The difference between written and
• Written grammar
Sentence is the basic unit of
Clauses are often embedded
Reported speech favored
No question tags
No performance effects
• Spoken grammar
Clause is the basic unit of
Clauses are usually added (coord)
Direct speech favored
A lot of ellipsis
Many question tags
So…What is SPEAKING?
• It is the vocalized form of human communication. It
is a process that starts in the mind.
• Speaking includes 4 competencies:
• Brown Douglas, Teaching by principles, USA, Pearson-
• Richards Jack, Renandya Willy, Methodology in
Language Teaching, UK, Cambridge University Press,
• Thornbury Scott, How to Teach Speaking, UK,
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