The Educational Philosophies Of Filipino Educators Filipino Values and Human Development Philosophy of Catholic Education in the Philippines The Evolution of the Educational Philosophy in the Philippines
The Educational Philosophies Of Filipino Educators
“Rizal’s concept of the importance ofeducation is enunciated in his work entitledInstruction wherein he sought improvements in theschools and in the methods of teaching.”
For Rizal, the mission of education is to elevate thecountry to the highest seat of glory and to develop thepeople’s mentality.Since Education is the foundation of society and aprerequisite for social progress, Rizal claimed thatonly through education could the country be savedfrom domination.
Rizal’s philosophy of education, therefore, centers onthe provision of proper motivation in order to bolsterthe great social forces that make education a success, tocreate in the youth an innate desire to cultivate hisintelligence and give him life eternal.
He believed in the importance of the school as asocial organization.According to him, the school must train the citizens inthe three phases of life: 1. Moral 2. Intellectual 3. Physical The school should prepare the individual to live efficiently both as individual and as a member of the community to which he belongs.
“The school is the book in which is written thefuture of the nations. Shows us the schools of a people and we will tell you what those people are.”
Dr. Camilo Osias“School has an important role in the development of dynamicnationalism and internationalism in relation to democracy in theeducation of the youth.”“High educational institutions should do more to turn outgraduates who can think logically, scientifically and creatively.” “Our education should instill love for work, spirit of tolerance, respect for law, love for peace and practice of thrift.”
Dr. Osias believed that education should secure for everyperson the fullest measure of freedom, efficiency, andhappiness. Efficiency, he demands that one must be able tocooperate with the other members of the society to promotecommon good.He also advocated that the educational system mustcontribute towards the achievement of the goals of educationby inculcating their minds and hearts of the youth the value of preserving the patrimony of the country promoting the general welfare of he people.
Dr. Osias’ suggestions to Philippine schools:1. Preserve the solidarity of Filipino;2. Maintain the unity of the Philippines;3. Work out a proper equilibrium in economic order;4. Develop social justice;5. Observe the merit system in government service;6. Promote peace and national defense;7. Uphold the inalienable rights of life, property, liberty, and happiness;8. Keep in their prestige majesty the fundamental freedom, especially freedom of speech, freedom of press, freedom of peace and assembly, and freedom of worship;9. Conserve the principle of equality;10.Hold high the ideals of religion;11.Keep over aloft the torch of education, and12.Make democracy a living and functional reality.
Palma advocated “academic freedom”. “The teacher is not supposed to dramatize. He has no rightto impose on his students his theories or personal belief. He isexpected to stimulate free discussion, leaving to his students thechoice of the system of thought which best satisfies their reason.”
“The primary purpose of education, according to Palma,is to develop the individual to his highest efficiency so that hecan be of use to himself and to the community. Such a conceptis based on the philosophy of altruism and is closely allied tocitizenship.”
“Education must produce individualswho are both useful to themselves and tosociety.”
He prepared himself well for any task that awaited him.Into any undertaking, he always put the best of hisenergies and, to use his own expression, "made the failureof any work which I undertake my own failure, its successmy own success."
He stressed that Filipino culture and tradition should be thebases of education in the Philippines.According to him, the educational concept is closely relatedto nationalism and love of country.He also stressed that education in this country shouldprepare the child for the democratic way of life.
“To my humble way of thinking education(college) has for its supreme and overshadowing aim the formulation of a sound and noble outlook of life.”
“Thou shalt cultivate the special gifts whichhad been granted thee, working and studyingaccording to thy ability, never leaving the path ofrighteousness and justice in order to attain thineown perfection.”
“Our education should instill love forwork, spirit of tolerance, respect for law, lovefor peace and practice of thrift.”
The qualities that should distinguish the educatedFilipinos of today are (1) power to do (2) knowledgeof the past and current events and (3) possession ofthe elements of conduct that arae theaccomplishment of culture and morality.“The function of our school is neither to fit theindividual for the past which is dead and gone, nor to prepare him for a remote future which is problematic, rather it is to train the individual so that he will be a member of the world as it is.”
“Believes that education must strengthen thedignity of the learner as a human person. Assuch, the various dimensions of man’spersonhood has to be fully developed by theschool system through an effective andsystematized values education”
“Education should aim to develop men andwomen who are as deeply concerned in thedevelopment and uplift of ourcommunities, particularly in the ruralareas, as in the promotion of their ownpersonal or individual well-being.”
“Show me people composed of vigorous, sturdy individuals, ofmen and women healthy in mind andbody, courteous, industrious, self reliant , purposeful inthought as well in action, imbued with sound patriotism andprofound sense of righteousness, with high social ideals andstrong moral fiber and I will show you a great nation, a nationthat will not submerged, a nation that will emerge victoriousfrom the trials and bitter strife of a distracted world, anation that will live forever, sharing thecommon task of advancing the welfareand promoting the happiness of mankind”
The Filipino value system arises from our culture or way of life, ourdistinctive way of becoming human in this particular place and time. Wespeak of Filipino values in a fourfold sense.First, although mankind shares universal human values, it is obvious thatcertain values take on for us a distinctively Filipino flavor.Secondly, when we speak of Filipino values, we do not mean that elements ofthese Filipino values are absent in the value systems of other peoples andcultures.Thirdly, universal human values in a Filipino context (historical, cultural, socio-economic, political, moral and religious) take on a distinctive set of Filipinomeanings and motivations. Fourthly, we can speak of Filipino values in the sense that the historical consciousness of values has evolved among our people.
A philosophy of education for Filipinos must alsoconsider the Filipino behavioral context. Our negativetraits must be and taken in tow, and efforts must beexpended to transform the Filipino fromselfish, indolent, grasping, uncaring man into theindependent, hard-working concerned man..
Ningas kugonPuede na or okay langAkala ko resposeBahala naAmorpropioMañana habitUtang na loobHiyaPakikisamaStrong family ties
A philosophy of education forFilipinos must develop a curriculumthat can help make the Filipino a trulyhumane and dependable person.
Some problems confronting us are: How can we transform the Filipino from the kanya-kanya or me-first mentality into the “think-other‘ opposite? How can we motivate the Filipino to change his attitude of puede na into thinking in terms of excellence? How can we foster the investigative spirit or inquiring mind into the Filipino to eliminate the akala ko mentality? How can we move the Filipino from his “see-nothing, hear nothing, say nothing” stance into asserting his right both as a citizen and a human being..
The Catholic philosophy of life has its rootsdeep in the past. Through all the centuries, there isseen a uniform pattern of the Christian philosophy oflife starting by reason of its uniformity. From thatphilosophy of life is derived the philosophy ofChristian education.Scholastic philosophy is theocentric. Catholic lifeand thought and education have God as their basis.
According to Saint Tomas Aquinas, “the existence ofpersonal God is of supreme importance for any programeducation.”According to the Catholic philosophy, education is theorganized development of all the powers of human beings –moral, physical and intellectual.Christian education is essentially for preparing man forwhat he must do here below in order to attain the sublimeand for which man is created.
Generally, Catholic education covers religiouseducation, moral education, citizenshiptraining, courtesy, character education, intellectualtraining and vocational education.It is therefore, the responsibility of every Christianinstitution to teach reverence for all life and beingbecause God made the world and works in theprocesses of the entire natural order.
Education during those days, however, was a result ofindividual experiences as well as a by-product of theaccumulation of race experiences. It was primarily informaland was acquired through apprenticeship which started athome. Upon the institutional of religious rituals andpractices, education became necessity to provide specializedtraining to the candidates of the priestly class. Theschools, therefore, were off-shoots of the church and of coursecontrolled by the church.
The education was considered a status symbol, aprivilege and not a right. The Spaniards refused to givequality education to the masses, for fear that if theyobtained such kind of learning, their ignorance would beeradicated and they would see the evils of the Spanishofficials in the Philippines and eventually take arms againsttheir master.
They believed that education should beuniversal and free for all regardless ofsex, age, religion and socioeconomic status of theindividual. They believed that education was themeans of giving people an orientation towards ademocratic way of life.
During this period in Philippinehistory, education was at its nadir(lowestpoint) and was used as an instrument forindoctrinating, the people to embraceJapanese ideologies. AS a result, theenrolment of all schools dropped.
Changes in Education During the Japanese OccupationThe government made some changes in the system of education in February, 1942.These changes were: •To stop depending on western countries like the U.S., and Great Britain. Promote and enrich the Filipino culture. •To recognize that the Philippines is a part of the Greater East Asia Co- Prosperity Sphere so that the Philippines and Japan will have good relations. •To be aware of materialism to raise the morality of the Filipinos. •To learn and adopt Nippongo and to stop using the English language. •To spread elementary and vocational education. •To develop love for work.
During this period, the educational philosophy was in accordancethe provisions of Article XIV Section 5 of the 1935 Constitution whichprovides this: All educational institutions shall be under the supervision andsubject to the regulation by the state. The government shall establish andmaintain a complete and adequate system of public education, and shallprovide at least free primary instruction and citizenship training to adultcitizens. All schools shall aim to develop moral character, and vocational efficiency and to teach the duties of citizenship. Optional religious instruction shall be maintained by law. Universities established by the state shall enjoy academic freedom. The state shall create scholarship in arts, sciences and letters for especially-gifted citizens.
Philippine education is patterned after the Americansystem, with English as the medium of instruction. Schools areclassified into public (government) or private (non-government).The general pattern of formal education follows four stages: Pre-primary level (nursery, kindergarten and preparatory) offered inmost private schools; six years of primary education, followed byfour years of secondary education.
College education usually takes four, sometimes fiveand in some cases as in medical and law schools, as long aseight years. Graduate schooling is an additional two or moreyears. Classes in Philippine schools start in June and end inMarch. Colleges and universities follow the semestralcalendar from June-October and November-March. There area number of foreign schools with study programs similar tothose of the mother country. An overall literacy rate wasestimated at 95.9 percent for the total population in 2003, 96% for males and 95.8 % for females.