• RBI’s History• Need for RBI• Functions of RBI• Non-Monitory functions of RBI• Monitory functions of RBI• Tools of Monitory Policy • Quantitative tools • Qualitative tools• Selective and Direct credit controls• Current Monitory Policy• Purchase Power Parity (PPP) 2/20
• The central bank of the country--Reserve Bank of India (RBI).• Established in April 1935 with a share capital of Rs. 5 crores on the basis of the recommendations of the Hilton Young Commission.• The share capital was divided into shares of Rs. 100 each fully paid up which was entirely owned by private shareholders in the beginning.• The Government held shares of nominal value of Rs. 2,20,000.• Reserve Bank of India was nationalized in the year 1949• No of members on central board is 20 (incl. governor and 4 deputy governors) 3/20
• The Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934 was commenced on April 1, 1935.• The Act, 1934 (II of 1934) provides the statutory basis of the functioning of the Bank. The Bank was constituted for the need of following:• To regulate the issue of banknotes• To maintain reserves with a view to securing monetary stability and• To operate the credit and currency system of the country to its advantage. 4/20
The Reserve Bank of India Act of 1934 contains all the important functions of a central bank to the Reserve Bank of India.•Bank of IssueUnder Section 22 of the Reserve Bank of India Act, the Bank has the soleright to issue bank notes of all denominations.•Banker to GovernmentThe second important function of the reserve bank of India is to act asgovernment banker, agent and adviser. RBI carries out banking operations(e.g. to receive and make payments, carry cash reserves) for allgovernments except J&K—acts as advisor to govt on all monetary andbanking matters.•Bankers Bank and Lender of the Last ResortThe scheduled banks can borrow from the Reserve Bank of India on thebasis of eligible securities or get financial accommodation in times of needor stringency. Banks have been asked to keep cash reserves equal to 3percent of their aggregate deposit liabilities. 5/20
• Controller of Credit The Reserve Bank of India is the controller of credit i.e. it has the power to influence the volume of credit created by banks in India. It can do so through changing the Bank rate or through open market operations.• Controller of money market The Reserve Bank of India is armed with many more powers to control the Indian money market• Custodian of foreign exchange reserves Besides maintaining the rate of exchange of the rupee, the Reserve Bank has to act as the custodian of Indias reserve of international currencies. 6/20
1. Monopoly of currency notes issue2. Banker to the Government(both the central and state)3. Agent and advisor to the Government4. Banker’s Bank5. Acts as the clearing house of the country6. Lender of the last resort (B R P)7. Custodian of the foreign exchange reserves8. Maintaining the external value of domestic currency9. Controller of forex and credit (Credit Policy)10. Ensures the internal value of the currency11. Publishes the Economic statistical data12. Fight against economic crisis and ensures stability of Economy.
1. Promotion of banking habit and expansion of banking systems.2. Provides refinance for export promotion. (E P C G)3. Expansion of the facilities for the provision of the agricultural credit through NABARD.4. Extension of the facilities for the small scale industries.5. Helping the Co-operative sectors.6. Prescribe the minimum statutory requirement. (SLR)7. Innovating the new banking business transactions.
1. Granting license to Banks.2. Inspecting and making enquiry or determining position in respect of matters under various sections of RBI and Banking regulations.3. Periodical review of the work of the commercial banks.4. Giving directives to commercial banks.5. Control the non-banking finance corporations.6. Ensuring the health of financial system through on-site and off-site verification.
Role as Supervisor• RBI enjoys wide powers of supervision and control over commercial and co-operative banks, relating to• licensing and establishments,• branch expansion,• liquidity of their assets,• management and methods of working,• amalgamation,• reconstruction,• and liquidation.• The RBI is authorized to carry out periodical inspections of the banks and to call for returns and necessary information from them.. 10/20
Promotional functions The major function of Reserve Bank is to promote banking habit, extend banking facilities to rural and semi-urban areas, and establish and promote new specialized financing agencies. Accordingly, the Reserve Bank has helped in the setting up of the• IFCI• SFC• Deposit Insurance Corporation in 1962• Unit Trust of India in 1964,• Industrial Development Bank of India in 1964 11/20
What is monetary policy? A macroeconomic policy tool used to influence interest rates, inflation, and credit availability through changes in the supply of money available in the economy. In India it is also called the Reserve Bank of India’s ‘Credit Policy’ as the stress is primarily on directing credit. 12/20
CONTROLLED EXPANSION(1951-72)• Speed up economic development in the country to raise national income and standard of living.• To prevent heavy depreciation of the rupee.• Maintaining the momentum of economic growth. To consider measures in a calibrated manner to respond to evolving circumstances with a view to stabilizing inflationary expectations.RBI’s ANTI-INFLATIONARY POLICY SINCE 1972• Economic aims given above were nearly the same but policy of CONTROLLED EXPANSION was changed to CREDIT RESTRAINT. 13/20
There are two kinds of tools:Quantitative tools –control the volume ofcredit and inflation, indirectly.Qualitative tools –they control the supplyof money in selective sectors of the economy. 14/20
• Bank Rate Bank Rate is the rate at which RBI allows finance to commercial banks. Bank Rate is a tool, which RBI uses for short-term purposes. Any revision in Bank Rate by RBI is a signal to banks to revise deposit rates as well as Prime Lending Rate. Role of bank rate is limited in India because The structure of interest rates is administered by RBI Commercial banks enjoy specific refinance facilities.• CRR All scheduled commercial banks are required to maintain a fortnightly minimum average daily cash reserve equivalent with RBI .The apex bank is empowered to vary this ratio between 3 and 15 per cent. RBI uses CRR either to impound the excess liquidity or to release funds needed for the economy from time to time. 15/20
• SLR Every bank is required to maintain at the close of business every day, a minimum proportion of their Net Demand and Time Liabilities as liquid assets in the form of cash, gold etc, in addition to cash reserve requirements. The ratio of liquid assets to demand and time liabilities is known as Statutory Liquidity Ratio (SLR). Present SLR is 24%.• Repos and Reverse Repo RBI is empowered to enter a transaction in which two parties agree to sell and repurchase the same security. Under such an agreement the seller sells specified securities with an agreement to repurchase the same at a mutually decided future date and a price. Similarly, the buyer purchases the securities with an agreement to resell the same to the seller on an agreed date in future at a predetermined price. 16/20
• An instrument of monetary policy• It involves buying and selling of govt. securities by the RBI to influence the volume of cash reserves with commercial banks and thus influence their loans and advances• To contract the flow of credit ,RBI starts selling govt securities• To increase the credit flow RBI starts purchasing the govt securities. 17/20
• The main objective is to check speculation and rising prices• The RBI issues directives to banks relating to the purpose for which advances may or may not be made• The margins to be maintained in respect of secured advances• The maximum amount of advance to any borrower• The maximum amt. of guarantee that can be given on behalf of any firm 18/20
• Specifies minimum margins for lending against specific securities• Ceiling on amt of credit for certain purposes to stem the flow of credit to speculative and non productive sectors• Charges discriminatory rate of interest on certain types of advances 19/20
• The role of RBI has been redefined through gradual evolution and adaptation, along with some statutory changes• While the policy tries to cope with these issues, a combination of instruments is necessarily used in a flexible manner to meet these complexities.• These challenges and dilemmas persist in the Indian context, every effort is made by the RBI to meet the broader objectives set forth, from time to time. 20