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Presentation1 intro to Gov

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    Presentation1 intro to Gov Presentation1 intro to Gov Presentation Transcript

    • Purposes of Government• There are four primary purposes of government. – Maintaining social order:. – Providing public services:.
    • Purposes of Government (cont.) – Providing security and defense: – Providing for the economy:.
    • Essential Features of a State• The four essential features of a state include: – population—the people – territory—established boundaries – sovereignty—supreme and absolute authority within its boundaries – government—central institution United States Acquisitions
    • Origins of the State• Scholars have constructed theories to explain the origins of state.• Evolutionary Theory – The state evolved from the family. – The head of the primitive family served as government authority.
    • Origins of the State (cont.)• Force Theory – The state was born of force, or the need to resist an enemy. – A state emerged when everyone in an area was brought under the authority of one person or group.• Divine Right Theory – Certain people are chosen by a god or gods to rule.
    • Origins of the State (cont.)• Social Contract Theory – People make an agreement with the state on how they want to be ruled. Some freedoms may be lost to guarantee security and well being.
    • Government Systems• There are three primary systems of government: – Unitary system • Gives key powers to the central government. – Federal system • Divides key powers between national and state government.
    • Government Systems (cont.)• The United States began its federal system by forming a confederacy. – A confederacy is a loose union of independent states.
    • Figure 2
    • Reading StrategyCreate a table that highlights the distinguishingfeature of these forms of government: directdemocracy, representative democracy, and republic.
    • Major Types of Government• According to Aristotle the three major types of governments are:• Autocracy: – One person has all authority. – A monarchy is another form of government in which a king, queen or emperor inherits the throne and heads the state. Comparing Governments
    • Major Types of Government (cont.)• Oligarchy: – A small group holds power. – Oligarchs derive their power from wealth, social position, military power or a combination of these.• Democracy: – The people govern either directly or through representatives.
    • Major Types of Government (cont.) – An assembly of people’s representatives may be called a council, a legislature, a congress or a parliament. – In a republic voters elect representatives. • Only a small percentage of people might be empowered to vote.
    • Characteristics of Democracy• A true democracy is defined by four characteristics: – Individual liberty • All people are as free as possible to develop their talents. – Majority rule with minority rights • Elected representatives enact laws that reflect the will of the majority of lawmakers.
    • Characteristics of Democracy (cont.) • The rights of the minority are respected and protected. – Free elections • Everyone’s vote carries the same weight. • All candidates have the right to express their views freely. • Citizens are free to help candidates or support issues.
    • Characteristics of Democracy (cont.) • Legal requirements for voting are kept to a minimum. • Citizens vote by secret ballot without coercion or fear of punishment. – Competing political parties. • A political party is a group of individuals with broad common interests organized to win elections, conduct government and determine public policy.
    • Characteristics of Democracy (cont.) • Rival parties make elections meaningful by giving voters a choice.
    • Essential Elements for a Democracy• A successful democracy depends on five essential elements: – Citizen Participation • Citizens must be willing to participate in civic life. – Favorable Economy • The economy must be prosperous and distribute wealth to many members of society.
    • Essential Elements for a Democracy (cont.) • Free enterprise is the freedom of private business to operate with minimal government regulation. – Widespread Education • A democracy is more likely to succeed in countries where most people are educated.
    • Essential Elements for a Democracy (cont.) – Strong Civil Society • Civil society is made up of a network of voluntary associations— economic, political, charitable, religious, and many others that exist outside of government.
    • Essential Elements for a Democracy (cont.) – Social Consensus • A social consensus refers to a country where most people accept democratic values and generally agree about the purpose and limits of government.
    • Figure 1
    • DFS Trans 3
    • DFS Trans 4