proletariado revolucionario d) Tuvo como objetivo la socialización del arte 3. Para los constructivistas, el diseñador… a) Debía tomar el lugar del científico y el ingeniero b) Debía sustituir al artista en su función c) Debía situarse al mismo nivel que el científico y el ingeniero d) Y ya no el artista, era quien se situaba en las fronteras del nuevo estilo, como lo había estado desde finales del siglo anterior 4. ¿Segùn quienes los nuevos materiales industriales y la maquina contenían una bellza especial y única? a) Alexander Rodchenko b) Louis Sullivan y Frank Lloyd Wright c) Varios artistas de los siglos XIX y principios del XX d) Henry van de Velde y Antonio Sant`Elia 5. “Proun” es: a) Un concepto creado por El Lissitzky para designar a los nuevos objetos del arte
  • UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Capítulo A 52 b) Un paradigma del realismo constructivista c) Los elementos esenciales de la forma: masa, plano bidimensional, espacio, proporción, ritmo y propiedades naturales de los materiales d) Un método de trabajo derivado de los procesos de ingeniería y arquitectura 6. Para el autor, la pertenencia de un artista a un movimiento u otro depende enteramente de: a) Las resoluciones formales de su obra b) El estilo que desarrolle c) Las ideas con las que concuerde d) La intención o propósito de su obra 7. Para la conmemoración de la toma del Palacio de Invierno en Petrogrado, Nathan Altman… a) Considerò tanto a actores profesionales como gente que había vivido el evento b) Decorò la plaza con figuras geométricas elementales pero simbolicas c) Incluyo representaciones figurativas que aludían a trabajadores y campesinos como héroes d) Escribió discursos alabando la victoria del Ejercito Rojo 8. Los talleres de arte superior y técnicas llamadas “VKhUTEMAS”: a) Surgieron en 1918 como parte de un programa intensivo para entrenar al artista-diseñador b) Tuvieron un programa organizado por Wassily Kandins ky c) Daban màs importancia a la discusión ideologica que a la enseñanza de técnicas d) Fueron el antecedente de algunos cursos de la Bauhaus 9. Naum Gabo: a) Es màs cercano a Kandinsky que a Tatlin b) Es un artista constructivista c) Combina elementos del constructivismo y del suprematismo d) Públicamente defiende los principios del realismo constructivo 10. El constructivismo: a) Es intuición, inspiración y auto expresión b) Es didáctico, fisiológico y psicológico c) Es la fusión de ciencia y tecnología con arte d) Es abstracto y concreto a la vez
  • UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Capítulo A 53 C. Relaciona las columnas: elige la(s) opción(es) correcta(s) para complementar las frases o ideas. 1. El Constructivismo … 2. Para los críticos de arte … 3. Los constructivistas … 4. El Monumento a la Tercera Internacional … 5. Después de la revolución, en el ramo de la construcción … 6. La pintura de caballete … A. Era rechazada por los constructivistas y los suprematistas B. Concordaban con Marx en que el modo de producción material determina los procesos sociales, políticos e intelectuales de la vida C. Hubiera sido uno de los primeros ejemplos de la arquitectura cinetica D. Fue un estilo de arte abstracto E. Ingenieros y arquitectos se dejaron llevar por visiones utópicas F. Pretendìan la unificación del arte y la sociedad G. El arte de la década de 1920 era anarquista y comunista H. Fueron mas los diseños que se quedaron en papel y no pudieron construirse por falta de presupuesto I. Fue una declaración de Fè en la sociedad comunista J. Acuñaron el tèrmino “bellas artes” K. Arquitectos y diseñadores querìan reconstruir la sociedad, a partir de crear nuevos edificios L. Fue reflejo de los avances en ciencia y tecnología de Occidente màs que de Rusia M. La influencia Bolchevique llevò a los políticos de arte a eliminar todo el arte pasado por consisderarlo símbolo de la monarquía y el pasado aristocrático N. Utilizo los medios de comunicación màs modernos conocidos hasta entonces O. Tenia una naturaleza propagandística P. Hubierà sido el símbolo de la unficaciòn entre las artes: pintura, escultura, arquitectura; con la información y la propaganda del Estado Q. Debía medir màs de 1250 ft R. Había sido relegada por la supresión de la Academia de Petrogrado III. POS LECTURA Lee la información de la pag. 161 referente a la obra serial the Story of Two Squares de El Lissitzky y realiza las siguientes actividades: ¿de cuàntos cuadros se compone la obra? Realiza las ilustraciones correspondientes a esta obra ¿còmo es similar y diferente esta obra con Beat the Whites with the Rd Wedge?
  • UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Capítulo B 54 CAPÍTULO B Textos autenticos con Ejercicios para practicar gramatica
  • UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Capítulo B 55 Texto: The New Game in Design Características: 1p Dificultad: básico Objetivo: practicar referencia contextual; identificar pronombres y sus referentes. El texto que vas a leer es un fragmento del artículo que se encuentra en la referencia electrónica. Primero realiza una lectura de barrido (skimming) para entender de què va tratar el texto y buscar el vocabulario desconocido en el diccionario. Vuelve a leer el texto y pon atención a las palabras subrayadas, todas son pronombres, piensa sobre su significado y las posibles frases a las que sustituyen. Finalmente, vuelve a leer el texto e identifica de la lista a què o a quièn hace referencia cada uno de los pronombres identificados. Cuando termines, verifica tus respuestas. That a. partnership This b. aggressive esthetic Itself c. digital entertainment That d. sysfunctional teenage boys Their e. consultants They f. a backstory His g. the product He h. stakeholders His i. that Xbox 360 is not just a powerful new gaming machine, but also It a new model for social activity and global communication centered Them around digital entertainment. j. people k. consultants l. Paola Kemp m. Michael Jager n. characterized o. a large “X” in a piece of posterboard
  • UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Capítulo B 56 The New Game in Design Collaboration and the creation of the Xbox 360 By David Kemp The successful launch of Microsoft's Xbox 360 game console and home-entertainment hub has a backstory that reveals an effective partnership of industrial design and branding. While influential reviewers in the Wall Street Journal, The New York Times, and other major media understood that Xbox 360 is not just a powerful new gaming machine--but also a new model for social activity and global communication centered around digital entertainment--this message is communicated literally by design: advertising, packaging, visual merchandising, and trade-show display. Of course, the product itself avoids the dark, aggressive esthetic that has long characterized gaming culture; Function, form, and an upbeat, optimistic visual vocabulary recontextualize gaming as a social activity rather than a solitary obsession of "dysfunctional teenage boys holed up in their rooms." But collaboration between all the stakeholders played a huge role in determining the success of the project. The consultants were expected to work not only with Microsoft but with each other. This posed some challenges, as consultants sometimes weren't clear whether they were working on another firm's turf. Michael Jager, Creative Direct2or of Jager Di Paola Kemp Design and lead branding partner, demonstrated this difference dramatically in his first presentation to Microsoft executives when he slashed a large "X" in a piece of posterboard and pushed his head through it to demonstrate the need to invite people into the brand rather than exclude them. (The transformation of Xbox from an aggro-gamer esthetic to entertainment hub aimed at a broad audience was further represented, internally, by the transformation of the muscle-bound Hulk to the sleek fighter Bruce Lee).
  • UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Capítulo B 57 Texto: Design various Fuente: http: //www.core77.com/materials Características: 1p (cuatro textos breves) con ilustraciones Dificultad: básico Objetivo: practicar lectura en contexto; colocar los conectores y verbos en voz pasiva en el lugar correcto del texto En esta ocasión vas a leer 4 breves textos relacionados a temas de diseño industrial a. Pon atención a las imágenes y títulos, y lee rápidamente cada texto. b. Decide cuàl de ellos es una noticia, una reseña de un sitio o una reseña sobre un producto c. Relee cada texto con más atención y completa los espacios en blabnco eligiendo una palabra o frsedel ultimo bloque. Nota que el color te indica la categoría de palabra que necesitas: verbos en forma pasiva. Para mayor información sobre estos temas, consulta el apéndice “D” con material explicativo y ejercicios. 20th Biennial of Industrial Design Tuesday, April 11 The 20th Biennial of Industrial Design (BIO 20) in Ljubljana, Slovenia beginning this October. “The organizer wishes to present innovative design products which seek answers to the problems of modern life, which towards sustainable development _____ social responsibility, and which satisfy the special needs of users”. _____ you`re Project fits the bill, you can find out how to submit your work on their web site. The deadline for entry is June 12, 2006. Mark Vanderbeeken`s excellent blog . (from TypePad to Wordpress, for those who are counting), nicely designed _____ Jan Christoph Zoels and Janina Boesch, and teched up _____ Beverly Tang. As usual, the site provides fantastic posts dealing with experience design, user experience, and innovation, _____ now there`s a crazy comprehensive index bar at the top nad a “guest house” running down the right side, featuring guest bloggers and news _____ Experienta. Check all out here.
  • UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Capítulo B 58 metal * clak * wood * clak * textile * clak *rubber*clak* Monday, April 10 Rubik`s Cubes are colorful toys _____ playing the game is not just about seeing with your eyes, it also involves a lot of haptics. Industrial design students at the University of Zhejiang picked up this touch-aspect and developed a new cube concept, not with colors _____ with materials. “There are six different basic materials involved. They are metal, Wood, textile, rubber and Stone. Different materials give people different senses, wich _____ enable the blind men top lay. And here we present the very example of this inspiration – the newRubik Cube” _____games are about winning or losing _____ consider them winners _____ they . already with this year`s IF Material Awards. if but if but since are oriented and will be held thus have been recognized then Sandwich Bikes Wednesday, April 12 Last week _____ Salone de Mobile in Milan, Bleijh Concepts and Design showed the Sandwich Bike at the Tutto Bene Show. _____ in prototype stage, the bike frame is made of tqo wooden plates, and four identical smart cylinders. It ships flat and _________ at home with a single tool. The absence of welding joints makes the frame very easy to produce, and the material can vary according to the client`s demand. This way the bike _________ and reasonably inexpensive. The Sandwich Bike was a big hit – so much so that someone broke into the exhibit and stole the prototype. _________ dole out justice on the thief, your best course of action is the order one of the bikes yourself. is made currently i can be kept rather than can be assembled by has been relaunched by during but from
  • UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Capítulo C 59 CAPÍTULO C Ejercicios de Comprension de Lectura
  • UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Capítulo C 60 Eleven Plays of the Greek Dramatists About the book This is the most comprehensive one-volume anthology of Greek drama yet compiled. Within these pages will be found eleven masterpieces by the four major Greek dramatist, Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripides and the celebrated master of comedy, Aristophanes. The Works themselves represent the ultimate literary achievements of the ancient Greeks. As plays, they also represent the classical heritage of world theater. the dramas are presented here in their full, unexpurgated versions, and the translations, whether in verse or prose, were chosen for their appeal to the modern reader and their faithfulness to the original text. About the dramatists AESCHYLUS (525-456 B.C), who is considered the father of Greek tragedy, wrote ninety plays, seven of wich have come down to us in their entirety. Three of them are in this volumen: Agamemnon, Choephoroe, and The Eumenides. Aeschylus was the decisive innovetor in the development of the drama. He introduced the second actor into the chorus and developed a stately splendor of style, wich bécame the perfect vehicle for his high dramatic purpose and artistic graunder. SOPHOCLES (495 – 406 B.C.) wrote over one hundred dramas in all, of wich seven are extant. Three of these, Antigone, Electra and Oedipus are in this volumen. Sophocles carried the developement of Greek tragedy one step further than Aeschylus. He strived toward a greater concentration of tragic force, inviting the spectator to witness the supreme crisis of an individual destiny. EURIPIDES (484 – 407 B.C.), the third of the great Greek tragedians, is a figure of much significance in history, an extraordinary genius, and an enigma of contradictions. He bécame the must popular of the Greek playwrights, and his ideas and philosophy marked the transition to the modern world. Two of his plays are presented here: The Cyclops, a satyr-play nad the only specimen of its class, and Iphigenia in Tauris, his most succesful romantic play. ARISTOPHANES (448 – 385 B.C.) is the aknowledge father of comedy. Of the fifty five comedies ascribed to him, eleven are extant. The three in this volume: Lysistrata, The Clouds and The Frogs are considered the best Works of this brilliant, exuberant genius, whose fertility of comic invention combined with exalted poetry form masterpieces of enduring significance.
  • UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Capítulo C 61 ELEVEN PLAYS OF THE GREEK DRAMATISTS I. Contesta las siguientes preguntas antes de leer el texto de la siguiente página. Cuando piensas comprar o pedir prestado un libro ¿què características de las cubiertas y solapas te interesan màs?________________________________________________ Què información tienen generalmente las cubiertas y solapas? ___________________ ______________________________________________________________________ II. A. Ahora observa las figuras que aparecen en la portada ¿què te sugieren?_______________________________________________________ B.lee el título en la parte superior. Este libro podría tratar acerca de: _____________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ III. Elementos lingûisticos A. Después de haber leído el texto, observa las siguientes oraciones tomadas del primer párrafo: “this is the most comprehensive one volume anthology of Greek drama yet compiled” “The Works themselves represent the ultímate literary achievements of the ancient Greeks” ¿Que observaciones puedes hacer acerca de la posición de los adjetivos subrayados? ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ¿a què sustantivos modifican? ___________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________
  • UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Capítulo C 62 Recuerda que en inglès los adjetivos generalmente preceden a los sustantivos que modifican. Cuando leemos un texto en inglès y nos encontramos con uno o varios adjetivos, debemos leer hacia adelante rápidamente, para localizar el sustantivo; después nos regresamos para leer los adjetivos. De este modo podemos evitar una posible confusión. Por ejemplo, en una oración como la siguiente: “His most successful romantic play is Iphigenia in Tauri” Al leer his (su, de èl) se debe localizar a què sustantivo determina (en este caso: play). Después se identifican los adjetivos que lo modifican (romantic y successful) B. En la primera parte del texto “About the Book” una idea recurrente es la excelencia de la antología, de los dramaturgos griegos y de sus obras. Encuentra algunas palabras relacionadas con esa idea, y completa la siguiente información. Anthology: the most ____________________________________________ one volume anthology Greek Dramatists: four ____________________________________________________ dramatists Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripides, and the _________________________________________ master of comedy, Aristophanes. Their work: eleven masterpieces. The _________________________________________________ achievements of the ancient Greeks. The _________________heritage of ____________________ theatre. __________________________________________________________________versions. C Encuentra en el texto la información correspondiente para llenar el siguente cuadro sobre los dramaturgos griegos y su obra Who? When? Why is he important? What did he do? How many of his plays appear in this volume? Which of his plays appear in this volume? Aeschylus 525 – 456 BC He was the ------innovator. He introduced the ------- actor into the chorus and developed a ------- splendor of style. He carried the development of ------ tragedy one step ----- than Aeschylus. He strived toward a --------- concentration of---------- forcé. Antigone Electra Oedipus
  • UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Capítulo C 63 He was an ------------ genius. He bécame the most --------- of the--------- playwrights. His ideas and philosophy marked the transition to the ------ world. He is the ---------- father of comedy. He was a --------- genius. IV. Contesta lo siguiente: ¿Consideras que obtuviste información importante sobre el libro en la portada que aparece en esta unidad? ¿Por què? ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ Books, books, books I. A. En las dos páginas siguientes encontraràs algunas notas sobre el contenido de diversos libros, tal como se ofrece en los suplementos literarios. Lee los títulos y los resúmenes para que selecciones el libro adecuado para una de las personas que se describen abajo. Anota el número del libro en el espacio correspondiente. a. A feminist interested in the lives of women in the theater. ___________________________________ b. A student working on differen presentday religions. ___________________________________ c. Somebody studying modern art ___________________________________ d. A writer working on the problem of Greek art ___________________________________ e. A chicano studying laguages in bilingual communities ___________________________________ f. Somebody intereted in music ___________________________________ g. A student Reading about African poetry ___________________________________ h. A historian studying life in Britain during the XVIII and XIX centuries ___________________________________ i. Somebody interested in the nuclear issue ___________________________________ j. A philosopher interested in cosmological doctrines ___________________________________
  • UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Capítulo C 64 B. Subraya en los títulos y en los textos, las palabras que consideres clave para localizar la información solicitada en el ejercicio anterior. THE TIMES LITERARY SUPPLEMENT 1 Fair Ophelia Harried Smithson Berlioz PETER RABY In 1827 the Irish actress Harriet Smithson played the part of Ophelia in a season of English theater in Paris and bécame an overnight sensation. Among her ardent admirers was the composer Hector Berlioz, whom she eventually married though not before he had poisoned himself in her presence to extract her consent. This book penetrates the romantic myth of Fair Ophelia and presents the working actress and vulnerable woman. 3 The Eye of Greece Studies in the Art of the Athens Edited by D.C. KURTZ and B.A. SPARKES Athenian art of the sixth and fifth centuries BC offers the yardstick by wich we judge the artistic achievement of the rest of the Greek world, and provides models on wich the later history of Greco-Roman art and much of the art of the later western world are based. These six essays explored some of the subjects and problems in Athenian art that have exercised scholars in recent years. 2 Schubert Studies Problema of Style and Chronology Edited by EVA BADURA-SKODA and PETER BRANSCOMBE This collection of articles clarifies certain problemas of style and chronology in the music Schubert composed during the last decade of his life. As well as being of value to musicologists and music lovers, it will interest readers concerned with the role of music in the theater 4 Spanish in the United States Sociolinguistic Aspects Edited by JON AMASTAE and LUCIA ELIAS OLIVARES The contributors to this volume examine various aspects of language structure nad language use by the Chicano, Puerto Rican, and Cuban populations in the United States, aspects of language contact and change, and the ethnography of language in bilingual communities. and in song.
  • UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Capítulo C 65 5 Oral Poetry and Somali Nationalism The Case of Sayyid Mahammad`Abdille Hasan SAID S. SAMATAR Sayyid Mahammad’Abdille Hasan the “Man Mullah” of British history was the greatest poet in the Somali language. This book provides a fascinating account of his poetry and the way in wich he used it to pursue his political ends, and sets this phenomenon within the context of Somali society and traditions. African Studies, series 32 CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS 7 Faith and power The Politics of Islam EDWARD MORTIMER An important new analysis of Islam wich is, after Christianity, the most widespread religión in the world today: its political aims and its conflicts, “Essential Reading for anyone wanting to understand the complexities of Islam” Robert Lacey 9 Aristotle`s De Generatione et Corruptione Edited by C.J.F. WILLIAMS Aristotle`s De Generatione et Corruptione has as its main topic coming into existence and ceasing to exist. It attemps to diferentiate these phenomena from others shorts of change. The conceptual problems remain acute and the translator`s notes argue for certain interpretations of Aristotle`s cosmological doctrines wich conflicto with those current in existing discussions of this work. Clarendon Aristotle Series Oxford. University Press 6 New and forthcoming titles from FABER AND FABER A policy for Peace FIEL MARSHALL LORD CARVER This timely book on a momentous topic by the outstanding military thinker and manof action, presents a powerful argument wich brings into questions all the conventional wisdom of the policy for nuclear deterrence. 8 Kandinsky Complete Writings on Art Edited by KENNETH C. LINDSAY AND PETER VERGO Presenting for the first in English all Kandinsky`s written work, these volumes offer a remarkable insigth into the mind of one of the century`s pionners of abstract art. Ff faber and faber 3 Queen Square, London WCIN 3AU, England and 39 Thompson Street Winchester, Mass, 01980, USA 10 The Making of the Industrial Landscape BARRIE TRINDER A leading authority on the history and archaelogy of Industrial Britain show hows our industrial landscape came about. With lavish use of contemporary quotation, Dr. Trinder vividly recreates the lives of those living and working in the industrial settlements of the 18th and 19th centuries. He provides a proper interpretation of the landscape with a true understanding of what the industrial revolution was all about.
  • UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Capítulo C 66 II. A continuación se encuentra la información sobre varias obras, y después varios títulos. Anota el título que corresponda a cada párrafo. Hay dos títulos sobrantes. Título A ______________________________________________________________________________ B ______________________________________________________________________________ C ______________________________________________________________________________ D ______________________________________________________________________________ a) Captivating mysteries riddled with deceit, thievery, and murder, bringing to life an insider`s view of the detective world and keenly exhibiting the power nad prevalence of justice. Written by a prívate investigator, base don true incidents. b) Enthralling first-hand account of loading World War II cargo ships, detailing the hazards of that responsability. A special tribute to the unsung héroes who kept the war efford alive. c) Industry insider`s bold and detailed expose on the desastrous pollution of our natural enviroment. Focusing on solutions to the problem, the author painstakingly explores viable, economical alternatives. An important, timely, and pertinent work. d) Vivid, imaginative, futuristic novel of the lone survivor of a nuclear holocaust, filled with adventure, romance, and humor, innovative and char,ing creation. GETTING LOADED By William P. Simpson NETWORKS: COMMUNICATING IN THE WORLD TODAY By Irene G. Van Travis, Ph. D. THE INVESTIGATIVE EYE OF ALBERT WARD: A COLLECTION OF MYSTERY STORIES By Dr. Frank Greco MOON THE LUNAR SPACESHIP AND THE NUCLEAR HOLOCAUST By Joseph H. Friedt PERSONAL CHANGE FOR MARRIAGE: SEX AND SOCIAL HAPPINESS By Ulysses E. Watson, M.D. WHO IS POLLUTING OUR COUNTRY? By Herbert J. Kauders DORRANCE & COMPANY Publishers Since 1920
  • UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Capítulo C 67 III. ELEMENTOS LINGÛISTICOS El artículo indefinido en inglès, en singular, es a o an. a se usa antes de palabras que comiencen con consonante o vocal que tiene sonido de consonante. Ej. A man A university A historian “an” se usa antes de palabras que empiezan con vocal o h muda. Ej. An issue An hour El artículo definido es “the”. Se usa para el singular, el plural y para todos los géneros. The boy, the boys, the girl, the girls Identificar el artículo definido e indefinido es importante porque esto nos ayuda a localizar màs fácilmente el sustantivo cuando èste no està inmediatamente después de dicho artículo. Ej. This timely book on a momentous topic by the outstanding military thinker and man of actions presents a powerful argument … (pag. 20, 21 nùm. 6) Al identificar el artículo a podemos ver que el sustantivo al que se refiere es topic y al identificar el artículo the vemos que el sustantivo que le corresponde es thinker (a… topic the… thinker) En las siguientes oraciones localiza los artículos definidos e indefinidos, asì como los sustantivos a los cuales se refieren. Encierra el artículo en un cìrculo, encasilla el sustantivo y dibuja una flecha uniendo a ambos. 1. Christianity is the most widespread religión in the world today 2. These volumes offer a remarkable insight into the mind of one of the century`s pioneers of abstract art 3. Captivating mysteries bring to life an insider`s view of the detective world 4. This is an important, timely, and pertinent work
  • UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Capítulo C 68 IV. A. A continuación aparece una lista de temas. Lee el índice y anota en la línea correspondiente el número de las páginas donde se encuentra la información sobre estos temas. Imelda Marcos________________________ French literatura_____________________ Central America_______________________ Religion____________________________ Films _______________________________ Theater____________________________ 3 Ronald Dworkin 11 Gordon A. Craig 13 Murray Kempton 14 Geoffrey O`brien 17 Martin Gardner 24 Ian Buruma 28 Luc Sante 30 Frederick Crews 38 Woody Allen 39 Robert M. Adams 42 John Weightman 47 Bruce Chatwin 49 Andrei Sakharov and Martin Garbus 50 Thomas R. Edwards 52 George Soros 54 Robert Hughers 59 Tony Jenkins, Bernard Aronson, Nina H. Shea, Patt Derian, & Robert Leiken The Borg Nomination George C Marshall: Statesment, 1945–1959 by Forrest C Pogue A Hero`s Mission A Life in Movies: An Autobiography by Michael Powell Giving God a Hand: A Review of Thirteen Books by and about Evangelists Waltzing With a Dictator: The Marcoses and the Making of American Policy by Raymond Bonner Les Liaison Dangereuses, a play by Christopher Hampton at The Music Box Theater Hemingway by Keneth S. Lynn True colors Texasville by Larry McMurtry Lonesome Dove by Larry McMurtry. The Last Picture Show by Larry McMurtry Sartre: A Life by Annie Cohen-Solal. Sartre: A life by Ronald Hayman. Sartre`s Second Critique by Ronald Aronson. A Preface to Sartre by Dominick La Capra. The Politics of Prose: Essay on Sartre by Dennis Hollier. Simone de Beauvoir: Witness to a Century edited by Helene Vievienne Wenzel. Simone de Beauvoir: A life … A Love Story by Claude Francis and Fernande Gontie The Lizard Man New Mag in Moscow Bandits by Elmore Leonard. The Red White and Blue by John Gregory Dunne A Global New Deal On Lucia Freud Tangled Nicaragua: An Exchange
  • UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Capítulo C 69 B. ¿Què palabras te dieron la pauta para contestar las preguntas de este ejercicio? _____________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ Using the dictionary I. Lee los siguientes enunciados e indica si estas o no de acuerdo 1. Para comprender una lectura en inglès es necesario entender todas las palabras de la misma 2. Es posible inferir el significado de palabras desconocidas en inglès cuando se parecen al español 3. Cuando se encuentra una palabra desconocida en inglès, es conveniente continuar leyendo y tratar de entenderla sin recurrir al diccionario 4. Es posible inferir el significado de palabras desconocidas en inglès por el contenido del texto 5. Hay algunas palabras en inglès que no aparecen en el diccionario 6. Por lo general, las palabras tienen màs de un significado 7. En inglès, a veces se forman grupos de dos, tres o màs palabras que funcionan como una unidad 8. Los sufijos y prefijos en una palabra desconocida nos ayudan a precisar su significado SI NO
  • UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Capítulo C 70 II. Como es sabido, el diccionario presenta las palabras en orden alfabético. Para una utilización eficiente se requiere encontrar con rapidez el vocabulario nuevo o desconocido. Los ejercicios de esta sección tienen como objetivo aumentar la velocidad en la localización de entradas de diccionario. Lee rápidamente las palabras de la siguiente lista y copia después cada una en orden alfabético en las líneas en blanco. Scratch __________________ Zoo ________________________ Affectionate __________________ Daily ________________________ Crown __________________ Line ________________________ Language __________________ Cut ________________________ Aid __________________ Play ________________________ Divine __________________ Radiation ________________________ Foreign __________________ Satisfy ________________________ Master __________________ Satisfaction ________________________ Satirize __________________ Satisfactory ________________________ Satirie __________________ Satisfactorily ________________________ Satire __________________ Questionnaire ________________________ Satirist __________________ Quest ________________________ Student __________________ Question ________________________ Studiously __________________ Questionable ________________________ Study __________________ Studio __________________ Studious __________________ III. Por lo general, el diccionario presenta màs de un significado para cada palabra. Para el usuario correctamente, después de consultar el vocablo, es necesario elegir la acepción que tenga màs sentido según el contexto. LEONARDO DA VINCI Before we leave what is known as the Renalssance period in Europe, something should be said about a man of outstanding genius – Leonardo da Vinci. Surprisingly, he had very Little influence on the science of his time and his work bécame fully appreciated only afte his death, when his notebooks were deciphered. Leonardo da Vinci (1452 – 1519) was an Italian painter, sculptor, architect, scientist, engineer and musician! He believed that science could progress only through observation and experiment. As an artist, he wanted to draw the human body with more realism than had previously been posible, so he made a detailed study of its bon structure and muscles. No content with this, he dissected a numberdead bodies and made drawings of veins and arteries as ell as most of the internal organs.
  • UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Capítulo C 71 As a scientist, Leonarda da Vinci studied hydro-dynamics – the flow of wáter through channels and the formation of waves. He introduced the idea of air waves and established the laws of sound. He investigated the properties of light and realized the possibility of light waves. He believed that the earth was not the center of the universo but a star like all the others stars. IV. En ocasiones puede ser que no localices una palabra en el diccionario. Entre otras, puede deberse a las siguientes razones. Que no la estès buscando en el lugar correspondiente. Que las hayas leído mal Que se trate de un plural, de un verbo regular en el pasado, de un participio pasado que termina en ed, o de una palabra que termina en ing: por ejemplo, played, worked, buying, thinking Que se un pasado irregular, como por ejemplo, knew, thought, bought Algunos diccionarios incluyen el significado de estas formas irregulares y otros presentan una lista de ellas en las primeras o en las últimas páginas. Si no aparecen, es necesario consultarlas en una gramática del inglès. Busca los siguientes verbos en el apéndice al final de este libro y anota la forma correspondiente al infinito y al participio pasado en inglès. También anota su significado en español. SIGNIFICADO EN ESPAÑOL INFINITIVO PASADO PASADO PARTICIPIO ______________________ _____________ came __________________________ ______________________ _____________ ran __________________________ ______________________ _____________ said __________________________ ______________________ _____________ bought __________________________ ______________________ _____________ thought __________________________ ______________________ _____________ wrote __________________________ ______________________ _____________ saw __________________________ ______________________ _____________ went __________________________ ______________________ _____________ had __________________________ ______________________ _____________ made __________________________ ______________________ _____________ knew __________________________
  • UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Capítulo C 72 V. ELEMENTOS LINGÜISTICOS En inglès es frecuente que a un verbo se le añada un vocablo que lo convierte en un conjunto con su propio significado. Por ejemplo: get out (salir), get up (levantarse), come in (entrar) Localiza los siguientes agrupamientos de palabras en el diccionario y anota los significados en español. Look after __________________________________________________________________ Bring up __________________________________________________________________ Lie down __________________________________________________________________ Look up __________________________________________________________________ Get off __________________________________________________________________ VI. Lee el siguiente texto y subraya las palabras clave desconocidas que no hayas podido deducir y que te sean indispensables para captar el sentido del texto. Localìzalas en el diccionario y elige el significado que se ajuste mejor al contexto. THE ANCIENT GREEKS While the civilizations of Egypt and Babylonia flourished, other Middle Eastern states were developing. Of these, Greece is the most important to our story of science. It was the home of great scientists and philosophers such as Pythagoras, Aristotle and Plato. Phytagoras is best known for his theorem about the sides of a right-angled triangle. He was the first person to believe that the earth was a sphera. Some of his other scientific ideas, while not correct, were yet important steps forward. He thought that the movements of the sun, moon and the planets were circular. He believed that the different seasons were made by the sun moving in a circle round the earth once every year, and that the moon and the planets moved round the earth in the same way. He believed that the earth was thus the center of the Universe. Aristotle also accepted the idea of a spherical earth as the central body with a fixed position, and thought the whole universe to be spherical aslo. The idea of gravity had not been thought of in the fourth century BC, but Aristotle`s theory was that a body fell to the ground seeking its “natural place”- the center of the earth.
  • UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Capítulo C 73 VII. ¿Què nuevas ideas tuviste sobre el uso del diccionario al desarrollar esta unidad? _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________
  • UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Capítulo D 74 CAPÍTULO D Ejercicios de Gramática aplicada a la Lectura
  • UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Capítulo D 75 RESUMEN = un punto en el tiempo = un periodo limitado en el tiempo Las acciones pueden situarse en: 1) Un punto en el pasado Past Now Future l The company invested in Cuba in 1978. Investment was high 2) Indica una acción en el presente Past Now Future He invests when interest rates are high. A rise in prices is feared 3) Un punto en el futuro Past Now Future l Mexican will invest in Cuba. The peso will devalue 4) Un periodo limitado en el presente Past Now Future The Spanish are investing in Cuban tourism. She is selling her car. 5) Un periodo limitado en el pasado Past Now Future l He was thinking about buying dollars. In 1982, Banks were taking their Money out of Mexico fast. 6) Una acción en el pasado reciente que se prolonga hasta el presente Past Now Future l Inflation has acquired new habits. 7) Una acción en el pasado en el pasado remoto que ha terminado Past Now Future l Inflation had acquired new habits in 1976. 8) Un periodo limitado en el pasado reciente Past Now Future l Mexicans have been investing in Cuba for years. I have been waiting for an hour 9) Una acción que estarà en progreso en un momento en el futuro Past Now Future The president will be visiting Japan next month
  • UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Capítulo D 76 ACTIVIDAD 7 Relaciona cada uno de los siguientes verbos subrayados con las ilustraciones anteriores como lo muestra el ejemplo. 1. ( ) Mexicans were investing in cuba for years. 2. ( ) The government will allocate more of its budget to health care. 3. ( ) The telephone at work was ringing so incessantly that I felt was going crazy. 4. ( ) Inflation will be acquiring new habits. 5. ( ) This argument has been debated since 1999. 6. ( ) The government will cut its spending. 7. ( ) Two companies are dominating the automobile industry in Mexico. 8. ( ) The recesión caused a slowdown in the sale of new cars. 9. ( ) Economists use tables and graphs to illustrate and explain their work. 10. ( ) They optimized their profits by reinvesting them in the company. 11. ( ) He invests when interest rates are high. 12. ( ) The research división of the company will be functioning as a laboratory 13. ( ) She graduated at the top of her class 14. ( ) Don`t interrupt her! The teacher will be giving class now. 15. ( ) Because conventional methods were not proving successful, the company was experimenting with a new strategy. 16. ( ) A basic knowledege of Economics is relevant for everyone. 17. ( ) The car had not sold well because its fuel injection system was defective. 18. ( ) Economists are debating the issues raised by Thorsstein Veblen. 19. ( ) The first clients to enter the store will receive a discount. 20. ( ) The Spanish are investing in Tourism. 21. ( ) The telephone company will be promoting a new service for its customers. 22. ( ) Divorce rates have increased greatly in recent years. 23. ( ) A market system responds to different consumer preferences. 24. ( ) When interest rates at the bank are low, people have the tendency to spend their Money. While draft laws are federal law, marriage laws are State laws rather than federal; marriage regulations are therefore not uniform throughout the country. The legal marriage age services as an example of this lack of conformity. In most states both the man and the woman most be at least eighteen years old to marry without parental consent; however the state of Nebraska and Wyoming require the couple to be at least nineteen, while the mínimum age in Mississippi is twenty one. If parental permission is given then a couple can marry at sixteen in some states and a few states even allow marriage before the age of sixteen, though a judge`s permission, in addition to the permission of the parents, is sometimes required in this situation. Some states wich allow couples to marry at such a Young age are now considering doing away with such early marriages because the numerous negative effects of these Young marriages.
  • UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Capítulo D 77 1. The paragraph preceding the passage most probably discusses a) State marriage laws b) The lack of uniformity in marriage laws c) Federal draft laws d) The mínimum legal marriage age 2. The topic of the paragraph following the passage is most likely to be a) Disadvantages of youthful marriages b) Reasons why Young people decide to marry c) The age when parental consent for marriage is required d) A discussion of why some states allow marriages before the age of sixteen. Oraciones simples y complejas: su estructura Objetivos de la unidad: Que el estudiante Aisle la oración principal de las subordinadas Identifique el tipo de información agregada a una oración principal Resuma oraciones complejas
  • UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Capítulo D 78 UNIIDAD 12 INTRODUCCIÒN En la mayoría de los textos académicos aparecen oraciones largas y complejas lo cual puede dificultar el proceso de comprensión porque uno puede perder de vista la información básica y confundirse con las oraciones subordinadas o agregadas. Toda oración compleja consta de una oración básica, y las oraciones subordinadas son aquellas que la acompañan unidas generalmente por medio de conectores. When? Why? Under which condition? How? The company needs to find new suppliers In spite of what? For what purpose? What will be the result? Las clausulas adjetivas también son agregados de la oración básica Ejemplo: Underground economy refers to an informal activity in wich we all participate in some degree MAIN CLAUSE What kind of activity? Before it produces of new appliances Bacause it needs lower costs If more profits are to be earned After, before, as, while, once, as soon as, during, since, meanwhile Becuase, owing to, due to, as, since, as much as, for, for fear that If, provided that, unless, on condition that, regardless of By, as though, as if Although, in spite of, despite, rather than, instead of So that. In order to, in the hope that, so as to, to So, so that, therefore, then Despite the wide opposition of company shareholders In the hope that the Price of the product will be collapsed So that the product can be sold at competitive price By advertising its need in the newspaper Underground economy refers to an informal activity In wich we all participate
  • UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Capítulo D 79 Actividad 1 Completa los siguientes diagramas separando la clausula principal de las clàusulas subordinadas. Ejemplo: Although the dollar is a stable currency a rise of only 2 per cent a year will reduce its purchasing power by 45 per cent in 30 years so that the pensiono r life insureance of one`s youth will have lost half of its purchasing, power before one has reached the age of retirement. In spite of what? MAIN CLAUSE What will be the result? When? 1. The problema of the informal market becomes more complex because of the existing difficulties to measure a phenomenon that is currently estimated to have reached 20 percent of Mexico’s economic activity. MAIN CLAUSE __________________________? __________________________? Although it is stable currency A rise of only 2 per cent a year will reduce the dollar purchasing power by 45 percent in 30 years So that the pensiono r life insurance of one`s youth will have lost half of its purchasing power Before one has reached the age of retirement
  • UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Capítulo D 80 2. Unless Unemployment levels fall, the State will have to give some form of worker compensation so that the domestic market can revive. _________________________? MAIN CLAUSE _________________________? 3. Marx agrees with Keynes that saving may be greater than planned investment which will lead to unemployment, however he stresses that this is a problema which results from capitalist behavior and the distribution of income. ________________________? _________________? _________________? 4. While an increased amount of Money in the hands of one person will only make him better off, doubling the money in the hands of everybody will only serve to raise prices. ________________________? MAIN CLAUSE 5. Regardless OF Mexico’s low-wage comparative advantage, productivity levels will have to increase by other means if the country really wants to develop in the long term. _____________________? MAIN CLAUSE _____________________?
  • UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Capítulo D 81 6. There is an enormous number of street vendors in Mexico, while in Italy there is a large number of small or family businesses. _________________________? MAIN CLAUSE 7. Although unemployment is minimal if “employment” in the informal market is considered, unemployment reduction policies should be introud _________________________? _________________________? MAIN CLAUSE ___________________? ACTIVIDAD 8 Completa el texto con una palabra o frase de las brindadas a continuación; no todas son necesarias. Then, despite, unless, provided that, although, moreover, as long as, regardless, indeed, in other words The country`s gross national product (GNP) has continued to grow a) ________________ a difficult world climate. b) ________ exports have fallen, there is a surplus in the current account largely due to capital inflows and privatization of state-owned enterprises. Debt services have been reduced and in general productivity levels have risen. We can expect these thendencies to continue c) _________ the NAFTA agreement is drastically altered and d) ________________ foreign capital continues to flow. e) _________________ productivity levels keep increasing and tha gap between the inflation and the Exchange rate can be closed, f) ___________ the model will work.
  • UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Capítulo D 82 Algunas veces se usan los siguientes signos de puntuación para ilustrar, explicar o ejemplificar: guión (-), dos puntos (:) y paréntesis (…) UNIDAD 16 Términos generales y especificidades OBJETIVOS DE LA UNIDAD Que el estudiante Identifique el tema principal de un texto y sus apoyos, subtemas o ejemplos. Reconozca las palabras o marcadores que introducen los subtemas o ejemplos. INTRODUCCIÒN Cuando en un texto se presenta una idea, èsta es apoyada con ejemplos y explicaciones. En la comprensión de lectura, un buen lector debe distinguir entre la oración o tèrmino general y los ejemplos o apoyo ilustrativo. Aquí, los siguientes conectores son de gran ayuda: For example e.g. for instance Such as that is i.e. Namely particularly specifically In fact a case in point indeed Thus to exemplify this in others words As a matter of fact to ut the same thing in another way in others words Ejemplo 1: Direct advertising includes all forms of sales appeals mailed, delivered, or exhibited directly to the prospective buyer of an advertised producto r service, without use of any indirect médium such as newspaper and televisión. Tèrmino general: indirect médium Ejemplos: newspaper and televisión Ejemplo 2: A different kind of monopoly arises when a country, through geological and geographical circumstances, has control over natural resources or important services, as for example, with Canadian nickel and the Egyptian ownership of the Suez Canal. Término general: Monopolies through geological and geographical circumstances Ejemplos: Canadian nickel and the Egyptian ownership of the Suez canal
  • UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Capítulo D 83 Ejemplo 3: Each of those hard facts is frightening because it imprisons us in a nature that limits and denies those essential qualities that we feel to be uniquely ours: in theological terms, our souls; in humanistic terms, our true natures as individuals. Término general: Essential qualities that we feel to be uniquely ours. Ejemplo: Our souls and our true natures as individuals. ACTIVIDAD 1 Completa los siguientes diagramas 1. What to produce as well as how and for whom would not be problems if resources were unlimited. If human wantsw were fully satisfied, it would not then matter if labor and materials were combined unwisely. There would then be no economic godos, i.e., no godos that are relatively scarce. General Term Marker Explanation 2. Afourth alternative in the construction of environments for growth consist of an intímate and daily intermixture of learning and work. This alternative exists in the form of cooperative education programs in high schools (when the Young person spends half of each day at work of a job and a half at school). General Term Marker Explanation 3. Education, the mass media, the family, religión and government operate within a society to control and influence the lives of human beings. When agents of social control, such as those listed, lose their power, there occurs what scientists call social disorganization. In other words, the behavior of the society becomes unstable and unpredictable General Term Marker Explanation
  • UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Capítulo D 84 4. Treaties and conventions were, at first, restricted in their effects to those countries that ratified them. They are particular, not general, international law; yet regulations and procedures contained in treaties and conventions have often developed into general customary usage, that is, have come to be considered binding even on those states that did not sign and ratify them. General Term Marker Explanation ACTIVIDAD 2 Lee los siguientes pasajes y completa los diagramas I People spend their income to buy commodities and services, but they do not always have everything they want. When people spend their incomes, they first buy essential commodities such as food, clothing, and medical help. If there is Money left, they buy the kind of goods that help them to be combortable, like a videotape recorder or extra furniture. Lastly, people think of the things that provide personal satisfaction, tlike movies, books or holidays. Of course, every individual has a different idea of what is important. Essential food for a meat eater is different from the essential food of a vegetarian. An actor will need to spend more Money on clothes than a worker in a factory. But generally speaking, there is agreement on which goods are essential and which are luxuries General Statement General Term General Term General Term Examples Examples Examples II Advertising messages are disseminated through numerous and varied channels or media. In descending order of dollar volumen, the major media in the U.S. are newspapers, televisión, direct mail, radio, magazines, business publications, outdoor and transit advertising, and farm publications. In addition, a significant amount of all U.S. advertising dollars is invested in miscellaneous media, such as window displays, free shopping-news publications, calendars, skywriting by airplanes, and even sándwich boards carried by people walking the streets. 1 5 1 5
  • UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Capítulo D 85 General Statement General Term General Term Examples Examples ACTIVIDAD 3 Lee el siguiente texto y contesta las preguntas o elige la letra correcta TEXTO I Not all devaluations of Money are significant. The impact of a devaluation on the world market depends on the importance and distribution of a particular currency. A devaluation of the indian rupee in 1946 hardly caused any impacto n the international economic world. The devaluation of the dollar during the oil crisis of the 1970s, on the other hand, brought about economic instability throughout the world market. Taken from Build it Up by Levine, Oded and Statman. Contesta de acuerdo con el TEXTO I 1. What is the writer’s main point? _____________________________________________________________________________ 2. Why does the writer refer to the Indian rupee? _____________________________________________________________________________ 3. Why does he mention the dollar? _____________________________________________________________________________ 1 5
  • UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Capítulo E 86 CAPÍTULO E Claves de respuesta a los Ejercicios de las Secciones A y B
  • UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Capítulo E 87 Texto: Sevan Monastery Fuente: www.lib.rpi.edu/dept/library/html/ArmArch/Sev.html Características: 1p (una columna) con ilustraciones Dificultad: básico Objetivo: practicar pre-lectura y estrategias de vocabulario: repetición. Cambiostipográficos y adivinar en contexto. CLAVE DE RESPUESTAS I. El título hace referencia a un monasterio, en la Repùblica de Armenia, por lo que probablemente el texto trate sobre sus características. Aunque, por la brevedad de líneas, lo haga de manera superficial, enfocándose a algun aspecto general del mismo. II. 1. Church of S. Arakelots 6. monastery 2. Lake Sevan 7. Southwest 3. 874 AD 8.Church of S. AStvatsatsin 4. Prince VAsak of Kapur 9. 9 th 5. Armenia 10. 10th century III. Preguntas a. Un una península sobre lo que una vez fue una isla en el Lago Sevan, en la Repùblica de Armenia b. A la princesa Mariam c. El portal de la entrada està marcado por un arco, y està localizado en el lado sudoeste. d. S. Astvatsatsin tiene espacios adicionales para capillas y càmaras, y tiene una plante màs amplia. e. Entre paréntesis explica què es una claraboya o domo, y que estaba soportada por un par de pilotes de madera.
  • UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Capítulo E 88 Texto: Zaha Hadid Pritzker Prize Fuente: www.architectureweek.com/2004/0414/news_2-1.html Características: 4p (una columna) con publicidad e ilustraciones Dificultad: básico Objetivo: practicar pre-lectura, vocabulario y lectura detallada CLAVE DE RESPUESTAS I. Pre lectura: a. Familiarización: El artículo que vas a leer se obtuvo de una publicación electrónica. Observa las características físicas del texto y completa la siguiente información. ¿Cuál es el titulo? Zaha Hadid Pritzker Price ¿Como son las imágenes? Se trata de detalles de edificios construidos por Hadid y una foto de ella ¿Que información entiendes de los pies de foto? Se trata del Centro para Arte Contemporàneo Rosenthal en la ciudad de Cincinnati, EU y el Bergisel Ski Jump en Innsbruck, Austria. ¿Hay subtítulos? Si, “Jetting to the Top”, “Built Work” ¿Hay cuadros de texto? Si, al final. En esta parte hay muchos nombres que infiero sean del jurado que participò en la designación del premio. ¿De donde obtuvo el artículo? De la revista electrónica Architecture Week, fue publicado en el 2004. ¿Estas familiarizado con esta publicación? Ya conozco la revista, tiene artículos interesantes y de actualidad. b. Vocabulario Observa el diseño de la pàgina y di a què se refieren las siguientes frases: News = noticias Design = diseño Building = edificio Design tools = herramientas de diseño Environment = ambiente Cultura = cultura Current contents = contenidos de la edición actual Architecture books = libros de arquitectura Library & archive = biblioteca y archivo Classic home = hogar clásico Competitions = concursos Conferences = conferencias Event & exhibits = eventos y exhibiciones Architecture = arquitecutra Fórum = foro Architects directory = directorio de arquitectos Search = búsqueda Subscribe & contribute = suscríbete y contribuye
  • UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Capítulo E 89 Web directory = directorio en la red Marketplace = ofertas de trabajo About archweek = acerca de la publicación Newsletter free = noticias gratis PopQuiz = preguntas relacionadas a la práctica arquitectónica Números: (azul) Fechas y cantidades 2004 = fecha en que se otorgó el premio Palabras repetidas: (naranja) Sustantivos, verbos, adjetivos Work = trabajo, obra Morfología de la palabra: (verde) Afijos (prefijos y sufijos) Palabras compuestas Familia de palabras British = británico Chairman = presidente Architects = (n) arquitectos Architecture = (n) arquitectura Architectural = (adj) Arquitectónico Palabras que buscar en el diccionario: (negro) Palabras cuyo significado desconozcas y sean importantes para entender el texto Although = aunque II. Lectura detallada: a. 1. Falso. Aunque si ha construido, Thomas J. Pritzker comenta sobre las posibilidades que puede tener al futuro. 2. Falso. Aunque si ha construido en Alemania y Francia, sus proyectos en Italia apenas se están desarrollando, no se han terminado. 3. Falso. No lo dice el autor sino el presidente del jurado. 4. Verdadero. 5. Verdadero. Una posible interpretación de la palabra “outrageos” es escandaloso. 6. Falso. Aunque si se mencionan los elementos, la frase del cuestionario es un reduccionismo de la cita original de Gehry, por lo que es distinta de la idea original. 7. Falso. La frase “over the past 25 years” se refiere a un rango de tiempo y se podría leer como “desde los últimos 25 años.” 8. Verdadero. Estrategia Explicación Ejemplo Cognados: (amarillo) Palabras transparentes del inglés al español President = presidente Cambios tipográficos: (rosa) Palabras mayúsculas, cursivas, negritas, subrayadas, entre comillas, siglas, con guiones Iraqi – born= nacida en Irak
  • UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Capítulo E 90 b. 1. The Richard and Lois Rosenthal Center for Contemporary Art in Cincinnati 2. Para atraer a los peatones y darle un sentido dinàmico al espacio pùblico 3. a y b son correctas. La opción c no lo es porque el texto sòlo menciona que la apariencia de las galerìas semeja un rompecabezas , pero no dice que estas hayan sido concebidas con esta intenciòn 4. El edificio es largo y angosto, como una serie de muros lineales con terminaciones afiladas que se estiran a lo largo de la calle. El arquitecto querìa transmitir la sensación de “tensión” y “alerta” de los bomberos por lo que evitò cualquier elemento que distrajera la forma prismática sencilla del edificio. 5. El edificio se diseño como un espacio para eventos y exhibiciones dentro del festival del jardín en Well am Rhein, Alemania en 1999. El vestíbulo de exhibición y la cafeterìa se extienden a lo largo de los senderos del jardín, permitiendo ileminaciòn natural y vistas desde el exterior. Hacia el sur hay una terraza con un espacio techado para representaciones; y hacia el norte, un centro “medio sumergido” para investigación ambiental.
  • UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Capítulo E 91 Texto: Photography and the War Fuente: Visual Arts of the Twentieth Century Características: 4p (una columna) con ilustraciones Dificultad: Bàsico Objetivo: practicar pre lectura, referencia contextual (pronombres y referentes), relacionar texto con imágenes y lectura detallada. CLAVE DE RESPUESTAS Pre lectura: a. El texto trata sobre la fotografía que se realizò en EU después de la segunda guerra mundial, poniendo ejemplos de las distintas visiones que tuvieron estos artistas. b. ¿Qué tanto sabes de fotografía? Une las imágenes con su autor. Manuel Àlvarez Bravo Henri Cartier – Bresson Alexander Rodchenko Irving Penn
  • UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Capítulo E 92 I. Lectura a.1 (Las respuestas de esta sección están identificadas en el texto adjunto) a.2 1. it = Segunda Guerra Mundial 2. they = fotógrafos 3. it = campos de concentración alemanes en Dacha 4. it = accidente o crimen 5. their = fotógrafos 6. who = los grandes fotógrafos topográficos del siglo XIX como Timothy O`Sullivan 7. me = Edward Carpenter 8. it = su rango de imágenes 9. these = sus fotografías màs tìpicas de acercamientos a detalles del paisaje 10. which = un tipo de abstracciòn b.1 1. Emprendedores y valientes 2. b) escenario de conflicto 3. fotógrafos como Stieglitz, Edward Weston y la generación de fotógrafos topogràficos del siglo XIX tales como Timothy O`Sullivan. También estuvo influenciado por la tradiciòn literaria de Walt Whitman y Edward Carpenter. 4. La mañana siguiente a que fue liberado. 5. Los grandes fotógrafos topográficos del siglo XIX 6. Roland Penrose, surrealista 7. Su trabajo buscaba documentar el lado oscuro de la metrópolis. Sus fotografías eran en su mayoría realizadas por la noche, con el uso de un flash, tan pronto como ocurrìa el delito. Lo cual lograba ya en su carro tenía un radio de la policía. 8. Buscando llegar a la expresión mas directa de algo que haya sentido èl mismo comp propio (el artista), y por lo tanto, como parte de toda la experiencia humana. El artista debe ir a la raíz de todo el “Arte”, sobretodo al momento en que convergen de manera directa y fuerte el intercambio de emociones o impresiones del artista con el público. 9. Además de por sus mèritos intrínsecos, porque marac el momento en que la fotografía y otros medios de expresión artística comenzaron a “mezclarse”, lo que eventualmente llevarìa a la disoluciòn de las barreras entre los distintos medios de expresión artística.
  • UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Capítulo E 93 b2. 1. Weege 8. Minor White y Harry Callahan 2. Lee Miller 9. Ansel Adams 3. Weegee 10. Minor White 4. Ansel Adams 11. Ansel Adams, Minor White, Harry C 5. Lee Miller 12. Minor White 6. Ansel Adams, Minor White 13. Harry Callahan 7. Lee Miller 14. Harry Callahan III Lee Miller Harry Callahan Man Ray Dorotea Langue Ansel Adams
  • UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Capítulo E 94 Photography Photography and the war World War was a rich quarry for documentary photographers, and every aspect of it in evry thater of conflicto, was covered by the camera. The photographers often showed extraordinary Enterprise, as well as bravery, in getting the images they wanted. Some were entirely unexpected personalities, none more so tan the expatriate American, Lee Miller (1907-1977), who had first established herself in Europe as the model and darkroom assistant of Man Ray. At the beggining of the war iller was living in London, with Roland Penrose, a minor Surrealist painter and major patrón of the arts. In the early 1940`s she made remarkable photographs of the London Blitz. In 1944, shortly before the Normandy landings, she succeded in getting herself acredited as an American war correspondent, and proceeded to accompany the American army across France and Germany. Some of her most memorable images were made in the German concentration camps at Dachau, wich she saw the morning after it was liberated, and Buchenwald. Her images helped to bring home the true reality of the Holocaust to the British and American public. Her searing pictures are not of starving prisioners, nor of piles of corpses, but of concentration camp guards who had been beated by their victims and then looked up by the allies (fig. 6.29). as the critic and curator, Jane Livingston remarks, these photographs have “a charácter of monumentality, and ultimately; a kind of unflinchingness, that separates (them) from others of their kind. Weegee in New York On the other side of tha Atlantic, the new photographer, Weegee (Arthur Felling, 1899- 1968), was making a rather similar documentation of the dark side of a modern metrópolis. His book, Naked City, was published in 1945. Weegee had a pólice radio in his car, wich enabled him to rush to the scene of an accident or crime almost as son as it had taken place. His glaring and brutal images, most often made at night, and
  • UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Capítulo E 95 lit with a pitiless photographic flash (fig. 6.30), offer an apparentely raw, uncensored visión of life wich is a vehicle for savage criticism of American sociaty. Visionary photographers While photographers such as Miller and Weegee reacted directly to the terror of their times, there were others who tried to supply positive images as an emotional counterbalance to all-pervasive violence. In the 1940`s ansel Adams (1902-1984) made waht are perhaps the best loved landscape images in the history of American photography-images like the famous Moonrise, Hernandez, New Mexico (fig. 6.31). His influences included the work of Stiegliz, of Edward Weston and also of the great nineteenth century topographical photographers such as Timothy H O Sullivan (1840- 1882)- the men who first showed America to itself. In the Canyon de Chelly in Arizona, for instance, Adams often used almost exactly the same points of view that O`Sullivan had employed. Adam was also influenced bye the literary tradition of Walt Withman and Eward Carpenter who wrote: It seems to me that the only way in wich artist can make his work durable and great is by seeking to arrive at the most direct expression of something actually felt by himself as a part of his own , and so part of all the human experience. He most go to the roof of alla Arts, namely the conveyance of an emotion or impression with the utmost force and directness from himself to another person. Minor White (1908-1976) was also influenced by Stieglez (whom he visited in New York in New York in 1946), by Ansel Adams (whom he succeded in his teaching post at the California School of Fine Arts), by Edward Weston (with whom he become close friends), and by the poetry of Whitman. His range of imagery is wider than that of Adams- it includes anumber of homoerotic images made in the late 1940`s wich remained unpublish and unexhibited during his lifetime. Many of his most typical photographs of the 1940`s are close-up landscape details (fig. 6.32) these have an obvious kinship with teh work being done by the emrgent Abstract Expressionist painters at the same period. The likeness to the paintings of Clyfford Still is especially striking.
  • UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Capítulo E 96 Another photographer making radically abstract images during this epoch was Harry Callahan (1912), also a discipline of Stieglitz and Adams. A study of Weeds in Snow (fig. 6.33), made in Detrit in 1943, offers a kind of abstraction wich is more radical tan anything the Abstract Expressionists had achieved up to that point. Quiet apart from its intrinsic merits, the photography done in the 1940`s by White and Callahan is historically important because it marks the momento at wich photography and other forms of artistic expression began to approach one another in a way wich was eventually to make them to all effects and purposes indistinguishable.
  • UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Capítulo E 97 Texto: Rewards of Unbuilding Fuente: www.architectureweek.com/2002/0529/building_1-1.html Características: 3pp. (Una columna) con ilustraciones Dificultad: Bàsico Objetivo: practicar estrategias para registrar y memorizar vocabulario y lectura detallada CLAVE DE RESPUESTAS III. Pos Lectura a. El título del texto siginifica VENTAJAS DE LA RE ARQUITECTURA, los subtítulos son: desmantelando un molino o fàbrica, diseñar para le reutilización futura y otros beneficios de la reutilizaciòn. En las imágenes y pies de foto se explica el proceso de desmantelar un edificio antiguo para re utilizar sus materiales, principalmente madera. b. El texto va tratar sobre las ventajas de la re arquitectura de edificios, es decir, sobre el proceso de desmantelar materiales y estructuras de un edificio existente para reutilizarlos en la construcción de uno nuevo. c. Puedes consultar listas de materiales en los glosarios y diccionarios de terminología técnica. Falso y verdadero 1. Falso: en el texto sòlo se habla de calidad de la madera, que antes era mejor a la de los bosques actuales; pero no generaliza esto hacia otros materiales. 2. Verdadero 3. Verdadero 4. Falso: en gran parte (much) de Europa los fabricantes seben reciclar todo lo que producen. 5. Falso: “it`s been said” es impersonal, Mc Vay lo comenta pero no hace suyo el tono de la afirmación, al contrario, según èl a diferencia de ese comentario, nosotros necesitamos ver hacia el futuro “but we need to look toward the future” 6. Falso: al contrario, incrementaràn el tiempo que se emplee en removerlos, y disminuirán la cantidad de material que pueda ser recuperado. 7. Falso: el texto sòlo menciona que asì sea en Oregon. 8. Falso: esta organización se dedica a promover proyectos enfocados a la comunidad, no a la reutilización de materiales. 9. Verdadero
  • UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Capítulo E 98 Opción múltiple 1. b) y d) son correctas; a) 37 000 se refiere al área que ocupaba el Molino y c) no fue màs del 95 % sino casi el 95 % 2. c) reciclado, el guiòn nmos da la pauta para saber que el autor va a comentar sobre la última idea o palabra: el reciclaje 3. c) inusuales; la clave es la palabra “such as” que introduce el ejemplo de algo que se mencionò anteriormente 4. d); las demás opciones no son ventajosas 5. a) y b) son correctas; c) el texto dice que “deberían rescatar 20 toneladas” no que ya lo hayan hecho, d) no tenía pisos de mármol, sino de madera, y no menciona otros materiales “preciosos”
  • UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Capítulo E 99 Texto: Houses for the Future - Now Fuente: Newsweek, May 23, 2005 Características: 3p con ilustraciones Dificultad: básico Objetivo: practicar vocabulario en contexto y lectura detallada CLAVE DE RESPUESTAS I: Pre Lectura a. Lectura de Familiarizaciòn: Del primer artículo, el título significa: “Casas del Fùturo – Ahora”, y el encabezado se puede leer: Prefabricados: Cuando escuchas la palabra “hogar modular”, tu piensas “doble ancho.” Los diseñadores de vivienda prefabricada de hoy quieren que lo reconsideres. Al relacionar esto con las imágenes y pies de foto nos damos la idea que el texto tratarà sobre las caracterìsticas e innovaciones en los sistemas modulares de construcción. Del segundo artículo, el título es: Mantenièndolo Real y Pequeño, y su encabezado podría ser: El popular despacho Blue Dot se aferra a la misiònen Minneapolis. En la imagen y pie de foto se ve a los miembros de este despacho de diseño. b. vocabulario 1: las respuestas al vocabulario se presentan en orden del texto. 1. Prefab = prefabricado 16. Demand = demanda 2. Leather = cuero 17. Supply = oferta 3. Chairs = sillas 18. Drawing board = restirador 4. Covet = envidiar 19. Afford = costear 5. Chests = cómodas 20. Towels rods = toalleros 6. Sample = muestra 21.Tricked out = decorada para llamar la atenciòn 7. Panels = pàneles 22. Eight foot panels = paneles de 8 pies 8. Ship = embarcar 23. Cement board = tablaroca 9. Assemble = armar 24. Trailers = viviendas rodantes 10. Trade show = feria 25. Terribly = muy mal 11. Housing = vivienda 26. Under designed = sin diesño 12. Dwellings = viviendas 27. Wiring 13. Flat/ pitched roofs = techos planos 28. Plumbing = plomerìa 14. Developer = constructora 29. Lakefront = con vista a un lago 15. Consumer = consumidor 30. Spec house = casa con grandes ventanales
  • UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Capítulo E 100 Keeping it Real – and Real Small 31. Stuff = cosas 38. Plead = se declaran 32. Favorite spot = lugar favorito 39. Easy to swallow modernism = un estilo modernista accesible 33. Has bloomed = se ha desarrollado bien 40. Tasteful color = colores de buen gusto 34. Annual growth = crecimiento anual 41. Ethos = misión 35. Label = marca 42. Galore = multitud 36. Flops = fracasos 43. Are flirting = están coqueteando 37. Terrific looking = muy atractiva 44. Shelter magazine = revista especializada c. vocabulario 2: 1. Story = d) planta, piso 2. Breezeway = a) pasaje abierto 3. Coolest couches = d) sillones màs atractivos y sofisticados 4. Wrinkling your nose at = c) mostrando desagrado 5. Far less time = a) en mucho menos tiempo 6. From scratch = b) desde cero 7. Handsomely unassuming = c) en gran medida desapercibido 8. Skyrocketing real estate prices, significa que los precios de los bienes raíces = a)han subido mucho últimamente 9. Under designed = b) mal diseñados 10. Easy to swallow modernism = d) modernismo accesible II.READING IN DETAIL: A. True / False: Houses of the Future Now 1. Falso, en el encabezado del primer artículo se mencionan como contrastantes: Hogar modular es distinto a doble ancho. 2. Falso, es el nombre de un sistema ingenioso de paneles en dos dimensiones 3. Falso, se construyeron 1.18 millones de viviendas en total, pero las “modulares” fueron sòlo el 3 % de esta cifra 4. Verdadero: smaller and more energy efficient 5. Falso, 45 000 es la cantidad de visitas mensuales que han recibido estas viviendas en promedio desde el 2003 6. Falso, trabajo para èl una vez en L. A., pero ella trabaja en San Francisco 7. Verdadero, aunque no siempre es asì 8. Falso, $ 132 dòlares es lo menos que podría costar el metro cuadrado
  • UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Capítulo E 101 Keeping it Real – And Real Small 1. Verdadero 2. Falso, aunque dos de sus integrantes si se conocieron desde la universidad, su éxito fue poco probable 3. Verdadero 4. Verdadero 5. Verdadero 6. Falso, al contrario, esas dos ideas no reflejaban la esencia de Blue Dot y por lo tanto fueron descartadas 7. Falso, aunque si se ha tenido un crecimiento anual de 60 %, sus propietarios no desean que se convierta en una compañía grande B. Open questions: Houses of the Future – Now 1. c 2. a,b,c 3. b 4. a Keeping it Real – And Smaller 1. b 2. a, c 3. c 4. a 5. c 6. b
  • UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Capítulo E 102 Texto: ¿Who are the Great Women Artists? Fuente: ARTnews, marzo 2003 Características: 4p con ilustraciones Dificultad: intermedio – avanzado Objetivo: practicar estrategias de lectura a partir de la fòrmula SQ3R CLAVE DE RESPUESTAS I. Survey (Anàlisis del texto): a) El título del texto significa “¿Quiènes son las grandes mujeres?”, el encabezado explica que hace 30 años la misma revista público un ensayo sobre las fuezas sociales que impidieron a las mujeres el convertirse en grandes artistas como llegaron a ser algunos hombres. La última frase dice: le preguntamos a expertos si el consenso ha cambiado, y còmo. El artículo me llama la atención porque pareciera que, en efecto, pocas mujeres han sobresalido en el mundo del arte a lo largo de la historia. En parte debido a su condición social-polìtico- económica limitante para que ejercieran “profesiones” liberales. En las imágenes se ilustran ejemplos de artistas mujeres que han logrado sobresalir. Es curioso que sòlo se trata de un caso de renombre en el pasado remoto: Artemisa Gentileschi (hija de un artista màs famoso) a principios del siglo XVII; pero que, afortunadamente, para los siglos XX y XXI ya son varias las mujeres que se reconocen en este mundo del arte, asì como la temática y medios que exploran son muy variados: instalación, fotografía, escultura y performance. b) Las identificaciones están resaltadas en amarillo. II. Questions (Preguntas de inferencia) A continuación encontraràs algunas preguntas que corresponden a los primeros cinco párrafos del texto, en tu pràctica puedes elaborar preguntas respecto de todos los párrafos. Párrafo Pregunta I 1. ¿De què trataba el ensayo de Linda Nochlin? 2. ¿Por què fue importante, no se había escrito antes algo respecto del tema? II 1. ¿Por què el ensayo se conviertiò en un clásico instantáneo? III 1. ¿Còmo ha cambiado el discurso sobre el arte en las academias, los museos y el mercado? 2. ¿Còmo se ha modificado la concepción que se tiene sobre las mujeres artistas en estos 30 años desde que el artículo fue publicado? IV 1. ¿Quièn dice lo contenido en esta cita? 2. ¿Què se ha hecho para re examinar o evaluar la veracidad de la cita de Nochlin respecto a que “no hay grandes mujeres artistas”? V 1. ¿Quièn dice esto, a quièn pertenece la cita, què puesto ocupa? 2. ¿Por què no cambiarìa nuestra estimación de tales obras?
  • UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Capítulo E 103 III. Read (Lectura detallada) A continuación están las respuestas a las preguntas de la sección anterior Párrafo Respuesta I 1. Se trataba de una análisis al estatus que las mujeres han tenido, en el pasado y en el presente, en el mundo del arte; a partir de la nociòn que pese a la “casi igualdad” de géneros, las mujeres no han tenido logros significativos en las artes plásticas. 2. Aunque seguramente se haya escrito mucho respecto del tema (pues en el texto no se dice que aquèl ensayo haya sido el primero) la importancia del texto de Nochlin subyace en su cuestionamiento del papel de las estructuras sociales que rodean la producción del arte: academias de arte, sistemas de patronazgo, mitilogìas del divino creador, el artista como “el hombre” y el exilio social. II 1. Porque si bien no fue el único que abordo el tema, si fue un documento que influyò en otros trabajos en su momento. III 1. En los últimos años ha habido muchas exposiciones “a gran escala” sobre mujeres artistas en museos. 2. Aunque las opiniones “expertas son variadas, existe un consenso sobre la importante contribución histórica del artículo. IV 1. Ruth Appelhof, quien dirige el Guild Hall Museum en East Hampton, Nueva York. 2. El párrafo es muy breve y aunque no lo explica como tal, menciona que en el Guild Hall Museum recientemente hubo una exposición sobre el arte del as mejores épocas del feminismo. V 1. La cita es de Marìa Prather, quien es curadora de arte de la posguerra en el Museo Whitney de Arte Americano. 2. El texto aclara que para algunos críticos de arte, el exhibir las pinturas de estas mujeres artistas antes ignoradas en museos de gran renombre, no cambia la percepción general de que su arte sea mediocre o no suficientemente “bueno” comparado con el de sus contemporáneos masculinos. IV. Recite (Decir en voz alta) a) Vamos a releer el texto, de principio a fin. Vuelve a leer el título y el primer párrafo, en silencio, y tòmate unos minutos para recordar la información importante que contenía. Aparta la vista del materia, y habla en voz alta sobre lo que entendiste. b) Continùa de igual manera con los párrafos siguientes hasta terminar todo el artículo. Conforme avanzas en los párrafos, trata de darle seguimiento o cohesión a las ideas. V. Review (Repaso) Hecho todo lo anterior, vuelve a leer el texto pero ya sin detenerte en cada párrafo. Conforme lo haces, pon atención a la manera en que se estructuran todas las ideas del texto. Es muy importante que en este último paso tù mismo evalúes el proceso que seguiste y el resultado que lograste en cuanto a la comprensión del mensaje del autor.
  • UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Capítulo E 104 Texto: Constructivism Fuente: Scharf Aaron, Constructivism. Concepts of Modern Art, World of Art. Thames & Hudson, UK, 2002. Características: 9 medias paginas Dificultad: intermedio Objetivo: practicar estrategias de pre-lectura, lectura y pos-lectura CLAVE DE RESPUESTAS Pre Lectura: b. La lectura trata sobre un estilo de arte llamado CONSTRUCTIVISMO, el cual se desarrollo en Rusia en los años posteriores a la revolución de octubre de 1917. Durante este periodo, los artistas adoptaron ideales del socialismo y del marxismo y fueron apoyados aunque también controlados por el Estado. Algunos de los artistas màs sobresalientes de este periodo son: Vladimir Tatlin, El Lissitzky, Alexander Rodchenko, Kasimir Malevich, Naum Gabo. Los medios màs prolíficos de este estilo fueron la arquitectura y el diseño, altamente relacionados con los avances científicos y tecnológicos. I. Lectura: a. Falso/ Verdadero: di si la información de los siguientes enunciados es verdadera o falasa, con respecto al texto y justifica tus respuestas. Para la información falsa, incluye lo que sería verdadero. 1. Verdadero: from David`s time at least 2. Falso: por lo menos desde la época de David (artista del periodo neoclásico), los artistas izquierdistas, estuvieron en muchos casos motivados por aspiraciones meramente formales. 3. Verdadero: instead of 4. Verdadero 5. Falso: pretendìan abolir las jerarquías en el arte; que todas las manifestaciones tuvieran el mismo valor y significado 6. Falso: es el mejor ejemplo (el màs conservado) 7. Falso: según El Lissitzky, estaban en Europa Occidental y EU, principalmente en los complejos de Par`s, Chicago y Berlìn. 8. Falso: no se menciona que Naum Gabo hubiera participado en el diseño de programas 9. Verdadero
  • UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Capítulo E 105 b. Opción múltiple: elige la(s) opción(es) correcta(s) 1. D) Para muchos críticos de la década de 1920, el arte moderno era anarquía y mutilación de las apariencias naturales 2. d) 3. c) 4. c) 5. a), b) y d) si; c) no, porque esos sòlo son los elementos de las formas 6. d) 7. c) 8. a), b), c) y d) 9. a) y d) 10. c) c. Relaciona las columnas: 1. S / O 2. G 3. B 4. C / I /P 5. E / K 6. A / R No se utilizan las siguientes letras: D: porque el constructivismo no se considera un arte abstracto H: porque los proyectos no se construyeron sòlo por falta de presupuesto (lo cual podemos intuir) sino por falta de conocimientos de tecnología avanzada. J: no se menciona quièn acuño el tèrmino, al contrario, el texto dice que los constructivistas eliminaron el vocablo, por considerarlo arbitrario L: se refiere a los ideales y la geometría emblemática del Constructivismo M: esta afirmación es falsa porque respecto a la información del texto. En el primer párrafo sòlo se menciona que los políticos de arte en Parìs, Berlìn y Moscù estaban determinados a extirpar inclusive la memoria del pasado “grandioso”, por medio a que el proletariado vulgar pudiese desarrollar una nostalgia hacia la majestuosidad de las civilizaciones del pasado aristocrático. N: es un caso parecido al anterior, la información del texto se refiere al Monumento a la Tercera Internacional, de Vladimir Tatlin, pero dao que no se construyo (it was never built) no “utilizò” sino “hubiera utilizado” Q: la medida se refiere a la altura del edificio màs alto de su época (1931), el Empire State Building.
  • UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Capítulo E 106 Texto: The New Game in Design Fuente: www.core77.com/reactor/04.06_xbox.asp Características: 1p Dificultad: básico Objetivo: practicar referencia contextual; identificar pronombres y sus referentes. CLAVE DE RESPUESTAS 1. that f. a backstory 2. this i. that Xbox 360 is not just a powerful new gaming machine, but also a new model for social activity and global communication centered around digital enterteinment 3. itself g. the product 4. that b. aggressive esthetic 5. their d. dysfunctional teenage boys 6. they e. consultants 7. his m. Michael Jager 8. he m. Michael Jager 9. his m. Michael Jager 10. it o. a large “X” in a piece of posterboard 11. them j. people
  • UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Capítulo E 107 Texto: Design Various Fuente: www.core77.com/materials Características: 1p (cuatro textos breves) con ilustraciones Dificultad: básico Objetivo: practicar lectura en contexto; colocar los conectores y verbos en voz pasiva en el lugar correcto del texto. CLAVE DE RESPUESTAS b. noticia: - 20th Biennale of Industrial Design - Daily Insights On reseña de un producto: - metal * crack * wood * clak * textile * clak * rubber * clak* - Sandwich Bikes 20th Biennial of Industrial Design Tuesday, April 11 The 20th Biennial of Industrial Design (BIO 20) will be in Ljubljana, Slovenia beginning this October. “The organizer wishes to present innovative design products which seek answers to the problems of modern life, which are towards sustainable development and social responsibility, and which satisfy the special needs of users”. If you`re Project fits the bill, you can find out how to submit your work on their web site. The deadline for entry is June 12, 2006. Mark Vanderbeeken`s excellent blog has been relaunched (from TypePad to Wordpress, for those who are counting), nicely designed by Jan Christoph Zoels and Janina Boesch, and teched up by Beverly Tang. As usual, the site provides fantastic posts dealing with experience design, user experience, and innovation, but now there`s a crazy comprehensive index bar at the top nad a “guest house” running down the right side, featuring guest bloggers and news from Experienta. Check all out here.
  • UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Capítulo E 108 metal * clak * wood * clak * textile * clak * rubber * clak* Monday, April 10 Rubik`s Cubes are colorful toys but playing the game is not just about seeing with your eyes, it also involves a lot of haptics. Industrial design students at the University of Zhejiang picked up this touch-aspect and developed a new cube concept, not with colors but with materials. “There are six different basic materials involved. They are metal, Wood, textile, rubber and Stone. Different materials give people different senses, wich thus enable the blind men top lay. And here we present the very example of this inspiration – the newRubik Cube” If games are about winning or losing then consider them winners since they have already been recognized with this year`s IF Material Awards. Sandwich Bikes Wednesday, April 12 Last week during Salone de Mobile in Milan, Bleijh Concepts and Design showed the Sandwich Bike at the Tutto Bene Show. Currently in prototype stage, the bike frame is made of tqo wooden plates, and four identical smart cylinders. It ships flat and can be assembled at home with a single tool. The absence of welding joints makes the frame very easy to produce, and the material can vary according to the client`s demand. This way the bike can be kept simple and reasonably inexpensive. The Sandwich Bike was a big hit – so much so that someone broke into the exhibit and stole the prototype. Rather than dole out justice on the thief, your best course of action is the order one of the bikes yourself.
  • UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Capítulo F 109 CAPÍTULO F Claves de respuesta a los Ejercicios de la sección D
  • UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Capítulo F 110 ACTIVIDAD 7 (pag. 74) 1. (5) 7. (4) 13. (1) 19. (3) 2. (3) 8. (1) 14. (9) 20. (4) 3. (5) 9. (2) 15. (5) 21. (9) 4. (9) 10. (1) 16. (2) 22. (6) 5. (6) 11. (2) 17. (7) 23. (2) 6. (3) 12. (9) 18. (4) 24. (2) UNIDAD 12 Actividad 1 (pag. 77) 1. The problem of the informal market becomes more complex. Main Clause because of the existing diffidulties to measure a phenomenon. Why? that is currently estimated to have reached 20 percent of Mexico`s economic activity What kind of phenomenon? 2. Unless unemployment levels fall. Under which condition? the state will have to give some form of worker compensation. Main Clause so that the domestic market can revive. What will be result? 3. Marx agrees with keynes that saving may be greater than planned investment. Main Clause which will lead to unemployment. What kind of investment? however he stresses that this is a problema. In spite of what? which results from capitalist behavior and the distribution of income. What kind of problem? 4. While an increased amount of Money in the hands of one person will only make him better off? In spite of what? doubling the Money in the hands of everybody will only serve to raise prices. Main Clause 5. Regardless of Mexico`s low wage comparative advantage. In spite of what? productivity level will have to increase by other means. Main Clause if the country really wants to develop in the long term. Under which condition? 6. While in Italy there is a large number of small or family businesses. In spite of what? there is an enormous number of street vendors in Mexico. Main Clause 7. Although unemployment is minimal. In spite of what? if employment in the informal market is considered. Under which condition? Unemployment reduction pólicies should be introduced. Main Clause even though they tend to accelerate the economy, produce increased inflation and distort the labor market even further. In spite of what?
  • UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Capítulo F 111 8. Since it activities certain markets`functionality. Why? the presence of an underground economy can have positive economic impact. Main Clause so that some stagnant resources are used. What wil be the result? 9. The government would be forced to increased taxes. Main Clause that can use an expansión of the underground economy. What kind of taxes? in order to finance global economic activities. For what purpose? thereby a vicious circle is created. What will be the result? 10.The major European countries in the 18 th century sought to acquire colonies Main Clause which it was thought could provide the `mother country`with cheap labor and raw materials. What kind of countries? To achieve favorable trade balances. For what purpose? UNIDAD 16 Actividad 1 (pag. 81) GENERAL TERM MARKER EXPLANATION 1. there would then be no economic goods i. e. no goods that are relatively scarce 2. Cooperative education programs in high school ( ) when the young person spends half of each day at work of a job and half at school 3. Agents of social control such as education, the mass media, the family, religion and government 4. Regulations and procedures contained in treaties and conventions have often developed into gene ral customary usage that is they have come to be considered binding even on those states that did not sign and ratify them Actividad 2 (pag. 82) I. General Statement GENERAL TERM GENERAL TERM GENERAL TERM EXAMPLES EXAMPLES EXAMPLES Essential commodities Comfortable goods Personal satisfaction Food, clothing and medical help Videotape recorder or extra furniture Movies, books or holidays People spend their income to buy commodities and services
  • UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Capítulo F 112 II. General Statement GENERAL TERM GENERAL TERM EXAMPLES EXAMPLES Actividad 3 (pag. 83) Texto I 1. Not all devaluations of Money are significant 2. Because it hardly caused any impact on the International economic world 3. Because the devaluation of the dollar brought about economic instability throughout the world market Advertising messages are disseminated through numerous and varied channels or media The major media in the U.S. Miscellaneous media Newspapers, televisión, direct mail, radio, magazines, business publications, outdoor and transit advertising and farm publications Windows displays, free shopping –news publications, calendars, skywriting by airplanes
  • UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Apéndice A 113 APÉNDICE A Explicaciones sobre Estructura del Lenguaje
  • UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Apéndice A 114 Sentences A sentence is a group of words that expresses a complete thought. Many people take vacations in the summer There are four kinds of sentences: declaratives, interrogative, imperative, and exclamatory. A declarative sentence makes a statement and ends with a period. Everyone enjoyed the field trip to the history museum Mr. Gregory accompanied the class An interrogative sentence asks a question and ends with a question mark Have you heard the good news about Ellen ? Did you know that she won the contest ? An imperative sentence gives a command or makes a request and ends with a period. The subject of an imperative sentence is you (understood). You refers to the persono r persons to whom the command or request is given. You is understood, not actually written. (you) Tell me about your trip to England (you) Show us your photographs An exclamatory sentence espresses strong feeling and ends with an exclamation point. What a wonderful time we had ! The sights were spectacular ! A simple sentence contains one subject and one predícate. A simple sentence may have a compound subject, a compound verb, or both. Lava flowed from the mouth of the volcano. Smoke and flames poured into the air The earth rumbled and shook A compound sentence contains two or more related simple sentences joined by a comma and a conjunction or by a semicolon. Brandon looked out the window, but he saw only darkness. Simple sentence simple sentence Brandon looked aout the window; he saw only darkness Simple sentence simple sentence A complex sentence consists of an independent clause and at least one subordínate clause. If you videotape this program tonight, we can watch it tomorrow Subordínate clause independent clause The subject of a sentence names someone or something. The subject of a sentence is the part about which something is being said. Tourists often come to this resort town. WRITER’SHANDBOOK
  • UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Apéndice A 115 The complete subject is all the words that make up the subject part of the sentence. A large sign will direct you to the exit. The simple subject is the main, or key, word in the complete subject A large sign will direct you to the exit. A compound subject is made up of two or more subjects that have the same verb. Raymond and his brother wandered through the gift shop. The predicate of a sentence tells what the subject i sor does. Belinda was frantic about her lost luggage. Andrew listened patiently to her story. The complete predicate contains all the words and phrases in the predícate part of the sentence. A young deer stood by the maple tree. The simple predicate is the verb in the complete predícate. It simple predícate may be one verbo r a verb phrase. Your schedule allows one hour for lunch. Many of us are becoming hungry now. A compound verb is two or more verbs that have the same subject. Leslie washed and waxed her new car. When a sentence has natural word order, the subject comes before the verb. A smiling waitress stood behind the counter. When a sentence has inverted word order, the subject comes before the subject. Behind the counter stood a smiling waitress. A complement is the part of a sentence that completes the thought started by the subject and the verb. A sentence complement may be a direct object, an indirect object, a predícate adjective, or a predícate nominative. A direct object is a noun or a pronoun that receives the action of the verb. To find the direct object, ask who or what receives the action. Krystin tore her new wool sweater, tore what? Sweater Kwan counted the swimmers and skiers anjoying the lake, counted whom? Swimmers, skiers An indirect object tells to or for whom or to or for what the action of the verb is done. A sentence must have a direct object to have an indirect object, the indirect object is a noun or a pronoun. It is always placed after the verb and before the direct object in a sentence. The map showed the hikers the quickest trail to the camp. V IO DO A park ranger told them the best route. V IO DO He gave Bob and Tim the directions to the old cabin. V IO IO DO WRITER’SHANDBOOK
  • UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Apéndice A 116 A predicate nominative is a noun or pronoun that follows a linking verb and renames or identifies the subject of the sentence. Both of my parents are engineers My first choice for a partner is you The contents of the bag were paintbrushes, rulers, and pencils. A predicate adjective is an adjective that follows a linking verb and describes the subject of the sentence. The sunset was beautiful Our dog, Sparky, is intelligent and gentle. Nouns A noun names a person, a place, a thing, or an idea. My bother rushed into the house with a look of surprise. A singular noun names one person, place, thing, or idea Where is your new stereo? A plural noun names more than one person, place, thing, or idea. Add s to form the plural of must nouns. For help with the spelling of plural nouns, see the Spelling section of this Writer’s Handbook. My parents attend my band concerts A common noun names any person, place, thing, or idea The Eagle soared into the sky A concrete noun names something that can be seen, smelled, tasted, felt or heard. The right fender was covered with rust An abstract noun names an idea, a quality, or a feeling that cannot be experienced with the senses. Our primary concern is your safety A collective noun names a group of things, people, or animals. The audience applauded for the winning team A proper noun names a particular person, place, thing, or idea. A proper noun is always capitalized. For help with the capitalization of proper nouns, see the Mechanics section of the Writer`s Handbook. Captain T.R. Lee and her family have arrived from Korea. The Rotary Club will sponsor an auction in August. James finished his report before Thanksgiving Day. WRITER’SHANDBOOK
  • UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Apéndice A 117 A possessive noun shows ownership or possession. For more help with forming possessive nouns, see the Mechanics section of the Writer`s Handbook. Form the possessive of a singular noun by adding an apostrophe and an s. Kim`s guitar is out of tune. I borrowed Bess`s radio to take to the beach. Form the possessive of a plural noun that ends in s by adding an apostrophe. The workers` schedules are changed each week. Form the possessive of a plural noun that does not end in s by adding an apostrophe and an s. The women`s clothing department i son the third floor. An appositive is a noun or pronoun that identifies or renames a noun or pronoun that precedes it. My sister, Mary, wears her hair in long braids. Pronouns A pronoun takes the place of a noun or nouns. Pronouns can be singular or plural, and they can be masculine, feminine, or neuter. They can be in the nominative or the adjective case. The pronouns that are used more frequently are called personal pronouns. Colin said that he has two tickets to the concert. The Boyds intend to bring two suitcases with them. An antecedent is the noun or nouns to which a pronoun refers. A pronoun should agree with its antecedent in number, person and sometimes gender. Jack found a surprise when he opened the door A subject pronoun is used as a subject of a sentence. Subject pronouns are in the nominative case. She is the superintendent of this building. A pronoun used as a subject should agree in number with the verb. She likes to go to the movies on Saturday They like to go to the skating rink. A pronoun used as a predicate nominative is in the nominative case. A merry old soul was he. Nominative Case Singular Plural First person Second person Third person I You He, she, it We You They WRITER’SHANDBOOK
  • UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Apéndice A 118 An object pronoun can be used as a direct object, an indirect object, or the object of a preposition. Object pronouns are in the objective case. Mr. Harmon will drive me to the tennis court. direct object The announcer told us the reasons for cancelling the game. Indirect object The firefighters have a tremendous job ahead of them. Object of a preposition A relative pronoun connects a group of words to a noun antecedent or a pronoun antecedent. The Words that, which, who, whom, and whose can be used as relative pronouns. Paprika is the spice that you taste in this stew. A possessive pronoun shows ownership or possession. The weary shoppers carried their bags to the bus stop. A reflexive pronoun refers to the subject. The words myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, yourselves, and themselves can be reflexive pronouns. Kate allows herself fifteen minutes to walk to school. An intensive pronoun emphasizes a noun or pronoun. The words myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, yourselves, and themselves can be intensive pronouns. My parents built a two-car garaje themselves. A demonstrative pronoun points aout a particular person, place or thing. The words this, that, these and those are demonstrative pronouns. This is an Antique farm tool. That is not. These were found in the Midwest. Those were found on an Indian reservation. When this, that, these, and those are used before nouns, they are adjectives, not pronouns. I wonder what this tool was used for? An indefinitve pronoun does not refer to a particular person, place, thing, or idea. Many of these factories have increased production. Objective Case Singular Plural First person Second person Third person Me You Him, her, it Us You Them Possessive Pronouns Singular Plural First person Second person Third person My, mine Your, yours His, her, hers, its Our, ours Your, yours Thier, theirs WRITER’SHANDBOOK
  • UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Apéndice A 119 When indefinite pronouns are used before nouns, they are adjectives, not pronouns. Some jackets will go on sale next week (adjective) Some are available at a discount now (pronoun) The indefinite pronouns all, any, most, and some are plural when they refer to thins that can be counted. They are singular when they refer to things that cannot be counted. All of the students have passed (can count students) All of the snow has melted (cannot coun snow) An interrogative pronoun is used to ask a question. The words who, whose, whom, what, and which are interrogative pronouns. What are th most important natural resources of Yugoslavia? Who is the leading oil producer? Which is the most profitable? Who is this? Whom did you choose? Verbs A verb expresses action or being. Roy drove the tractor toward the hay field. The approaching storm clouds were an unwelcome sight. An action verb expresses physical or mental action. The quarterback hurled the ball down the field. He realized his mistake too late. A linking verb connects the subject of a sentence to a Word or words in the predícate. Linking verbs are forms of the verb be or verbs that express being, such as seem, appear, become, look, feel, and remain. The cost of a new house is very high. Construction companies seem busier than ever. Indefinite Pronouns Singular Plural All Another Any Anybody Anyone Anything Each Either Everybody Everyone Everything Most Much Neither Nobody None No one Nothing One Some Somebody Someone Something Such All Any Both Few Many Most None Several Some WRITER’SHANDBOOK
  • UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Apéndice A 120 A verb phrase is made up of a main verb and one or more helping verbs. We could have been here earlier. He is helping me with my homework. The main verb is the most important verb in a verb phrase. main verb Nina would prefer the fresh fruit salad. A helping verb works with the main verb to express action or being. helping verb Mr. Corey will present his report to the group. helping verb The meeting has been postponed. A subject and its verb must agree in number. For help with subject-verb agreement, see the Usage of the Writer`s Handbook. A dandelion grows rapidly in warm weather. Dandelions grow in lawns all over the neighborhood. The principal parts of a verb are the present, the present participle, the past, and the past participle. Present Present participle Past Past participle Offer Purchase Reply Scan Offering Purchasing Replying Scanning Offered Purchased Replied Scanned Offered Purchased Replied scanned The tense of a verb shows time. Verb tenses change to indicate that events happen at differents times. The six verb tenses are the present, the past, the future, the present perfect, the past perfect, and the future perfect. Present: David waits for the bus every morning. Past: Yesterday he waited for ten minutes. Future: We will wait a few minutes longer. Present perfect: Karina has waited with David a few minutes. Past perfect: Sue had waited a long time before the bus`s arrival. Future perfect: Soon Gina will have waited longer that anyone else. A progressive verb expresses action that continues. Each of the present, past, and future tenses has progressive form. To make the progressive form of a verb, always use the present participle as the main verb with a form of the verb be as a helping verb. Progressive verb forms Present: Luis is saving his money for a skateboard. Past: Last year he was saving for a catcher`s mitt. Future: With my new job I will be saving ten dollars a week. WRITER’SHANDBOOK
  • UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Apéndice A 121 Present perfect: Nancy has been saving Money by shopping with coupons. Past perfect: Without the coupons she had been saving very Little. Future perfect: By June, Dan will have been saving his paychecks for six months. An irregular verb does not have ed or d added to the present to form the past and the past participle. The verbs be, have, and do are irregular verbs. B e Principal parts: be, was,(have) been, being Present Past Future I He, she, it We, you,they Am Is Are Was Was Were Wil(shall) be Will be Will(shall) be Present perfect Past perfect Future perfect I He, she, it We, you,they Have been Has been Have been Had been Had been Had been Will(shall) have been Will have been Will(shall) have been H a v e Principal parts: have, had,(have), had, having Present Past Future I ,we,you,they He, she, it Have had Had Had Wil(shall) have had Will have had Present perfect Past perfect Future perfect I, we,you,they He, she, it Have had Has had Had had Had had Will(shall) have had Will have had D o Principal parts: Do, did,(have) done, doing Present Past Future I ,we,you,they He, she, it Do does Did Did Wil(shall) do Will have do Present perfect Past perfect Future perfect I, we,you,they He, she, it Have done Have done Had done Had done Will(shall) have done Will have done A contraction is a shortened way of writing a verb and a pronoun or a verb and the Word not. Use an apostrophe in place of the letters that are left out when you write a contraction. He will – he`ll they have – they`ve you would – you`d Is not – isn`t were not – weren`t would not – wouldn`t Cannot – can`t A transitive verb has a direct object. Mr Chin wrapped the parcel in Brown paper. WRITER’SHANDBOOKWRITER’SHANDBOOK
  • UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Apéndice A 122 An intransitive verb does not have a direct object. Suddenly the wrestler grimaced. A transitive verb is in the active voice when the subject performs the action. Steam powered the first locomotives. A transitive verb is in the passive voice when the subject receives the action. The first locomotives were powered by steam. Adjectives An adjective modifies a noun or a pronoun. An adjective tells waht kind, which one, how much, or how many. The early inhabitans of America had interesting customs. A proper adjective is created from a proper noun. Proper adjectives are always capitalized. Camels provide transportation across the African desert. The words a, an, and the are special adjectives called articles. A and an are indefinite articles. The is a definite article. An ambulance needs a siren to warn the other drivers. A demonstrative adjective points out the noun it modifies. The words this, that, these, and those are demonstrative adjectives when they point out specific persons, places or things. This green headed duck is called a mallard. I have never seen these ducks before. That duck on the other side of the river is a mallard also. We can wath the ducks from behind those tres. A predicate adjective is an adjective that follows a linking verb and describes the subject of the sentence. The view from the mountaintop was panoramic. The photograph looks hazy and gray. Adjectives can be used to compare nouns. The three degrees of comparison are positive, comparative, and superlative. Form the comparative and superlative degrees by adding er and est to one syllable adjectives and to some two syllable adjectives. For more help with the spelling of comparative and superlative adjectives, see the Spelling section of the Writer`s Handbook. Positive Comparative Superlative Plain Fancy Plainer Fancier Plainest Fanciest Rick needs sturdy running shoes. The heel supports make these shoes sturdier than those. The supercomets are the sturdiest shoes ever made. WRITER’SHANDBOOK
  • UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Apéndice A 123 For some two syllable adjectives and mos three-syllable adjectives, form the comparative degree by using more or less before the adjective. Form the superlative degree by using most or least. Positive Comparative Superlative Ornate Expensive More ornate Less expensive Most ornate Least expensive The early flight will be convenient for you. Would an afternoon flight be more convenient than a morning one? This airline offers the most convenient flight Schedule of all. Some adjectives have irregular forms of comparison. Positive Comparative Superlative Good, well Bad Much, many Little (small amount) Better Worse More Less, lesser Best Worst Most Least Scott has a good konwledge of musical terms He is a better piano player than his sister His brother Peter is the best musician in the family. Adverbs An adverb modifies a verb, an adjective, or another adverb. Adverbs tell when, where, how, how often, and to what extent. The sinking sun gradually faced behind the horizon. modifies verb Our cabin was barely visible under the huge tree. modifies adjective The location of the map is very closely guarded secret. modifies adverb Some adverbs have three degrees of comparison: positive, comparative, and superlative. Form the comparative and superlative degrees by adding er and est to one syllable adverbs and to some two syllable adverbs. Positive Comparative Superlative Loud Early Louder Earlier Loudest Earliest Lisa knocked hard on the heavy oak door. When no one answered, she knocked harder than before. She knocked hardest of all before returning to the car. WRITER’SHANDBOOK
  • UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Apéndice A 124 For most adverbs ending in ly, form the compartive degree bye adding more or least before the adverb. Form the superlative degrre by adding most or least. Positive Comparative Superlative Seriously Patiently Happily Nearly Cautiously Easily Confidently Delicately More Seriously Less Patiently More Happily Less Nearly More Cautiously More Easily Less Confidently More Delicately Most Seriously Least Patiently Most Happily Least Nearly Most Cautiously Most Easily Least Confidently Most Delicately The partners worked diligently on their science project. Jason studies more diligently than many of his friends. He reviews his notes most diligently just before the test. Some adverbs have irregular forms of comparison Positive Comparative Superlative Well Badly Much Little Far Better Worse More Less Farther Best Worst Most Least Farthest James swims very well. Dana swims better than James. Jaclyn swims best af all. Two negative words should not be used together. The most common negative words are no, not, never, hardly, barely, rarely, seldom, nowhere, and scarcely. Correct: That building will never be occupied again. Incorrect: That building won`t never be occupied again. Correct: People hardly notice it as they walk by. Incorrect: People don`t hardly notice it as they walk by. Prepositions A preposition realtes a noun or a pronoun to another Word in a sentence. Some prepositions consist of more than one word. Some Common Prepositions Aboard About Above According to Before Behind Below Beneath During Except For From Next to Of Off On Till To Toward Under WRITER’SHANDBOOK
  • UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Apéndice A 125 Across After Against Along Among Around As At Because of Beside Besides Between Beyond But By Concerning Dspite Down In In back of In front of In place of In spite of Instead of Into Like Near Onto Out Out of Outside Over Past Since Through Throughout Underneath Until Unto Up Upon With Within Without Your supervisor will be checking with you. A prepositional phrase is made up of a preposition, the object of the preposition, and all the words in between. The object of the preposition is the noun or pronoun at the end of the prepositional phrase. The last of the racers finally came across the finish line. A prepositional phrase that modifies a noun, or a pronoun is an adjective phrase. An adjective phrase tells what kind, which one, how much, or how many. The ribbon of her hat was yellow. modifies ribbon A prepositional phrase that modifies a verb, an adjective, or an adverb is an adverb phrase. An adverb phrase tells when, where, how much, or how many. A fierce hurricane swept through the state. modifies verb Simon is true to his Word. modifies adjective Laster threw the ball far to the right. modifies adverb Conjunctions A conjunction connects words or groups of words in a sentence. The words and, but, or, so, yet, for, and nor are common conjunctions. These are called coordinating conjunctions. They connect words or group of words that have the same function in sentences. The judge and the jury must listen carefully to the evidence. The lawyer or the judge will speak. Some jurors are listening, but others are not. The defense is good, yet few are convinced. The accused wasn`t freed, nor was he sentenced Some conjunctions are made up of pairs of words. These pairs are called correlative conjunctions. Correlative conjunctions are used together in the same sentence. Common correlative conjunctions Neither/ nor Neither the swimmers nor the divers scored well at the meet. WRITER’SHANDBOOK
  • UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Apéndice A 126 Either/ or Either they were out of condition, or they hada bad day. Both/ and Both the coaches and the judges agreed on the winners. Whether/ or They must decide whether to compete in the county meet or continue playing intramurals. Interjections An interjection expresses feeling or emotion. It has no gramatical relationship to the rest of the sentence. Use an exclamation point after an interjection to show strong emotion. Use a comma to show mild feeling. Wow! The Olympic diving competition was wonderful! Oh, I didn`t have a chance to watch it. Verbals A verbal is a verb form that functions as a noun, an adjective, ar an adverb. Participles, gerunds, and infinitives are the three types of verbals. A participle is a verbal that is used as an adjective. Most participles end in ed or ing. The skiers drank cups of steaming cocoa. Concerned residents should attend the meeting. A gerund is a verbal that ends in ing and is used as a noun. Swimming strengthens the muscles. An infinitive is a verbal consisting of the present tense forma o a verb preceded by to. An infinitive can be used as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb. Her goal is to win. as a noun Cool nights are the best nights to sleep. as an adejctive We went to the store to shop. as an adverb Phrases and clauses A phrase is a group of words that does not contain a verb or its subject. A phrase is used as a single part of speech. Wendy swims in the lake. A participial phrase consists of a participle and its related words. A participial phrase is used in the same way as an adjective. The candidate making the speech favors tax reforms. WRITER’SHANDBOOKWRITER’SHANDBOOK
  • UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Apéndice A 127 A gerund phrase consists of a gerund and its related words. A gerund phrase is used in the same way as a noun. Ken enjoys conducting scientific experiments An infinitive phrase consists of an infinitive and its related words. An infinitive phrase can be used as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb. Henry learned to play the game. (as a noun) Football is a game to play outside. ( as an adjective) They entered the cave to find the treasure. (as an adverb) A clause is a group of words containing a verb and its subject. An independent clause is a group of words that contains a subject and a verb. It can stand alone as a simple sentence. As you type the letter, the words appear on a computer screen. A dependent, or subordínate, clause is a group of words containing a verb and its subject. A subordínate clause cannot stand alone as a sentence and is used with an independent clause to form a complex sentence. As you type the letter, the words appear on a computer screen. An adjective clause is a subordínate clause that modifies a noun or a pronoun. It often begins with a relative pronoun (who, whom, whose, which, that). Clara Barton was a nurse who founded the American Red Cross An adverb clause is a subordínate clause that modifies a verb, an adjective, or an adverb. It begins with a subordinating conjunction. As she combed her hair, she sang cheerful songs. Common Subordinating Conjunctions After Although As As if As long as As son as Because Before If Since So that Than Though Unless Until When Whenever Where Wherever While A misplaced modifier is a modifier encorrectly placed in a sentence so that the meaning is unclear or distorted. A modifier should be placed as close as posible to the Word or words it modifies. Correct: In the newspaper, she read about the circus that opened. Incorrect: She read about the circus that opened in the newspaper. Correct: I watched the polar bear pacing in its cage. Incorrect: Pacing in its cage, I watched the polar bear. A noun clause is subordínate clause that is used in the same way as a noun. Whoever designed this building included plenty of Windows. WRITER’SHANDBOOK
  • UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Apéndice A 128 Capitalization Capitalize the first letter in the first Word of a sentence. T he flight from San Francisco will arrive in ten minutes. Proper nouns, such as titles of people, place names, dates, and holidays, are always capitalized. Names and titles of people M r. E van H all; D r. J ulia M artinez; J ohn E. R idd J r.; C aptain K elly; P resident J efferson; A unt N ancy; M s. G omez Months, days of the week A ugust, M onday Events, holidays W orld S eries, M emorial D ay, N ew Y ear`s E ve Historic events and periods C ivil W ar, F rench R evolution, I ndustrial R evolution, R enaissance, M iddle A ges. Streets P ark A venue, M ain S treet, R oute 80 States, provinces, cities and countries K ansas, O ntario, L os A ngeles, N ew O rleans, S tark C ountry Countries U ganda, F rance Continents A sia, E urope Heavenly bodies N orth S tar, E arth, M ilky W ay, N eptune Exceptions: sun, moon. The Word earth is capitalized only when it refers to the planet Earth. Geographica l terms N ew E ngland, A rtic C ircle, P acific O cean, the W est Exceptions: north, east, south, west as compass directions. Building and bridges T exas S tadium, A lamo, W rigley B uilding, G olden G ate B ridge Monuments L incoln M emorial Institutions, clubs, and organizations R ockefeller J unior H igh, D allas P hotography C lub, W eight W atchers, A merican C ancer S ociety Use quotation marks to designate titles of short Works such a short stories, poems, magazine and newspaper articles, chapters of books, and songs. Reading the article “Making Exercise Fun” helped me enjoy my workout. In printed works, italics are used to designate the following kinds of titles. However, if you are writing or typing, use underlining. Books The Red Pony Magazines Time Newspapers Miami Herald Movies Gone with the Wind Plays Romeo and Juliet Televisión series Perfect Strangers Works of art Mona Lisa Long musical works Rite of Spring Planes, trains, ships Queen Elizabeth II WRITER’SHANDBOOK
  • UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Apéndice A 129 Troublesome words Use accept when you mean “to receive.” Use except as a verb taht means “to leave out” or as a preposition that means “excluding.” He has decided to accept the nomination. Everyone was pleased except his opponent. Use all ready when you mean “prepared”, “available”, or “willing”. Use already when you mean “prior to now”, “previously” or “so son.” The actors are all ready to go on stage. I have already seen this play. Use complement when you mean “something that completes” Use compliment when you mean “to praise or flatter.” A new red tie would complement your aotfit. I must compliment you on your fine performance. Use formally when you “properly” or “strictly” Use formerly when you mean “previously.” Nelson dressed formally for the dance. Kris was formerly a sports announcer. Use later when you mean “more delayed” or “beyond the usual time” Use latter when you mean “the second of the things mentioned.” Is there a later flight to Tucson. I have both records and cassettes, but I prefer the latter. Principal as an adjective means “main, major, or most important.” The noun principal means “chief, head, or director.” Principle means “basic rule, method, or general truth.” What were the principal causes of World War II? Mrs. Hall is principal of our school. Our country was founded on the principle of democracy. Respectfully means “thoughtfully, politely.” Respectively means “in the order given” Neil addressed the reporters respectfully. The president and the treasureer are Mark and Lois, respectively. Their means “belonging to them.” There means “in that place.” They`re is a contraction meaning “they are.” The athletes carried their equipment to the locker room. After Reading about Texas, I am eager to go there. The Driscolls are late because they`re stuck in traffic. WRITER’SHANDBOOK
  • UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Apéndice A 130 Use them as an adverb that tells when. Use than as a conjunction. Back then, I was more active than I am now. Use to when you mean “in the direction of.” Use two to indicate the number. Use too when you mean “also.” Carla returned the sweater to the store. Beth and James bought the last two umbrellas. School was colsed today and will be tomorrow too. Easily confused verb pairs Use lie when you mean “to resto r recline.” Use lay when you mean “to place or put.” Our dogs lie in front of the fireplace on cold nights. Would you lay the packages on that bench? Use sit when you mean “to take a seat.” Use set when you mean “to place or put.” Ramon and Maria usually sit in the booth by the window. Set the casserole in a convenient place. Use bring when you mean “to carry from there to here.” Use take when you mean “to carry from here to there.” Did you bring your book with you? Take your mail out. Use lend when you mean “to give something that must be given back” Use borrow when you mean “to take something that must be given back” They borrow our rake every month. We lend it to them because we know they will bing it back. Use rise when you mean “to get up” or “go up” Use raise when you mean “to lift” or “to grow.” The temperature rises quickly on summer mornings. Todd raised his voice in the noisy factory. Use leave when you mean “to go away from.” Use let when you mean “to allow.” Mom will leave the meeting at noon. Did the coach let you go home early? WRITER’SHANDBOOK
  • UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Apéndice A 131 Use learn when you mean “to gain knowledge.” Use teach when you mean “to instruct.” Eventually, he will learn to speak French. I can only teach him so much in one hour. Pronouns Use its when you mean “belonging to.” Use it`s when you mean “it is” or “it has.” Pick up the pitcher by its handle. It`s wise to check your tires before a long trip. It`s been a cold Winter. Use your when you mean “belonging to you” Use you`re when you mean “you are.” Stretch your muscles before tou start to run. You`re eligible to compete in the race. Use I as a subject or as a predícate nominative. Use me as a direct object, an indirect object, or the object of a preposition. My companion and I waited for the bus together. subject It was I who made the reservations. predicate nominative Last year, he took me with him. direct object Dad brought Craig and me souvenirs from his trip. indirect object Would you like to go with me next year? object of a preposition Use this, that, these, and those as demonstrative pronouns when thay take the place of nouns. This is an expensive milking machine. That is an old model. These are the older cows. Those are our best cows. Use a subject pronoun as the subject of a sentence or as a predícate nominative. A subject pronoun is in the nominative case. She won the 100 yard dash. subject It was she who broke the state record. predicate nominative Use an object pronoun as a direct object, an indirect object, or an object of a preposition. An object pronoun is in the objective case. I helped him with his homework. Direct object We gave him a present. Indirect object Billy walks to school with him. Object of a preposition Use who as a subject. Use whom as an object. WRITER’SHANDBOOK
  • UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Apéndice A 132 Use whose as an interrogative pronoun or as a possessive pronoun. Who is the captain of the team. subject By whom was the book written? object Whose is this? interrogative pronoun Whose book is that? possessive pronoun Adjectives Use this, that, these, and those as adjectives when they precede a noun. They point out specific persons, places, or things. This farmer raises cattle. The farm produces milk and other dairy products. These cows need to be milked. Those cows have been milked. The adjectives good, well, bad, ill, much, many, and Little (amount) have irregular form of comparison. Positive Comparative Superlative Good, well Bad, ill Much, many Little Better Worse More Less, lesser Best Worst Most Least Timmy is a good soccer player. Michael is a better soccer player. In fact, Michael is the best playero n the team. Adverbs Use really as an adverb; use real as an adjective. The last quarter of the football game was really exciting. Your undersatanding shows me you are a real friend. Use well as an adverb; use good as an adjective. After six years of lessons, Judy plays the piano quite well. You have given me a good reason to straighten up my room. Use badly as an adverb; use bad as an adjective. Luckily, Patrick was not badly hurt in the accident. That Little dog has a very bad disposition. WRITER’SHANDBOOK
  • UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Apéndice A 133 Use surely as an adverb; use sure as an adjective. After weeks of practice, John rode surely and proudly. Mai is sures he can win the chess tournament. Use almost as an adverb; use most as an adverb or as an adjective. Pete almost forgot his airlaine ticket. (Adverb) My visit to the beach was most realxing. (Adverb) What do most people think about the upcoming debate? (Adjective) The adverb well, badly, much, Little, and far have irregular forms of comparison. Positive Comparative Superlative Well Badly Much Little Far Better Worse More Less Farther Best Worst Most Least Farthest Eddie can throw the football far down the field. Vince can throw the ball even farther. Jack can throw the ball the farthest of all. Prepositions Use at to indicate that someone or something is already in a certain place. Use to to show movement toward a place. Both buses were waiting at the gate. Sarah and Bess hurried to the gate. Use in when you mean “already inside.” Use into when you mean “moving from the outside to the inside of something.” The students waited in the classroom. The students came into the classroom. Use between when you refer to two things. Use among when you refer to three or more things.” The chess game between Bob and Ed was a draw. The tournament was played among five chess clubs. Use beside when you mean “at the side of.” Use besides when you mean “in adition to.” The new shopping center is beside the post office. No one besides my uncle has been there. WRITER’SHANDBOOK
  • UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Apéndice A 134 Agreement A verb must agree with its subject in number. The number of a word refers to whether that Word is singular or plural. In a sentence, a subject and its verb must both be singular or both be plural. Edna enjoys hiking in the forest. They enjoy fishing in the stream. Use a plural verb with most compound subjects joined by and. The plumber and the electrician are ready to start working. Use a singular verb with compound subjects that are normally thought of as a unit. Spaghetti and meatballs is my favorite meal. If a compound subject contains both a singular and a plural subject and uses a conjunction other than and, make the verb agree with the subject closer to the verb. Either my father or my brothers attend my games. Either my brothers or my father attends my games. Collective nouns can be singular or plural. If a collective noun refers to a group as a whole, it is singular. If it refers to individuals in the group, it is plural. The jury are not in agreement. The jury is in the judge`s chambers. A noun that states the time of day is singular. A noun that states a block of time can be singular or plural. Four o`clock is the best time top lay. Three hours is (are) not enough to get to the game. WRITER’SHANDBOOK
  • UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Apéndice B 135 APÉNDICE B Nexos o Conectores Comunes
  • UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Apéndice B 136 Conectores o nexos Los conectores son palabras que dan cohesión a las ideas de un texto; unen elementos de la misma categoría: verbos, sustantivos, adjetivos, etc. En inglès, los conectores pueden ser preposiciones, adverbios o conjunciones que en determinados textos asumen función en particular. A continuación te presento una lista de los conectores (también llamados nexos) màs comunes en la lectura. Notaràs que en algunos casos una misma palabra pertenece a varias categorías y por lo tanto, tiene distintas traducciones al español (ejemplo: since = desde (secuencia), ya que causa). Asimismo hay otras palabras que eninglès son distintas pero en español tienen la misma traducción (ejemplo: besides, y moreover = además). Indican que lo que sigue es información adicional : Again De nuevo, otra vez And Y Also Tambièn As well as Asì como Besides Ademàs Furthermore De manera adicional Moreover Ademàs Not only… No sòlo But also Sino también Likewise Asimismo In addition to Ademàs de Addionally Adicionalmente Along with Junto con Too Tambièn Dan un ejemplo o ilustran un punto anterior : As Como For instante Por ejemplo Like Como Similarly Como Specifically Especìficamente Such as Tal como That is Es decir Indican un contraste u oposición : But Pero Despite A pesar de Although Aunque Though Aunque Even though Aunque Even so Aun asì However Sin embargo In spite of A pesar de Nevertheless No obstante Nonetheless No obstante Notwithstanding A pesar de que On the one hand Por una parte On the other hand Por otra parte On the contrary Al contario Otherwise De otra forma Still Con todo, aun Unlike A diferencia de Whereas Mientras, en tanto que While Mientras, aunque Yet Sin embargo Indican una alternativa : Instead of En vez de Either… or o…o/ uno u otro Rather than en vez de Whether si
  • UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Apéndice B 137 Aclaran o especifican un punto: In other words En otras palabras That is Es decir That is to say Es decir Whether Si Indican que lo que sigue es de esperarse : It follows Por consiguiente Naturally Naturalmente Of course Por supuesto Surely Seguramente That Que Then Entonces To be sure Para estar seguros Without doubt Sin lugar a duda Indican resumen o conclusión : All in all En síntesis Finally Finalmente In brief En pocas palabras In conclusión En conclusión In summary Resumiendo To sum up Para resumir Establecen una comparación : In comparison En comparación Like Como Likewise De manera similar Similar to De manera similar a… Similarly Similarmente And… too Y… también Just as Asì como Correspondingly De manera correspondiente In the same way De la misma manera Both… and Ambos… y As… as Tan… como Neither… nor Ni (uno)… ni (otro) Indican las causas de un hecho : Because Porque Because of A causa de, debido a Since, for Puesto que, ya que Whereby Por medio del cual Due to Debido a Owing to Debido a Indican que lo que sigue es variación de lo anterior : As we have seen Como hemos visto In another way Dicho de otra forma In other words En otras palabras This means Lo cual significa To repeat Para repetir Intensifican lo anterior : As a matter of De hecho Fact De hecho Indeed En efecto Indican resultado o efecto : Accordingly En concordancia And so Y asì And that is why Y es por eso que As a consequence Como consecuencia As a result Como resultado Consequently Consecuentemente For this reason Por esta razón Given that Dado que Hence De aquí que Since Por lo tanto So Asi (que), por lo tanto Therefore Por lo tanto Thus Asì, por lo tanto
  • UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Apéndice B 138 Establecen una relación en el tiempo : After Despuès de In the… (90s) En los… (noventa) After that Despuès de eso Lastly Por último Afterwards Despuès Later Màs tarde Another Otro Meanwhile Mientras tanto At last Por último Next Siguiente At that moment En ese momento Presently Actualmente At the end of Al final de Second Segundo Before Antes Shortly En breve By that time Para esa época Soon Pronto Early (earlier) Al principio (anterior) The alter El último Finally Finalmente The former El primero, anterior First Primero The next day El dìa siguiente Following Siguiente Then Despuès, entonces From then on A partir de entonces When Cuando Immediately Inmediatamente While Mientras In the beginning Al principio
  • UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Apéndice C 139 APÉNDICE C Verbos Irregulares Comunes
  • UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Apéndice C 140 Alfabeto griego INFINITIVE SIMPLE PAST PAST PARTICIPLE MEANING A Arise Arose Arisen Surgir, originarse, levantarse Awake Awakened/awoke Awakened/ awoken Despertar B Backslide Backslid Backslidden/ backslid Recaer, rencidir Be Was/ were Been Ser, estar Bear Bore Born/ borne Llevar, soportar Beat Beat Beaten/ beat Golpear, derrotar Become Bécame Become Llegar a ser, sentar bien Begin Began Begun Empezar, comenzar Bend Bent Bent Doblar Bet Bet/ betted Bet/ betted Apostar Bid (farewell) Bid/bade Bidden Dar la bienvenida o despedir a alguien Bid (offer amount) Bid Bid Ofrecer, pujar Bind Bound Bound Atar, unir Bite Bit Bitten Morder Bleed Bled Bled Sangrar, correrse Blow Blew Blown Soplar, sonar Break Broke Broken Romper Breed Bred Bred Criar, producir Bring Brought Brought Traer, Broadcast Broadcast/ Broadcasted Broadcast/ Broadcasted Transmitir, emitir Browbeat Browbeat Browbeat (en) Intimidar Build Built Built Construir, crecer, aumentar Burn Burned/burnt Burned/burnt Quemar, arder Burst Burst Burst Reventar Bust Busted/ bust Busted/ bust Romper, arrestar C Cast Cast Cast Lanzar, proyectar Catch Caught Caught Atrapar, capturar Choose Chose Chosen Elegir, escoger Cling Clung Clung Aferrarse a, pegarse Clothe Clothed/ clad Clothed/ clad Vestir Come Came Come Venir Cost Cost Cost Costar Creep Crept Crept Moverse sigilosamente, aparecer poco a poco
  • UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Apéndice C 141 INFINITIVE SIMPLE PAST PAST PARTICIPLE MEANING Crossbreed Crossbred Crossbred Cruzar (animales, plantas) Cut Cut Cut Cortar D Daydream Daydreamed/ daydreamt Daydreamed/ daydreamt Fantasear Deal Dealt Dealt Reapartir, comerciar Dig Dug Dug Cavar, fijarse en Disprove Disproved Disproved/ disproven Refutar Dive (jump head-first) Dove/ dived Dived Tirarse de cabeza, sumergirse Dive (scuba diving) Dived/ dove Dived Bucear Do Did Done Hacer Draw Drew Drawn Dibujar Dream Dreamed/ dreamt Dreamed/ dreamt Soñar Drink Drank Drunk Beber Drive Drove Driven Conducir Dwell Dwelt/ dwelled Dwelt/ dwelled Morar, permanecer E Eat Ate Eaten Comer F Fall Fell Fallen Caer, descender, sucumbir Feed Fed Fed Alimentar Feel Felt Felt Tocar, sentir, creer, pensar Fight Fought Fought Luchar, pelearse Find Found Found Encontrar, hallar Fit (tailor, change, size) Fitted/ fit Fitted/ fit Ajustar (tomar medidas para ajustar la ropa) Fit (be right size) Fit/ fitted Fit/ fitted Ajustarse, adecuarse (ej: it fits me = me queda bien) Flee Fled Fled Huir Fling Flung Flung Arrojar, meterse de lleno en algo Fly Flew Flown Pilotar, cubrir, volar Forbid Forbade Forbidden Prohibir Forecast Forecast Forecast Pronosticar Forego ( also forgo) Forewent Foregone Renunciar a Foresee Foresaw Foreseen Prever
  • UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Apéndice C 142 INFINITIVE SIMPLE PAST PAST PARTICIPLE MEANING Foretell Foretold Foretold Predecir Forget Forgot Forgotten/ forgot Olvidar Forgive Forgave Forgiven Perdonar Forsake Forsook Forsaken Abandonar, renunciar a Freeze Froze Frozen Congelarse Frostbite Frostbit Frostbitten Congelar G Get Got Gotten/ got Conseguir, comprar, recibir Give Gave Given Dar Go Went Gone Ir Grind Ground Ground Moler, aplastar Grow Grew Grown Cultivar, crecer, hacerse H Hand-feed Hand-fed Hand- fed Alimentar o cargar manualmente Handwrite Handwrote Handwritten Escribir a mano Hang Hung Hung Poner, colocar, ahorcar, colgar Have Had Had Tener Hear Heard heard Oir Hew Hewed Hewn/ hewed Cortar, tallar, ajustarse Hide Hid Hidden Esconder, ocultar Hit Hit Hit Golpear, estrellarse, dar en el blanco, llegar Hold Held Held Coger, sujetar, contener Hurt Hurt Hurt Hacer daño a, doler I Inbreed Inbred Inbred Crear, producir Inlay Inlaid Inlaid Taracear, hacer incrustaciones Input Input/ inputted Input/ inputted Introducir datos Interbreed Interbred Interbred Cruzar reproducirse entre si Interweave Interwove/interweaved Interwove/interweaved Entretejer J No common irregular verbs beginning with “N” K Keep Kept Kept Guardar, quedarse con, cumplir, mantener Kneel Knelt/ kneeled Knelt/ kneeled Arrodillarse Knit Knitted/ knit Knitted/ knit Tejer, soldarse (huesos)
  • UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Apéndice C 143 INFINITIVE SIMPLE PAST PAST PARTICIPLE MEANING Know Knew Knownn Conocer, saber, reconocer L Lay Laid Laid Colocar, poner Lead Led Led Llevar, conducir Lean Leaned/ leant Leaned/ leant Apoyar, inclinarse Leap Leaped/ leapt Leaped/ leapt Saltar, subir bruscamente Lern Learned/ learnt Learned/ learnt Aprender, saber Leave Left Left Irse, marcharse, abandonar, dejar Lend Lent Lent Prestar, proporcionar Let Let Let Permitir Lie Lay Lain Estar acostado Lie( not tell the truth) Regular Lied Lied Mentir Light Lit/ lighted Lit/ lighted Encender, iluminar, alumbrar Lip-read Lip-read Lip-read Leer los labios Lose Lost Lost Perder, extraviar M Make Made Made Hacer, realizar, efectuar Mean Meant Meant Significar, querer decir Meet Met Met Encontrar, conocer, satisfacer Miscast Miscast Miscast Dar a un actor un papel poco apropiado Misdeal Misdealt Misdealt Repartir mal las cartas. Misdo Misdid Misdone Errar Mishear Misheard Misheard Entender mal Mislay Mislaid Mislaid Extraviar, perder Mislead Misled Misled Creer erróneamente Misread Misread Misread Leer mal, mal interpretar Misset Misset Misset Configurar, ajustar, calibrar Misspeak Misspoke Misspoken Equivocarse al hablar Misspell Misspelled/ misspelt Misspelled/misspelt Escribir erróneamente Misspend Misspent Misspent Malgastar Mistake Mistook Mistaken Interpretar mal, confundir Misunderstand Misunderstood Misunderstood Entender mal Miswrite Miswrote Miswritten Escribir mal Mow Mowed Mowed/mown Cortar, segar
  • UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Apéndice C 144 INFINITIVE SIMPLE PAST PAST PARTICIPLE MEANING N No irregular verbs beginning with “N” O Offset Offset Offset Contrarrestar, imprimir en offset Outbid Outbid Outbid Pujar màs que alguien Outdo Outdid Outdone Superar, sobrepasar Outgrow Outgrew Outgrown Crecer màs que Outride Outrode Outridden Escoltar Outrun Outran Outrun Correr màs rápido que, exceder Outsell Outsold Outsold Superar en ventas Outshine Outshined/ outshone Outshined/ outshone Brillar màs que, eclipsar Outspend Outspent Outspent Gastar màs que Overcome Overcame Overcome Vencer, debilitar Overdo Overdid Overdone Exagerar Overdraw Overdrew Overdrawn Sobreactuar, exagerar; en finanzas, girar en descubierto Overeat Overate Overeaten Comer demasiado Overhang Overhung Overhung Colgar sobre, sobresalir Overear Overheard Overheard Oir, escuchar casualmente Overlay Overlaid Overlaid Recubrir, revestir, teñir Overpay Overpaid Overpaid Pagar en exceso o de más Override Overrode Overridden Hacer caso omiso de, anular, anteponerse Overrun Overran Overrun Invadir, rebasar, saltarse una señal Oversee Oversaw Overseen Supervisar Oversell Oversold Oversold Exagerar las ventas de, vender màs de lo que se tiene Overshoot Overshot Overshot Pasar de largo, salirse de la pista Oversleep Overslept Overslept Quedarse dormido Overspend Overspent Overspent Gastar de màs, salirse del presupuesto Overtake Overtook Overtaken Adelantar, rebasar Overthrow Overthrew Overthrown Derrocar Overwind Overwound Overwound Dar demasiada cuerda A (un reloj, p.e.) Overwrite Overwrote Overwritten Sobreescribir, escribir con estilo recargado
  • UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Apéndice C 145 INFINITIVE SIMPLE PAST PAST PARTICIPLE MEANING P Partake Partook Partaken Compartir, participar (de) Pay Paid Paid Pagar Plead Pleaded/ pled Pleaded/ pled Suplicar, implorar, alegar, defender Prepay Prepaid Prepaid Pagar por adelantado Preset Preset Preset Programar Preshrink Preshrank Preshrunk Prelavar Proofread Proofread Proofread Corregir pruebas Prove Proved Proven/ proved Demostrar, probar, resultar Put Put Put Poner Q Quick-freeze Quick-froze Quick-frozen Congelar rápidamente Quit Quit/ quitted Quit/ quitted Abandonar, dejar, irse, dimitir R Read Read (sounds like “red” Read (sounds like “red” Leer, marcar, interpretar Reawake Reawoke Reawaken Volver a despertarse Rebuilt Rebuilt Rebuilt Reconstruir Recast Recast Recast Readaptar, rescribir, cambiar el reparto de, refundir Redo Redid Redone Rehacer Redraw Redrew Redrawn Volver a dibujar Refit Refit/ refitted Refit/ refitted Reparar, estar en reparación, reajustar, reemplazar Rehear Reheard Reheard Revisar (una causa judicial) Relay (pass along) Regular Relayed Relayed Retransmitir, pasar Relight Relit/ relighted Relit/ relighted Alumbrar, iluminar Remake Remade Remade Hacer una nueva versión de algo Repay Repaid Repaid Pagar, saldar, devolver, recompensar Reread Reread Reread Volver a leer Rerun Reran Rerun Repetir, reponer, volver a ejecutar Resell Resold Resold Revender, volver a vender
  • UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Apéndice C 146 INFINITIVE SIMPLE PAST PAST PARTICIPLE MEANING Reset Reset Reset Ajustar, volver acolocar en su sitio, recomponer Retake Retook Retaken Volver a tomar o presentarse a (un examen), recuperar Retell Retold Retold Volver a contar Rethink Rethought Rethought Hacerse un replanteamiento, replantear Retread Retread Retread Recauchutar (llantas) Retrofit Retrofitted/ retrofit Retrofitted/ retrofit Reequipar Rewind Rewound Rewound Rebobinarse Rewrite Rewrote Rewritten Reescribir Rid Rid Rid Librar (a alguien de algo), deshacerse de algo Ride Rode Ridden Montar, subir o bajar (en elevador) Ring Rang Rung Hacer sonar, telefonear, rodear Rise Rose Risen Levantarse, ascender, aumentar Roughcast Roughcast Roughcast Enlucir con argamasa basta o mortero grueso Run Ran Run Correr, hacer funcionar, dirigir S Sand-cast Sand-cast Sand-cast Moldear en arena Saw Sawed Sawed/sawn Serrar, cortar Say Said Said Decir See Saw Seen Ver Seek Sought Sought Buscar, procurar hacer algo Sell Sold Sold Vender Send Sent Sent Mandar, enviar Set Set Set Colocar, fijar, comenzar Sew Sewed Sewn/ sewed Coser Shake Shook Shaken Sacudir, temblar, agitarse Shave Shaved Shaved/ shaven Afeitar, cepillar Shear Sheared Sheared/ shorn Esquilar, romper, atravesar Shine Shined/ shone Shined/ shone Brillar, destacar Shoot Shot Shot Disparar, cazar, ir a toda velocidad, rodar (una película)
  • UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Apéndice C 147 INFINITIVE SIMPLE PAST PAST PARTICIPLE MEANING Show Showed Shown/ showed Mostrar, revelar Shrink Shrank/ shrunk Shrunk Encoger (se) Shut Shut Shut Cerrar (se) Sight-read Sight-read Sight-read Repentizar Sing Sang Sung Cantar Sink Sank/ sunk Sunk Hundir, excavar, hacer fracasar, descender, desplomarse Sit Sat Sat Sentar (se), presentarse (a un examen) Slay (kill) Slew/ slayed Slain/ slayed Dar muerte, matar Slay (amuse) Regular Slayed Slayed Divertir, sorprender Sleep Slept Slept Dormir Slide Slid Slid Pasar, deslizar, rebasar, caer, bajar Sling Slung Slung Lanzar, arrojar Slink Slinked/ slunk Slinked/ slunk Marcharse subrepticiamente Slit Slit Slit Cortar, abrir algo rajándolo Smell Smelled/ smelt Smelled/ smelt Oler, olfatear Sneak Sneaked/ snuck Sneaked/ snuck Introducir/ sacar a alguien a hurtadillas, robar, ir con cuentos Sow Sowed Sown/ sowed Sembrar Speak Spoke Spoken Pronunciar, hablar, dar una charla Speed Sped/ speeded Sped/ speeded Avanzar rápidamente, sobrepasar el lìmite de velocidad Spell Spelled/ spelt Spelled/ spelt Deletrear, escribir sin faltas Spend Spent Spent Gastar, pasar, dedicar Spill Spilled/ spilt Spilled/ spilt Derramar, desmontar, derribar Spin Spun Spun Hilar, (hacer) girar, centrifugar, dar efecto a (una pelota) Spit Spit/ spat Spit/ spat Escupir, saltar, despedir chispas Split Split Split Partirse, dividirse, abrirse Spoil Spoiled/ spoilt Spoiled/ spoilt Estropear, mimar, consentir
  • UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Apéndice C 148 INFINITIVE SIMPLE PAST PAST PARTICIPLE MEANING Spoon-feed Spoon-fed Spoon-fed Dar de comer con una cuchara, dar las cosas hechas Spread Spread Spread Desplegar, extender, esparcir Spring Sprang/ sprung Sprung Saltar, provenir de Stand Stood Stood Colocar, soportar, ponerse de pie, levantarse Steal Stole Stolen Robar Stick Stuck Stuck Insertar, poner, pegar, soportar, atascarse, plantarse Sting Stung Stung Picar, quemar, hacer daño Stink Stunk/stank Stunk Apestar Strew Strewed Strewn/strewed Dispersar, cubrir Stride Strode Stridden Entrar, salir, alejarse, recorrer a grandes zancadas Strike (delete) Struck Stricken Tachar Strike (hit) Struck Struck/ stricken Golpear, chocar contra String Strung Strung Encordar, ensartar, colgar, deshebrar Strive Strove/ strived Striven/ strived Esforzarse, luchar por algo Sublet Sublet Sublet Subarrendar Sunburn Sunburned/ sunburnt Sunburned/ sunburnt Quemar (por el sol) Swear Swore Sworn Jurar, insultar Sweat Sweat/ sweated Sweat/ sweated Sudar, sufrir Sweep Swept Swept Barrer, arrasar Swell Swelled Swollen/ swelled Hinchar, hacer subir Swim Swam Swum Nadar Swing Swung Swung Balancear, hacer girar, columpiarse, hacer intercambio de parejas T Take Took Taken Tomar, sacar, llevar, hacer Teach Taught Taught Enseñar Tear Tore Torn Rasgar, dividir, arrancar Telecast Telecast Telecast Televisar Tell Told Told Decir, ver, saber Test-drive Test-drove Test-driven Probar en carretera
  • UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Apéndice C 149 INFINITIVE SIMPLE PAST PAST PARTICIPLE MEANING Test-fly Test-flew Test-flown Hacer un vuelo de prueba Think Thought Thought Pensar, creer Throw Threw Thrown Tirar, aventar, lanzar Thrust Thrust Thrust Clavar, hundir Tread Trod Trodden/ trod Pisar, recorrer, caminar Typecast Typecast Typecast Encasillar Typeset Typeset Typeset Componer Typewrite Typewrote Typewritten Escribir a màquina U Unbend Unbend Unbend Enderezar, relajarse Unbind Unbound Unbound Desatar Unclothe Unclothed/ unclad Unclothed/ unclad Desvestir, desnudar Underbid Underbid Underbid Ofrecer menos, menospreciar Undercut Undercut Undercut Socavar, vender a precios màs baratos que los de la competencia Underfeet Underfed Underfed Subalimentar Undergo Underwent Undergone Experimentar, sufrir, ser sometido a, recibir tratamiento Underlie Underlay Underlain Subyacer bajo Undersell Undersold Undersold Malvender, ser demasiado modesto (a) Underspend Underspent Underspent Gastar por debajo de Understand Understood Understood Entender, comprender Undertake Undertook Undertaken Emprender, encargarse de hacer algo Underwrite Underwrote Underwritten Asegurar, subscribir, financiar Undo Undid Undone Deshacer, corregir, echar a perder Unfreeze Unfroze Unfrozen Descongelar (se) Unlearn Unlearned/ unlearnt Unlearned/ unlearnt Desaprender Unsling Unslung Unslung Descolgar Unwind Unwound Unwound Desenrollar (se), relajarse Uphold Upheld Upheld Defender, confirmar Upset Upset Upset Derramar, disgustar V No commonly used irregular verbs beginning with “V”
  • UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Apéndice C 150 INFINITIVE SIMPLE PAST PAST PARTICIPLE MEANING W Wake Woke/ waked Woken/waked Despertar (se) Waylay Waylaid Waylaid Atracar, asaltar Wear Wore Worn Llevar (puesto) desgastar Weave Wove/weaved Woven/ weaved Tejer, entretejer Wed Wed/wedded Wed/ wedded Casar (se) o enlazarse con, estar entregado a Weep Wept Wept Llorar, supurar Wet Wet/wetted Wet/wetted Humedecer, mojar Whet Regular Whetted Whetted Afilar, despertar, abrir Win Won Won Ganar, obtener, sacar Wind Wound Wound Sacar el aire, enrollar, dar vuelta a, serpentear Withdraw Withdrew Withdrawn Retirar (se), sacar del mercado Withhold Withheld Withheld Negar, retener, aplazar, ocultar Withstand Withstood Withstood Soportar, aguantar Wring Wrung Wrung Escurrir, estrujar Write Wrote Written Escribir, redactar
  • UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Apéndice D 151 APÉNDICE D Referencias y bibliografía
  • UNAM MEDIATECA Leticia Peña Gómez Portugal. Facultad de Aquitectura, UNAM, 2006, Captura y digitalización de imágenes y datos: Felipe Martínez, Luis Higuera, Ali Fragoso, UNAM 2013. Apéndice D 152 Capitulo A: www.lib.rpi.edu/dept/library/html/ArmArch/Sev.html www.architectureweek.com/2004/0414/news_2-1.html Lucie-Smith, Edward, Visual Arts in the 20th Century, Laurence King, London, 2000. www.architectureweek.com/2002/0529/building_1-1.html McGuigan Cathleen, “Houses of the Future – Now”, Newsweek, St. Ives Inc, Hollywood, USA, March 23, 2005. Gordon, Devin, “Keeping It Real and Real Small”, Newsweek, St. Ives Inc, Hollywood, USA, March 23, 2005. Landi, Ann, “Who Are the Great Women Artist?” ARTnews, Marzo 2003. Scharf, Aaron, “Constructivism”, Concepts of Modern Art, World of Art, Thames and Hudson, U.K., 2002 Capitulo B: www.core77.com/reactor/04.06_xbox.asp www.core77.com/materials Capitulo C: Cervera, Alicia et al, Windows to Culture I, Facultad de Filosofìa y Letras. UNAM, Mèxico, 2004 Capitulo D: Cooper, Jennifer A. et al, Grammar and the Meaning of Language for Economics and Accounting Students, Facultad de Economìa, UNAM, Mèxico, 2003. Apéndice A: Strickland, Dorothy et al., HBJ 8, Harcout Brace Jovanovich Publishers, USA, 1990. Apéndice B: Material elaborado por Leticia Peña Gòmez Portugal a partir de fuentes diversas.