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On Cooking Chapter One
Professionalism

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  • 1. CHAPTER ONE PROFESSIONALISM “ Cookery is become an art, a noble science; cooks are gentleman. ” – Robert Burton, British Author (1577-1640) Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc.On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint]Labensky • Hause • Martel
  • 2. After studying this unit 2 PROFESSIONALISM You will be able to: – Discuss the development of the modern food service industry – Name the key historical figures responsible for developing food service professionalism – Explain the organization of the classic and modern kitchen brigades – Appreciate the role of the professional chef in modern food service operations – Understand the attributes a student chef needs to become a professional Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  • 3. Culinary TimelinePast to the Present 3 PROFESSIONALISM In the 1500s, culinary guilds were developed to dictate and monopolize the preparation of certain food items. Each guild governed the production of a set of specific types of food. Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  • 4. Culinary Guilds 4 PROFESSIONALISM The Guild  The Product – Rôtisseurs – Main cuts of meat – Pâtissiers – Poultry, pies, tarts – Tamisiers – Breads – Vinaigriers – Sauces and stews – Traiteurs – Ragouts – Porte-chapes – Caterers Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  • 5. The First Restaurant - 1765 5 PROFESSIONALISM Monsieur Boulanger opened the first free-standing restaurant in Paris. Boulanger’s contribution to the food service industry was to serve a variety of foods prepared on premises to customers whose primary interest was dining. Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  • 6. The French Revolution1789-1799 6 PROFESSIONALISM The social structure in France changed. The aristocracy, guilds and their monopolies were abolished. A nascent restaurant industry emerged. Chefs could cater to the growing middle class. Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  • 7. Haute CuisineEarly 19th Century 7 PROFESSIONALISMAntonin Carême (1783-1833)“The Cook of Kings and the King of Cooks” His stated goal - to achieve “lightness, grace, order and perspicuity” in the preparation and presentation of food. – As a saucier he standardized the use of roux and devised a system to classify sauces – As a garde-manger he popularized cold cuisine – As a culinary professional he designed kitchen tools, equipment and uniforms – As an author he wrote and illustrated important texts on culinary arts Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  • 8. Marie-Antonin Carême 8 PROFESSIONALISM Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  • 9. Cuisine ClassiqueLate 19th Century 9 PROFESSIONALISM Auguste Escoffier (1846-1935) “Emperor of the World’s Kitchens” Defined French cuisine and dining during La Belle Époque Simplified food preparation and dining Classified the five families of sauces  He wrote: – Le Livre des menus – a guide to planning meals – Ma cuisine – a survey of cuisine bourgeoisie (middle class cuisine) – Le Guide Culinaire – still in use today, a collection of classic cuisine recipes and garnishes Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  • 10. Auguste Escoffier (1846-1935) 10 PROFESSIONALISM Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  • 11. Charles Ranhofer (1836-1899) 11 PROFESSIONALISM The first internationally renowned chef of an American restaurant, Delmonico’s in New York City Published: The Epicurean, which contains 3500 recipes Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  • 12. 20th Century – Lighter Foods,Simplification of Techniques 12 PROFESSIONALISMFernand Point (1897-1955) Refined and modernized classic cuisine and laid the groundwork for nouvelle cuisine Inspired and trained influential chefs: Paul Bocuse, Jean and Pierre Troisgros and Alain Chapel, among othersGaston Lenôtre (1920-) Father of modern French pastry Began a culinary school, L’École Lenôtre Developed innovations in Bavarians, charlottes and mousses Mastered techniques of freezing baked products Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  • 13. American Culinary Revolution1960’s - present 13 PROFESSIONALISM Broad changes are influencing cuisine today. Consumers and chefs seek authentic ethnic cuisines inspired by the arrival of diverse immigrant groups, particularly those from Asian and Latin American countries Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  • 14. Alice Waters (1944 - 14 PROFESSIONALISM Launched New American cuisine Opened Chez Panisse in Berkeley, California in 1971. Her goal is to serve fresh, seasonal and locally grown produce in simple preparations that preserved and emphasized the foods’ natural flavors. Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  • 15. Fusion Cuisine 15 PROFESSIONALISM American cuisine has always been influenced by cuisines from other countries. This is most evident in fusion cuisine, which began in the mid-1980s. Infusion cuisine, ingredients or preparation methods associated with one ethnic or regional cuisine are combined with those of another. Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  • 16. Farm-To-Table-Movement 16 PROFESSIONALISM Although chefs look to incorporate global flavors and ingredients, they also seek locally-grown foods. – Promotes agriculture – Focus is on foods served in season – Protects heirloom varieties Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  • 17. Influences on Modern Food ServiceOperations 17 PROFESSIONALISM New technologies – Stoves replace fireplace cooking – Food storage, canning and freezing – Transportation, train then air shipping The study of chemistry and physics of food preparation resulted in a contemporary culinary movement often referred to as molecular gastronomy. Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  • 18. Molecular Gastronomy 18 PROFESSIONALISMFerran Adrìa (1962 –“The Salvador Dali of the kitchen” Spanish chef trained in French nouvelle cuisine Committed to “reinventing cuisine” as we know it Credited with advancing the culinary science movement His food engages all senses, using fresh ingredients Small tasting plates of as many as 35 courses Using equipment and ingredients more common in food manufacturing Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  • 19. Ferran Adrìa – (1962- 19 PROFESSIONALISM Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  • 20. Influences on Modern Food ServiceOperations 20 PROFESSIONALISM New foods – Hybridization – Genetic engineering New concerns – Health issues – Public safety New consumers – The global community Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  • 21. The Kitchen Brigade 21 PROFESSIONALISM Back-of-the-House – A system of staffing a kitchen so that each worker is assigned a set of specific tasks – Escoffier is credited with developing this hierarchical system  Modern  Classic Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  • 22. The Modern Kitchen Brigade 22 PROFESSIONALISM Executive chef Sous-chef Area chefs Line cook Pastry chef Apprentice Short-order cook Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  • 23. The Classic Kitchen Brigade 23 PROFESSIONALISM Chef de cuisine Sous-chef/aboyeur Chefs de partie Saucier Poissonier Grillardin Friturier Rôtisseur Potager Légumier Entremetier Garde-Manger Tournant Pâtissier Commis Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  • 24. The Dining Room 24 PROFESSIONALISM Front-of-the-House American French – Dining room manager Maître dhôtel – Wine steward Sommelier – Headwaiter Chef de salle – Captains Chefs d’étage – Front waiters Chefs de rang – Back waiters Commis de rang Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  • 25. The Professional ChefWhat does it take? 25 PROFESSIONALISM Knowledge – Lifelong learning Skill – Develops with Experience Taste Judgment Dedication Pride Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel